Genomes and Genes
Summary: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Publications250 found, 100 shown here
- Properties of Sindbis virus vectors produced with a chimeric split helper systemAnna Ketola
AI Virtanen Institute, Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
Int J Mol Med 15:999-1003. 2005We have evaluated a chimeric, two-component Sindbis virus packaging system...
- Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous systemAnthony Orvedahl
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA
Cell Host Microbe 7:115-27. 2010..Here, we report that the autophagy gene Atg5 function is critical for protection against lethal Sindbis virus (SIN) infection of the mouse central nervous system...
- Protection against fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis by beclin, a novel Bcl-2-interacting proteinX H Liang
Departments of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Virol 72:8586-96. 1998bcl-2, the prototypic cellular antiapoptotic gene, decreases Sindbis virus replication and Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains, resulting in protection against lethal encephalitis...
- Identification of interferon-stimulated gene 15 as an antiviral molecule during Sindbis virus infection in vivoDeborah J Lenschow
Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
J Virol 79:13974-83. 2005..To identify additional IFN-induced antiviral molecules, we utilized a recombinant chimeric Sindbis virus to express selected ISGs in IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFN-alpha/betaR)(-/-) mice and looked for attenuation of ..
- Adaptation of Sindbis virus to BHK cells selects for use of heparan sulfate as an attachment receptorW B Klimstra
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
J Virol 72:7357-66. 1998Attachment of Sindbis virus to the cell surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS) and the selection of this phenotype by cell culture adaptation were investigated...
- Luciferase imaging of a neurotropic viral infection in intact animalsSusan H Cook
W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Virol 77:5333-8. 2003..b>Sindbis virus causes encephalomyelitis in mice, and the outcome of infection is determined both by the strain of virus used ..
- Roles of nonstructural protein nsP2 and Alpha/Beta interferons in determining the outcome of Sindbis virus infectionElena I Frolova
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 1019, USA
J Virol 76:11254-64. 2002Alphaviruses productively infect a variety of vertebrate and insect cell lines. In vertebrate cells, Sindbis virus redirects cellular processes to meet the needs of virus propagation...
- Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitroJon K Rubach
Department of Biological Chemistry, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Virology 384:201-8. 2009The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins...
- Sindbis virus usurps the cellular HuR protein to stabilize its transcripts and promote productive infections in mammalian and mosquito cellsKevin J Sokoloski
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1682, USA
Cell Host Microbe 8:196-207. 2010..We demonstrate that Sindbis virus, a prototypical single-stranded arthropod-borne alphavirus, uses U-rich 3' UTR sequences in its RNAs to ..
- Selection and characterization of packaging cell lines for XJ-160 virusWu Yang Zhu
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 100 Yingxin Street, Beijing, China
Intervirology 52:100-6. 2009..XJ-160 virus is a mosquito-derived Sindbis-like virus isolated in China. Based on its infectious clone (pBR-XJ-160) we have developed an RNA-based vector system. In this work, we constructed packaging cell lines (PCLs) for XJ-160 virus...
- Interaction of E2 glycoprotein with heparan sulfate is crucial for cellular infection of Sindbis virusWuyang Zhu
Department of Viral Encephalitis, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control SKLID, Beijing, China
PLoS ONE 5:e9656. 2010Cell culture-adapted strains of Sindbis virus (SINV) initially attach to cells by the ability to interact with heparan sulfate (HS) through selective mutation for positively charged amino acid (aa) scattered in E2 glycoprotein (W. B...
- Engineered lentivector targeting of dendritic cells for in vivo immunizationLili Yang
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
Nat Biotechnol 26:326-34. 2008..To target dendritic cells, we enveloped the lentivector with a viral glycoprotein from Sindbis virus engineered to be DC-SIGN-specific...
- Bax-independent inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-XLE H Cheng
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 7681, USA
Nature 379:554-6. 1996..mutagenesis, we show here that the amino-acid residues critical for protection of cells by Bcl-XL against Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis are clustered within the Bcl-2-homology regions 1 and 2 (BH1 and BH2 regions)...
- Systemic tumor targeting and killing by Sindbis viral vectorsJen-Chieh Tseng
New York University Gene Therapy Center, NYU Cancer Institute, NYU School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
Nat Biotechnol 22:70-7. 2004..The vectors can also target syngeneic and spontaneous tumors in immune-competent mice. We document the anti-tumor specificity of a vector that systemically targets and eradicates tumor cells throughout the body without adverse effects...
- Alphavirus-derived small RNAs modulate pathogenesis in disease vector mosquitoesKevin M Myles
Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19938-43. 2008..These results suggest that an exogenous siRNA pathway is essential to the survival of mosquitoes infected with alphaviruses and, thus, the maintenance of these viruses in nature...
- Host factors associated with the Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: role for G3BP1 and G3BP2 in virus replicationIleana M Cristea
Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Lewis Thomas Laboratory, Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
J Virol 84:6720-32. 2010b>Sindbis virus (SINV) is the prototype member of the Alphavirus genus, whose members cause severe human diseases for which there is no specific treatment...
- Exposure to low pH is not required for penetration of mosquito cells by Sindbis virusR Hernandez
Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA
J Virol 75:2010-3. 2001..The alphavirus Sindbis virus replicates in both vertebrate and invertebrate cell cultures...
- The cellular antiviral protein viperin is attenuated by proteasome-mediated protein degradation in Japanese encephalitis virus-infected cellsYi Lin Chan
Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
J Virol 82:10455-64. 2008..this study, we found that viperin is highly induced at the RNA level by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) and that viperin protein is degraded in JEV-infected cells through a proteasome-dependent mechanism...
- Identification of a dominant negative inhibitor of human zinc finger antiviral protein reveals a functional endogenous pool and critical homotypic interactionsLok Man J Law
Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10065, USA
J Virol 84:4504-12. 2010..ZAP blocks replication of the prototype alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) at a step at or before translation of the incoming viral genome...
- A luciferase-based screening method for inhibitors of alphavirus replication applied to nucleoside analoguesLeena Pohjala
Program in Cellular Biotechnology, Institute of Biotechnology, P O Box 56 Viikinkaari 9, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Antiviral Res 78:215-22. 2008..inhibitors of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication, and demonstrate the effects of 29 nucleosides on SFV and Sindbis virus replication...
- Sindbis virus-induced neuronal death is both necrotic and apoptotic and is ameliorated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistsJ L Nargi-Aizenman
W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Virol 75:7114-21. 2001..b>Sindbis virus (SV) is an alphavirus that induces apoptotic cell death both in vitro and in vivo...
- Selection of functional 5' cis-acting elements promoting efficient sindbis virus genome replicationRodion Gorchakov
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-1019, USA
J Virol 78:61-75. 2004The 5' portion of the Sindbis virus (SIN) genome RNA is multifunctional...
- Cis-acting RNA elements at the 5' end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus- and plus-strand RNA synthesisI Frolov
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-1019, USA
RNA 7:1638-51. 2001..In addition to providing new insight into the initiation of alphavirus genome replication, these results have implications for the development of improved alphavirus vector systems with reduced recombination potential...
- Individual expression of sindbis virus glycoproteins. E1 alone promotes cell fusionMiguel Angel Sanz
Centro de Biologia Molecular CSIC UAM, Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Virology 305:463-72. 2003..each glycoprotein in the absence of the other counterpart was achieved by means of electroporation of modified Sindbis virus (SV) genomes. In addition, in trans coexpression of both glycoproteins was also tested in BHK cells...
- The nsP3 macro domain is important for Sindbis virus replication in neurons and neurovirulence in miceEunhye Park
W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Cellular and Molecular Medicine Graduate Program, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Virology 388:305-14. 2009b>Sindbis virus (SINV), the prototype alphavirus, contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3). However, the biological role of the macro domain is unclear...
- Infection of cells by Sindbis virus at low temperatureGongbo Wang
Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Virology 362:461-7. 2007b>Sindbis virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae genus Alphavirus infects a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate cells. The initial steps of Sindbis virus infection involve attachment, penetration and uncoating...
- Functional Sindbis virus replicative complexes are formed at the plasma membraneElena I Frolova
Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
J Virol 84:11679-95. 2010..However, our recent studies have demonstrated that Sindbis virus (SINV)-specific, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)- and nonstructural protein (nsP)-containing RCs are initially ..
- A determinant of Sindbis virus neurovirulence enables efficient disruption of Jak/STAT signalingJason D Simmons
Department of Genetics, The Carolina Vaccine Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 9039 Burnett Womack Bldg, CB 7292, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
J Virol 84:11429-39. 2010Previous studies with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Sindbis virus (SINV) indicate that alphaviruses are capable of suppressing the cellular response to type I and type II interferons (IFNs) by disrupting Jak/STAT signaling; ..
- Translation driven by picornavirus IRES is hampered from Sindbis virus replicons: rescue by poliovirus 2A proteaseMiguel Angel Sanz
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC UAM, C Nicolás Cabrera, 1, Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
J Mol Biol 402:101-17. 2010..We have investigated the translatability of Sindbis virus (SV) subgenomic mRNA bearing different 5'-untranslated regions, including several viral internal ribosome ..
- Sindbis viral vector induced apoptosis requires translational inhibition and signaling through Mcl-1 and BakLisa Venticinque
NYU Cancer Institute and the NYU Gene Therapy Center, NYU School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
Mol Cancer 9:37. 2010..A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of apoptosis would facilitate the design of more effective vectors for cancer therapy...
- Redirecting lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with Sindbis virus-derived envelope proteins to DC-SIGN by modification of N-linked glycans of envelope proteinsKouki Morizono
Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, BSRB 173, Charles E Young Dr South, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
J Virol 84:6923-34. 2010..We previously developed targeting lentiviral vectors by pseudotyping with modified Sindbis virus envelope proteins...
- Amino acid substitutions in the E2 glycoprotein of Sindbis-like virus XJ-160 confer the ability to undergo heparan sulfate-dependent infection of mouse embryonic fibroblastsWuyang Zhu
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control SKLID, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China
Virol J 7:225. 2010We have recently demonstrated an essential role of the domain of 145-150 amino acid in the E2 glycoprotein of Sindbis virus in the interaction with cellular heparan sulfate (HS) and in the infection of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) ..
- Substitutions of 169Lys and 173Thr in nonstructural protein 1 influence the infectivity and pathogenicity of XJ-160 virusWu Yang Zhu
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, 100 Yingxin Street, Xuan Wu District, 100052 Beijing, China
Arch Virol 154:245-53. 2009..These mutations might be associated with the RNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity of nsP1...
- Sindbis viruses and other alphaviruses as cause of human arthritic diseaseM Laine
Keuruu Health Center, Keuruu, Finland
J Intern Med 256:457-71. 2004..Several factors related to the viruses, their hosts, and global environmental changes may affect the spread of these viruses. All over the world arbovirus-caused diseases have increased, because of global changes...
- The zinc finger antiviral protein directly binds to specific viral mRNAs through the CCCH zinc finger motifsXuemin Guo
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
J Virol 78:12781-7. 2004..It specifically inhibits the replication of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) by preventing the accumulation of viral RNA in the cytoplasm...
- Inhibition of virus-induced neuronal apoptosis by BaxJ Lewis
Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Nat Med 5:832-5. 1999..However, Bax was found here to be a potent inhibitor of neuronal cell death in mice infected with Sindbis virus. Newborn mice, which are highly susceptible to a fatal infection with neurotropic Sindbis virus, were ..
- Tumor-specific in vivo transfection with HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene using a Sindbis viral vector as a basis for prodrug ganciclovir activation and PETJen-Chieh Tseng
NYU Cancer Institute, Rita J. and Stanley H. Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, NYU Gene Therapy Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
J Nucl Med 47:1136-43. 2006..b>Sindbis virus is an oncolytic, alpha-virus that selectively targets tumors through the 67-kDa laminin receptor (LAMR)...
- Placement of the structural proteins in Sindbis virusWei Zhang
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1392, USA
J Virol 76:11645-58. 2002The structure of the lipid-enveloped Sindbis virus has been determined by fitting atomic resolution crystallographic structures of component proteins into an 11-A resolution cryoelectron microscopy map...
- Effects of inducing or inhibiting apoptosis on Sindbis virus replication in mosquito cellsHua Wang
Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Program, Arthropod Genomics Center, Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
J Gen Virol 89:2651-61. 2008b>Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae...
- vFLIP protects PC-12 cells from apoptosis induced by Sindbis virus: implications for the role of TNF-alphaR Sarid
Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel 52900
Cell Death Differ 8:1224-31. 2001b>Sindbis virus (SV) is an alphavirus used as a model for studying the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis...
- Interferon-gamma-mediated site-specific clearance of alphavirus from CNS neuronsG K Binder
W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Science 293:303-6. 2001..To understand the role of T cells in clearance, we infected antibody knockout mice with Sindbis virus. Virus was cleared from spinal cord and brain stem neurons, but not from cortical neurons, and required both ..
- A heterologous coiled coil can substitute for helix I of the Sindbis virus capsid proteinRushika Perera
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
J Virol 77:8345-53. 2003..This sequence, which spans residues 38 to 55 of the Sindbis virus capsid protein, was implicated in stabilizing dimeric contacts initiated through the C-terminal two-thirds of ..
- Aedes aegypti uses RNA interference in defense against Sindbis virus infectionCorey L Campbell
Arthropod borne Infectious Diseases Laboratory Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
BMC Microbiol 8:47. 2008..The goal of this study was to use Ae. aegypti as a model system to determine how the mosquito's anti-viral RNAi pathway interacts with recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus).
- Identity of Karelian fever and Ockelbo viruses determined by serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization tests and oligonucleotide mappingD K Lvov
D I Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow
Am J Trop Med Hyg 39:607-10. 1988..Finland, and Karelian fever in the USSR have been attributed to alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) related to Sindbis virus. We compared prototypes Sindbis, Ockelbo, and Karelian fever viruses by neutralization tests...
- Susceptibility of colorectal cancer cells to Sindbis virus infectionChao Li
Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73190, USA
J Exp Ther Oncol 8:167-75. 2009b>Sindbis virus (SIN), a member of the Togaviridae family, infects a broad range of cells and has been shown to be an effective anti-tumor agent. The infection efficiency of the virus, however, varies greatly among target cells...
- IFN-stimulated gene 15 functions as a critical antiviral molecule against influenza, herpes, and Sindbis virusesDeborah J Lenschow
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1371-6. 2007..increased susceptibility to both herpes simplex virus type 1 and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection and to Sindbis virus infection...
- Single and multiple deletions in the transmembrane domain of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein identify a region critical for normal virus growthChristopher B Whitehurst
Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 128 Polk Hall, NC 27695, USA
Virology 347:199-207. 2006b>Sindbis virus is composed of two nested T = 4 icosahedral protein shells containing 240 copies each of three structural proteins: E1, E2, and Capsid in a 1:1:1 stoichiometric ratio...
- [Molecular basis of one-way serological reaction between SINV and XJ-160 virus]Li Hua Wang
Department of Viral Encephalitis, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention IVDC, China CDC and State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control SKLID, Beijing 100052, China
Bing Du Xue Bao 26:228-33. 2010..Our study identified the SINE2 gene was the determined gene for one way serological reaction between XJ-160 virus and SINV, and this research laid the foundation for further analysis of the genomic structure and function of SINV...
- Sindbis virus vectors for expression in animal cellsH V Huang
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8230, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
Curr Opin Biotechnol 7:531-5. 1996b>Sindbis virus and other alphavirus gene expression vectors have recently been used to express and study the functions of proteins and RNA, to evaluate classical vaccine and novel antiviral approaches, and for nucleic acid immunization...
- Sindbis virus replicon particles encoding calreticulin linked to a tumor antigen generate long-term tumor-specific immunityW-F Cheng
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei
Cancer Gene Ther 13:873-85. 2006..We concluded that the CRT strategy used in the context of SIN replicon particles facilitated the generation of a highly effective vaccine for cancer prophylaxis and immunotherapy...
- Recombination-ready Sindbis replicon expression vectors for transgene expressionBrian J Geiss
Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Virol J 4:112. 2007....
- The 3' untranslated region of sindbis virus represses deadenylation of viral transcripts in mosquito and Mammalian cellsNicole L Garneau
Colorado State University, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, 1682 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1682, USA
J Virol 82:880-92. 2008The positive-sense transcripts of Sindbis virus (SINV) resemble cellular mRNAs in that they possess a 5' cap and a 3' poly(A) tail...
- Contribution of T cells to mortality in neurovirulent Sindbis virus encephalomyelitisJennifer F Rowell
W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Neuroimmunol 127:106-14. 2002Intranasal inoculation of C57BL/6 mice with a neurovirulent strain of Sindbis virus (SV) results in fatal encephalomyelitis...
- Structural and functional analyses of stem-loop 1 of the Sindbis virus genomeDavid G Nickens
Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Virology 370:158-72. 2008Alphavirus genome function is controlled by elements at both the 5' and 3' ends. The 5' 220 nt of the Sindbis virus genome is predicted to consist of four stem-loop structures the first of which has been demonstrated to be required for ..
- Random insertion mutagenesis of sindbis virus nonstructural protein 2 and selection of variants incapable of downregulating cellular transcriptionIlya Frolov
Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 Third Avenue South, BBRB 373 Box 3 Birmingham, AL 53294 2170, USA
J Virol 83:9031-44. 2009b>Sindbis virus nonstructural protein 2 (SINV nsP2) is an important determinant of virus pathogenesis and downregulation of virus-induced cell response...
- Non-pathogenic Sindbis virus causes hemorrhagic fever in the absence of alpha/beta and gamma interferonsKate D Ryman
Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 3932, USA
Virology 368:273-85. 2007..We examined the contribution of IFNgamma to the protection of adult mice from Sindbis virus (SB)-induced disease by comparing subcutaneous infection of mice lacking receptors for either IFNalpha/beta (..
- Noncytolytic clearance of sindbis virus infection from neurons by gamma interferon is dependent on Jak/STAT signalingRebeca Burdeinick-Kerr
W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Virol 83:3429-35. 2009The alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) causes encephalomyelitis in mice by infecting neurons of the brain and spinal cord. The outcome is age dependent. Young animals develop fatal disease, while older animals recover from infection...
- An attenuating mutation in nsP1 of the Sindbis-group virus S.A.AR86 accelerates nonstructural protein processing and up-regulates viral 26S RNA synthesisMark T Heise
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
J Virol 77:1149-56. 2003..A.AR86 for adult mouse neurovirulence, while introduction of Thr at position 538 in a nonneurovirulent Sindbis virus background confers increased neurovirulence (M. T. Heise et al., J. Virol. 74:4207-4213, 2000)...
- Glycoprotein is enough for sindbis virus-derived DNA vector to express heterogenous genesWuyang Zhu
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052, China
Virol J 8:344. 2011..investigate the necessity and potential application of structural genes for expressing heterogenous genes from Sindbis virus-derived vector, the DNA-based expression vector pVaXJ was constructed by placing the recombinant genome of ..
- Dual mechanism for the translation of subgenomic mRNA from Sindbis virus in infected and uninfected cellsMiguel Angel Sanz
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa CSIC UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
PLoS ONE 4:e4772. 2009Infection of BHK cells by Sindbis virus (SV) gives rise to a profound inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, whereas translation of viral subgenomic mRNA that encodes viral structural proteins, continues for hours...
- Mutations in the endodomain of Sindbis virus glycoprotein E2 define sequences critical for virus assemblyJohn West
Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7622, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7622, USA
J Virol 80:4458-68. 2006Envelopment of Sindbis virus at the plasma membrane is a multistep process in which an initial step is the association of the E2 protein via a cytoplasmic endodomain with the preassembled nucleocapsid...
- Deletions in the transmembrane domain of a sindbis virus glycoprotein alter virus infectivity, stability, and host rangeRaquel Hernandez
Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA
J Virol 77:12710-9. 2003..We also found that membrane composition effects protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions during virus assembly...
- Rapid activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase contributes to Sindbis virus and staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell deathJennifer L Nargi-Aizenman
W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Virology 293:164-71. 2002..PARP-1(-/-)) mice, and a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (N18), the role that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays in Sindbis virus (SV)-induced apoptosis was examined...
- The RNA interference pathway affects midgut infection- and escape barriers for Sindbis virus in Aedes aegyptiCynthia C H Khoo
Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
BMC Microbiol 10:130. 2010..b>Sindbis virus (SINV; family: Togaviridae, genus: Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that infects Ae. aegypti in the laboratory...
- Oncolytic viral therapy for cervical and ovarian cancer cells by Sindbis virus AR339 strainYouichi Unno
Department of Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana, Chiba, Japan
Clin Cancer Res 11:4553-60. 2005Recently, the application of replication-competent viruses has been studied as anticancer agents. Sindbis virus (SIN) is an RNA virus that belongs to the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae virus family...
- The role of CD8(+) T cells and major histocompatibility complex class I expression in the central nervous system of mice infected with neurovirulent Sindbis virusT Kimura
W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Virol 74:6117-25. 2000..the role of CD8(+) T cells infiltrating the neural parenchyma during encephalitis induced by neurovirulent Sindbis virus (NSV)...
- Different types of nsP3-containing protein complexes in Sindbis virus-infected cellsRodion Gorchakov
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
J Virol 82:10088-101. 2008..The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, ..
- Structural localization of the E3 glycoprotein in attenuated Sindbis virus mutantsA M Paredes
National Center for Macromolecular Imaging, Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Virol 72:1534-41. 1998We have determined the three-dimensional structures of the wild-type Sindbis virus and two of its mutants that retain the E3 sequence within PE2...
- Restricted tissue tropism and acquired resistance to Sindbis viral vector expression in the absence of innate and adaptive immunityJ C Tseng
NYU Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, NYU Gene Therapy Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA
Gene Ther 14:1166-74. 2007..Thus it appears that in vivo, in contrast to the ready transduction of tumor cells, transduction of normal cells by replication-defective Sindbis vector is limited, possibly by a novel mechanism...
- Pro-inflammatory response resulting from sindbis virus infection of human macrophages: implications for the pathogenesis of viral arthritisIranaia Assunção-Miranda
Program of Structural Biology, Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
J Med Virol 82:164-74. 2010..b>Sindbis virus (SinV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, is the most widely distributed of all known arboviruses...
- Lentiviral vector retargeting to P-glycoprotein on metastatic melanoma through intravenous injectionKouki Morizono
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
Nat Med 11:346-52. 2005..in a living animal through intravenous injection of a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with a modified chimeric Sindbis virus envelope (termed m168)...
- Genetic determinants of Sindbis virus strain TR339 affecting midgut infection in the mosquito Aedes aegyptiDennis J Pierro
Arthropod Borne and Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
J Gen Virol 88:1545-54. 2007..The Sindbis virus (SINV) strain TR339 efficiently infects Aedes aegypti MEC but the SINV strain TE/5'2J poorly infects MEC...
- The use of a double subgenomic Sindbis virus expression system to study mosquito gene function: effects of antisense nucleotide number and duration of viral infection on gene silencing efficiencyD Tamang
Department of Parasitology, National Yang-Ming University, Shih-Pai, Taipei, Taiwan
Insect Mol Biol 13:595-602. 2004....
- Sindbis virus vectors designed to express a foreign protein as a cleavable component of the viral structural polyproteinJohn M Thomas
Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA
J Virol 77:5598-606. 2003..the 2A protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus and then inserted in frame between the capsid and E3 genes of Sindbis virus. During replication, the 2A fusion protein is synthesized as a component of the viral structural polyprotein ..
- Vaccination with a Sindbis virus-based DNA vaccine expressing antigen 85B induces protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosisSteven C Derrick
Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Building 29 Room 511, CBER FDA, 29 Lincoln Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Infect Immun 73:7727-35. 2005To improve DNA vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we evaluated the effectiveness of a Sindbis virus-based DNA construct expressing the tuberculosis antigen 85B (Sin85B)...
- Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoesChris M Cirimotich
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
BMC Microbiol 9:49. 2009..The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family ..
- Functional characterization of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein by transposon linker-insertion mutagenesisChanakha K Navaratnarajah
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2054, USA
Virology 363:134-47. 2007..of mutants, containing 19 amino acid insertions in the E2 glycoprotein sequence of the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV), was generated...
- Identification of the amino acid sequence in Sindbis virus nsP4 that binds to the promoter for the synthesis of the subgenomic RNAMei-Ling Li
Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9429-34. 2004A gel mobility-shift assay was used to demonstrate the binding of the Sindbis virus transcriptase to the promoter for the synthesis of subgenomic (SG) RNA...
- Synthesis of genomic and subgenomic RNA in mosquito cells infected with two Sindbis virus nsP4 mutants: influence of intracellular nucleoside triphosphate concentrationsMei Ling Li
Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Immunology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
J Virol 82:6880-8. 2008Cells infected with Sindbis virus (SV) make two positive-strand RNAs, a genomic-length RNA (G) RNA and a subgenomic (SG) RNA...
- Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UKAlan Buckley
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Oxford, Institute of Virology and Environmental Microbiology, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK
J Gen Virol 84:2807-17. 2003..b>Sindbis virus, a pathogenic alphavirus that causes arthritis, is widespread throughout Africa, Europe, Asia and Australia, ..
- Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein K interacts with Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins and viral subgenomic mRNAAndrew J Burnham
Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Virology 367:212-21. 2007..enriched in cytoplasmic membrane fractions containing viral RNA synthetic complexes following infection with Sindbis virus. Our studies demonstrated the following: (i) the host protein hnRNP K is enriched in cytoplasmic membrane ..
- Photoinactivation of sindbis virus infectivity without inhibition of membrane fusionWor Thongthai
Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA
Photochem Photobiol 85:801-6. 2009..Here we show that photobleaching of Sindbis virus labeled with the membrane localized dye, R18 (octadecyl rhodamine B) causes a dramatic loss of infectivity ..
- Using sindbis viral vectors for specific detection and suppression of advanced ovarian cancer in animal modelsJen-Chieh Tseng
New York University Cancer Institute, the Rita J. and Stanley H. Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, and the New York University Gene Therapy Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
Cancer Res 64:6684-92. 2004..b>Sindbis virus is known to infect mammalian cells using the Mr 67,000 laminin receptor...
- Deletions in the putative cell receptor-binding domain of Sindbis virus strain MRE16 E2 glycoprotein reduce midgut infectivity in Aedes aegyptiKevin M Myles
Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526, USA
J Virol 77:8872-81. 2003The Sindbis virus (Alphavirus; Togaviridae) strain MRE16 efficiently infects Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that ingest a blood meal containing 8 to 9 log(10) PFU of virus/ml...
- Infection of human dendritic cells by a sindbis virus replicon vector is determined by a single amino acid substitution in the E2 glycoproteinJ P Gardner
Vaccines and Gene Therapy, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
J Virol 74:11849-57. 2000..Toward this goal, we derived variants of the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SIN), with differential abilities to infect human dendritic cells...
- Alphavirus minus-strand synthesis and persistence in mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from mice lacking RNase L and protein kinase RDorothea L Sawicki
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio 43614, USA
J Virol 77:1801-11. 2003....
- In vivo addition of poly(A) tail and AU-rich sequences to the 3' terminus of the Sindbis virus RNA genome: a novel 3'-end repair pathwayR Raju
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA
J Virol 73:2410-9. 1999Alphaviruses are mosquito-transmitted RNA viruses that cause important diseases in both humans and livestock. Sindbis virus (SIN), the type species of the alphavirus genus, carries a 11...
- Infection of neonatal mice with sindbis virus results in a systemic inflammatory response syndromeW B Klimstra
Department of Microbiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7290, USA
J Virol 73:10387-98. 1999..This report suggests that this is the case with Sindbis virus strain AR339...
- Antibody-directed targeting of retroviral vectors via cell surface antigensK Morizono
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
J Virol 75:8016-20. 2001..We find that the envelope of the alphavirus Sindbis virus can pseudotype human immunodeficiency virus type 1- and murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vectors...
- Bioprocess applications of a Sindbis virus-based temperature-inducible expression systemM Boorsma
Cytos Biotechnology AG, Wagistrasse 21, CH-8952, Zurich-Schlieren, Switzerland
Biotechnol Bioeng 79:602-9. 2002..Here, we describe bioprocess applications of the pCytTS temperature-regulatable Sindbis virus replicon-based expression system...
- Gamma interferon-dependent, noncytolytic clearance of sindbis virus infection from neurons in vitroRebeca Burdeinick-Kerr
W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Virol 79:5374-85. 2005..an in vitro cell culture system that will allow the study of mechanisms of IFN-gamma-mediated control of Sindbis virus (SINV) replication in neurons, we have characterized the susceptibility to SINV infection and IFN-gamma ..
- Targeting Sindbis virus-based vectors to Fc receptor-positive cell typesWilliam B Klimstra
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
Virology 338:9-21. 2005..Specifically, ADE did not occur with FcgammaR-negative cells, did not require active complement proteins, and did not occur on FcgammaR-positive murine cell lines when virions were bound by murine IgG-derived F(ab')2 fragments...
- Gamma-retroviral vectors enveloped with an antibody and an engineered fusogenic protein achieved antigen-specific targetingHaiguang Yang
Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
Biotechnol Bioeng 101:357-68. 2008..An anti-CD20 antibody and a fusogenic protein derived from Sindbis virus glycoprotein could be efficiently co-displayed on the surface of viral vectors...
- Requirements at the 3' end of the sindbis virus genome for efficient synthesis of minus-strand RNARichard W Hardy
Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 E Third St, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
J Virol 79:4630-9. 2005The 3'-untranslated region of the Sindbis virus genome is 0.3 kb in length with a 19-nucleotide conserved sequence element (3' CSE) immediately preceding the 3'-poly(A) tail...
- Sindbis virus-induced silencing of dengue viruses in mosquitoesZ N Adelman
Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory (AIDL, Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Insect Mol Biol 10:265-73. 2001....
- Inhibition of alphavirus infection in cell culture and in mice with antisense morpholino oligomersSlobodan Paessler
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
Virology 376:357-70. 2008..b>Sindbis virus (SINV) has low pathogenicity in humans and is regularly utilized as a model alphavirus...
- Seco-pregnane steroids target the subgenomic RNA of alphavirus-like RNA virusesYanmei Li
State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:8083-8. 2007..positive-strand RNA viruses including plant-infecting tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and animal-infecting Sindbis virus (SINV), eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Getah virus, but not to other RNA or DNA viruses, yet they were ..
- Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infectionBradley S Schneider
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-0609, USA
Viral Immunol 17:565-73. 2004..In this study, intradermal inoculations of Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) and Sindbis virus (SINV) were used to investigate the effect of mosquito feeding on the vertebrate immune response to infection ..
- Construction and applications of yellow fever virus repliconsChristopher T Jones
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054, USA
Virology 331:247-59. 2005....
- Enhancement of sindbis virus self-replicating RNA vaccine potency by linkage of herpes simplex virus type 1 VP22 protein to antigenW F Cheng
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
J Virol 75:2368-76. 2001..We therefore created a novel fusion of VP22 with a model tumor antigen, human papillomavirus type 16 E7, in a Sindbis virus RNA replicon vector...
- Sindbis virus with a tricomponent genomeRafik Fayzulin
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-1019, USA
J Virol 79:637-43. 2005We established a system for propagation of Sindbis virus (SIN)-based replicons in tissue culture in the form of a tricomponent genome virus...
- MR and BL Tracking of Stem/Progenitor Cells in the CNSJeff W Bulte; Fiscal Year: 2010..e., a ricin-induced model as a localized, monophasic and a neurotropic Sindbis virus (NSV)-induced as a global, inflammatory disease model...
- Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous systemKenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009..activation of these pathways in the brain following infection with other encephalitic viruses, including JEV, Sindbis virus (SINV), and Venezualen equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). OBJECTIVE 2...
- A Sindbis virus-based Vaccine Against RVFV InfectionIlya Frolov; Fiscal Year: 2006..We propose to develop a prototype recombinant vaccine against RVFV infection based on Sindbis virus replicons expressing structural proteins of RVFV...
- Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptideFrancisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2010..similarities between LACV Gc amino acid region 970-1350 and the E1 fusion protein of two alphaviruses: Sindbis virus and Semliki Forrest virus (SFV)...
- Characterization of the La Crosse Virus glycoprotein fusion peptideFrancisco Gonzalez Scarano; Fiscal Year: 2009..similarities between LACV Gc amino acid region 970-1350 and the E1 fusion protein of two alphaviruses: Sindbis virus and Semliki Forrest virus (SFV)...
- Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphavirusesPAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005..b>Sindbis virus and VEEV are prototypic alphaviruses that have been extensively used as vectors for expression of foreign ..
- A Viral Vector for Gene Expression in InsectsRanjit Dasgupta; Fiscal Year: 2007..Vectors derived from Sindbis virus (SIN) have proven to be very useful in this type of research and few other viral vectors are under development...
- A Viral Vector for Gene Expression in InsectsRanjit Dasgupta; Fiscal Year: 2003..Viruses, such as Sindbis virus, developed for transient gene expression and gene silencing in insects have proven useful in this type of ..
- Regulation of Sindbis Virus Subgenomic RNA SynthesisVictor Stollar; Fiscal Year: 2010b>Sindbis virus, (SV) one of the simplest, enveloped RNA viruses, is the prototype virus of the family Togaviridae, genus alphavirus. It is transmitted to its vertebrate hosts by mosquitoes...
- Regulation of Sindbis Virus Subgenomic RNA SynthesisVictor Stollar; Fiscal Year: 2007b>Sindbis virus, (SV) one of the simplest, enveloped RNA viruses, is the prototype virus of the family Togaviridae, genus alphavirus. It is transmitted to its vertebrate hosts by mosquitoes...
- Alphavirus Replicons for Mucosal HIV VaccinesMichael Vajdy; Fiscal Year: 2002..We recently discovered that our Sindbis virus-based non-replicating particles expressing HIV-1 gag (SIN-gag), which had been successfully used for ..
- RNA REPAIR AND RECOMBINATION--AN ALPHAVIRUS MODELRAMASAMY RAJU; Fiscal Year: 2001..b>Sindbis virus (SIN), the subject of this proposal, is a mosquito-transmitted human alphavirus...
- Efficacy of the antiviral state versus Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitisWilliam B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2010..virus (VEEV), is much more resistant to the activity of the antiviral state than the human-avirulent Sindbis virus (SINV) and that the virulence of the viruses in animal models is largely reflective of these differences...
- TOGAVIRUS REPLICATION OF STRATEGIES AND EVOLUTIONJames Strauss; Fiscal Year: 1999..The alphaviruses appear to be able to use more than one receptor and the receptor for Sindbis virus appears to be different in birds and mammals...
- Nucleotide Pools and the Replication of Sindbis VirusVictor Stollar; Fiscal Year: 2003..b>Sindbis virus (SV), a mosquito-transmitted arbovirus, and the prototype virus of the family Togaviridae, genus aiphavirus, ..
- Interaction of Sindbis Virus with Cellular ProcessesIlya Frolov; Fiscal Year: 2009..Identification of the cellular proteins that are essential for virus growth will lead to development of new antiviral therapeutic strategies. ..
- IMMUNE RESPONSE OF MOSQUITOES TO FILARIAL WORMSBruce Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2005..Finally, the PI will engineer double subgenomic Sindbis virus to express antisense RNA for these genes for use in knockout strategies in Ar. subalbatus...
- Protection of Mice From Lethal Alphavirus EncephalitisDavid N Irani; Fiscal Year: 2010..S. Public Health Service given their potential use as bioterrorism agents. One alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SV), has been extensively studied in a murine model...
- MOLECULAR GENETICS OF SINDBIS VIRUS REPLICATIONCharles Rice; Fiscal Year: 2005..The experiments detailed in this proposal concern our current studies on Sindbis virus (SIN), type virus of the family Togaviridae...