hiv

Summary

Summary: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies
    Laura M Walker
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 477:466-70. 2011
  2. pmc Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men
    Robert M Grant
    J David Gladstone Institutes, University of California at San Francisco, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    N Engl J Med 363:2587-99. 2010
  3. pmc Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival
    Mari M Kitahata
    University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Ave, Box 359931, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1815-26. 2009
  4. doi The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Science 323:1304-7. 2009
  5. ncbi CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment
    W M El-Sadr
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Harlem Hospital Center and Columbia University, New York, NY 10037, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:2283-96. 2006
  6. doi Molecular mechanisms of HIV entry
    Craig B Wilen
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 726:223-42. 2012
  7. doi Effect of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment and increased treatment coverage on HIV-related mortality in China: a national observational cohort study
    Fujie Zhang
    Division of Treatment and Care, National Centre for AIDS STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:516-24. 2011
  8. doi HIV persistence and the prospect of long-term drug-free remissions for HIV-infected individuals
    Didier Trono
    School of Life Sciences and Frontiers in Genetics Program, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Science 329:174-80. 2010
  9. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
    Robert K Heaton
    University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:3-16. 2011
  10. pmc Differential microRNA regulation of HLA-C expression and its association with HIV control
    Smita Kulkarni
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, SAIC Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Nature 472:495-8. 2011

Detail Information

Publications302 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies
    Laura M Walker
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 477:466-70. 2011
    ..Here we probed the neutralizing antibody repertoires of four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors with remarkably broad and potent neutralizing responses and rescued 17 new monoclonal antibodies ..
  2. pmc Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men
    Robert M Grant
    J David Gladstone Institutes, University of California at San Francisco, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    N Engl J Med 363:2587-99. 2010
    Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis before exposure is a promising approach for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition.
  3. pmc Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival
    Mari M Kitahata
    University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Ave, Box 359931, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1815-26. 2009
    The optimal time for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy for asymptomatic patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uncertain.
  4. doi The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection
    Douglas D Richman
    San Diego VA Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Science 323:1304-7. 2009
    Although combination therapy for HIV infection represents a triumph for modern medicine, chronic suppressive therapy is required to contain persistent infection in reservoirs such as latently infected CD4+ lymphocytes and cells of the ..
  5. ncbi CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment
    W M El-Sadr
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Harlem Hospital Center and Columbia University, New York, NY 10037, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:2283-96. 2006
    Despite declines in morbidity and mortality with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy, its effectiveness is limited by adverse events, problems with adherence, and resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  6. doi Molecular mechanisms of HIV entry
    Craig B Wilen
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 726:223-42. 2012
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry is a complex and intricate process that facilitates delivery of the viral genome to the host cell...
  7. doi Effect of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment and increased treatment coverage on HIV-related mortality in China: a national observational cohort study
    Fujie Zhang
    Division of Treatment and Care, National Centre for AIDS STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:516-24. 2011
    Overall HIV mortality rates in China have not been reported. In this analysis we assess overall mortality in treatment-eligible adults with HIV and attempt to identify risk factors for HIV-related mortality.
  8. doi HIV persistence and the prospect of long-term drug-free remissions for HIV-infected individuals
    Didier Trono
    School of Life Sciences and Frontiers in Genetics Program, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Science 329:174-80. 2010
    b>HIV infection can persist in spite of efficacious antiretroviral therapies...
  9. pmc HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
    Robert K Heaton
    University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:3-16. 2011
    Combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) has greatly reduced medical morbidity and mortality with HIV infection, but high rates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be reported...
  10. pmc Differential microRNA regulation of HLA-C expression and its association with HIV control
    Smita Kulkarni
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, SAIC Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Nature 472:495-8. 2011
    ..A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35 kb upstream of HLA-C (rs9264942; termed -35) associates with control of HIV, and with levels of HLA-C messenger RNA transcripts and cell-surface expression, but the mechanism underlying its ..
  11. pmc A whole genome screen for HIV restriction factors
    Li Liu
    Centre for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK
    Retrovirology 8:94. 2011
    ..For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human restriction factors, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing-enzyme), p21 and tetherin are well characterised.
  12. ncbi PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression
    Cheryl L Day
    HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4013, South Africa
    Nature 443:350-4. 2006
    ..the role of PD-1 in a chronic human viral infection, we examined PD-1 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8 T cells in 71 clade-C-infected people who were naive to anti-HIV treatments, using ten major ..
  13. ncbi HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the perfect storm
    Charles D Wells
    Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:S86-107. 2007
    ..The global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic has caused explosive increases in TB incidence and may be contributing to increases in MDR-TB ..
  14. pmc Community-based intervention to increase HIV testing and case detection in people aged 16-32 years in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Thailand (NIMH Project Accept, HPTN 043): a randomised study
    Michael Sweat
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:525-32. 2011
    In developing countries, most people infected with HIV do not know their infection status...
  15. pmc The antiviral factor APOBEC3G enhances the recognition of HIV-infected primary T cells by natural killer cells
    Jason M Norman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:975-83. 2011
    APOBEC3G (A3G) is an intrinsic antiviral factor that inhibits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by deaminating cytidine residues to uridine...
  16. pmc HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system
    J M Brenchley
    Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Mucosal Immunol 1:23-30. 2008
    ..There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina ..
  17. doi Maintenance of CD4+ T-cell memory and HIV persistence: keeping memory, keeping HIV
    Nicolas Chomont
    VGTI Florida, Port St Lucie, Florida, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:30-6. 2011
    The present review summarizes the current challenges for the design of new therapeutic strategies toward HIV eradication in individuals receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  18. pmc Broadly neutralizing human anti-HIV antibody 2G12 is effective in protection against mucosal SHIV challenge even at low serum neutralizing titers
    Ann J Hessell
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000433. 2009
    Developing an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is an elusive but important goal of HIV vaccine research, especially after the recent failure of the leading T cell based HIV vaccine in human efficacy trials...
  19. pmc HIV rebounds from latently infected cells, rather than from continuing low-level replication
    Beda Joos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16725-30. 2008
    ..To further characterize rebounding virus, we performed extensive longitudinal clonal evolutionary studies of HIV env C2-V3-C3 regions and exploited the temporal relationships of rebounding plasma viruses with regard to ..
  20. pmc Control of HIV latency by epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms
    Uri Mbonye
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Curr HIV Res 9:554-67. 2011
    Intensive antiretroviral therapy successfully suppresses viral replication but is unable to eradicate the virus. HIV persists in a small number of resting memory T cells where HIV has been transcriptionally silenced...
  21. pmc HIV reservoirs and latency models
    Matthew J Pace
    Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
    Virology 411:344-54. 2011
    The main impediment to a cure for HIV is the existence of long-lasting treatment resistant viral reservoirs...
  22. ncbi Cost-effectiveness of HIV treatment in resource-poor settings--the case of Côte d'Ivoire
    Sue J Goldie
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Program in Health Decision Science, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:1141-53. 2006
    ..As antiretroviral therapy is increasingly used in settings with limited resources, key questions about the timing of treatment and use of diagnostic tests to guide clinical decisions must be addressed...
  23. pmc The BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 activates HIV latency through antagonizing Brd4 inhibition of Tat-transactivation
    Zichong Li
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:277-87. 2013
    Latent HIV reservoirs are the primary hurdle to eradication of infection...
  24. pmc HIV/HCV co-infection: pathogenesis, clinical complications, treatment, and new therapeutic technologies
    Eva A Operskalski
    Maternal Child and Adolescent Center for Infectious Diseases and Virology, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90033, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 8:12-22. 2011
    ..Four to 5 million persons are co-infected with HIV. It is well established that HIV has a negative impact on the natural history of HCV, including a higher rate of ..
  25. doi Rational design of small-molecule inhibitors of the LEDGF/p75-integrase interaction and HIV replication
    Frauke Christ
    Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, Division of Molecular Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Chem Biol 6:442-8. 2010
    Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is a cellular cofactor of HIV-1 integrase that promotes viral integration by tethering the preintegration complex to the chromatin...
  26. pmc Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid reactivates HIV from latently infected cells
    Xavier Contreras
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:6782-9. 2009
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in a latent form in infected individuals treated effectively with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  27. doi Persistence of HIV in gut-associated lymphoid tissue despite long-term antiretroviral therapy
    Tae Wook Chun
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:714-20. 2008
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in peripheral blood mononuclear cells despite sustained, undetectable plasma viremia resulting from long-term antiretroviral therapy...
  28. ncbi Tenofovir DF, emtricitabine, and efavirenz vs. zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz for HIV
    Joel E Gallant
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:251-60. 2006
    Durable suppression of replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the use of potent, well-tolerated antiretroviral regimens to which patients can easily adhere.
  29. pmc Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA and neurocognitive performance
    Christina M Marra
    Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA
    AIDS 23:1359-66. 2009
    To determine whether antiretroviral regimens with good central nervous system (CNS) penetration control HIV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and improve cognition.
  30. doi Consequences of HIV infection on malaria and therapeutic implications: a systematic review
    Clara Flateau
    Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hopital Tenon, AP HP, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:541-56. 2011
    Despite recent changes in the epidemiology of HIV infection and malaria and major improvements in their control, these diseases remain two of the most important infectious diseases and global health priorities...
  31. pmc Humanized mouse models of HIV infection
    Paul W Denton
    Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, USA
    AIDS Rev 13:135-48. 2011
    Because of the limited tropism of HIV, in vivo modeling of this virus has been almost exclusively limited to other lentiviruses, such as simian immunodeficiency virus, that reproduce many important characteristics of HIV infection...
  32. pmc Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with other nucleic acid technologies for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting: a prospective study
    Lesley E Scott
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Hematology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS Med 8:e1001061. 2011
    ..non-laboratory-based molecular assay has potential to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), especially in HIV-infected populations, through increased sensitivity, reduced turnaround time (2 h), and immediate identification of ..
  33. pmc Inhibition of anti-HIV microRNA expression: a mechanism for opioid-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of monocytes
    Xu Wang
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    Am J Pathol 178:41-7. 2011
    Several micro RNAs (miRNAs) have the ability to inhibit HIV replication in target cells...
  34. ncbi Late diagnosis of HIV infection: epidemiological features, consequences and strategies to encourage earlier testing
    Enrico Girardi
    UOC Epidemiologia Clinica, Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive L Spallanzani IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:S3-8. 2007
    A substantial proportion of HIV-infected individuals do not present for HIV testing until late in infection; these individuals are often ill, have a high mortality risk, and are less likely to respond to treatment when initiated...
  35. doi HIV‐exposed seronegative commercial sex workers show a quiescent phenotype in the CD4+ T cell compartment and reduced expression of HIV‐dependent host factors
    Paul J McLaren
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Ontario, Canada
    J Infect Dis 202:S339-44. 2010
    Studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative individuals are crucial to inform vaccine design...
  36. pmc Human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells control T-cell responses to human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus antigens
    Einar M Aandahl
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Virol 78:2454-9. 2004
    ..We propose that chronic viral infections lead to induction of suppressive T(R) cells that inhibit the antiviral immune response...
  37. pmc Rates of virological failure in patients treated in a home-based versus a facility-based HIV-care model in Jinja, southeast Uganda: a cluster-randomised equivalence trial
    Shabbar Jaffar
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 374:2080-9. 2009
    Identification of new ways to increase access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa is an urgent priority. We assessed whether home-based HIV care was as effective as was facility-based care.
  38. doi Transcriptional interference antagonizes proviral gene expression to promote HIV latency
    Tina Lenasi
    Department of Medicine, Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:123-33. 2008
    Eradication of the latent HIV reservoir remains a major barrier to curing AIDS. However, the mechanisms that direct viral persistence in the host are not well understood...
  39. ncbi Bioinformatics prediction of HIV coreceptor usage
    Thomas Lengauer
    Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Computational Biology and Applied Bioinformatics, Campus E1 4, 66123 Saarbrucken, Germany
    Nat Biotechnol 25:1407-10. 2007
  40. ncbi HIV evolutionary dynamics within and among hosts
    Philippe Lemey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    AIDS Rev 8:125-40. 2006
    The HIV evolutionary processes continuously unfold, leaving a measurable footprint in viral gene sequences...
  41. pmc Higher-order oligomerization targets plasma membrane proteins and HIV gag to exosomes
    Yi Fang
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e158. 2007
    ..We also show that higher-order oligomerization is sufficient to target plasma membrane proteins to HIV virus-like particles, that diverse Gag proteins possess exosomal-sorting information, and that higher-order ..
  42. pmc Timing of initiation of antiretroviral drugs during tuberculosis therapy
    Salim S Abdool Karim
    Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 362:697-706. 2010
    The rates of death are high among patients with coinfection with tuberculosis and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  43. doi Pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease
    Susan Moir
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Pathol 6:223-48. 2011
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is generally characterized by inefficient viral transmission; an acute phase of intense viral replication and dissemination to lymphoid tissues; a chronic, often asymptomatic phase of ..
  44. ncbi Processes and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure to sexual partners among people living with HIV in Uganda
    Rachel King
    Global AIDS Program, CDC Uganda, Kampala, Uganda
    AIDS Behav 12:232-43. 2008
    Disclosure of HIV serostatus to sexual partners supports risk reduction and facilitates access to prevention and care services for people living with HIV/AIDS...
  45. pmc Conserved P-TEFb-interacting domain of BRD4 inhibits HIV transcription
    Dwayne A Bisgrove
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13690-5. 2007
    ..Overexpression of the BRD4 P-TEFb-interacting domain disrupts the interaction between the HIV transactivator Tat and P-TEFb and suppresses the ability of Tat to transactivate the HIV promoter...
  46. pmc HIV controllers with HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-DQB1*06 alleles have strong, polyfunctional mucosal CD4+ T-cell responses
    April L Ferre
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, 3327 Tupper Hall, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Virol 84:11020-9. 2010
    A small percentage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, termed elite controllers, are able to spontaneously control HIV replication in blood...
  47. ncbi Trends in prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men. Results of 3 consecutive respondent-driven sampling surveys in Beijing, 2004 through 2006
    Xiaoyan Ma
    Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:581-7. 2007
    Studies tracking trends in HIV prevalence and risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China are rare...
  48. pmc HIV-infected individuals receiving effective antiviral therapy for extended periods of time continually replenish their viral reservoir
    Tae Wook Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:3250-5. 2005
    ..of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells is considered to be a major obstacle in preventing the eradication of HIV-1 even in patients who have received effective antiviral therapy for an average duration of 5 years...
  49. pmc Establishment of HIV latency in primary CD4+ cells is due to epigenetic transcriptional silencing and P-TEFb restriction
    Mudit Tyagi
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 4960, USA
    J Virol 84:6425-37. 2010
    The development of suitable experimental systems for studying HIV latency in primary cells that permit detailed biochemical analyses and the screening of drugs is a critical step in the effort to develop viral eradication strategies...
  50. pmc Pregnancy, contraceptive use, and HIV acquisition in HPTN 039: relevance for HIV prevention trials among African women
    Stewart E Reid
    HIV Prevention Research, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:606-13. 2010
    Biomedical HIV prevention trials enroll sexually active women at risk of HIV and often discontinue study product during pregnancy...
  51. pmc Integrating HIV screening into routine health care in resource-limited settings
    Ingrid V Bassett
    Division of Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:S77-84. 2010
    The United Nations is committed to achieving universal access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care, treatment, and prevention...
  52. pmc How HIV takes advantage of the cytoskeleton in entry and replication
    Bettina Stolp
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Viruses 3:293-311. 2011
    ..Accordingly, also the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has evolved strategies to exploit and modulate in particular the actin cytoskeleton for its purposes...
  53. pmc Generation of HIV latency in humanized BLT mice
    Paul W Denton
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Virol 86:630-4. 2012
    ..that a combination of tenofovir, emtricitabine, and raltegravir effectively suppresses peripheral and systemic HIV replication in humanized BLT mice...
  54. pmc HIV treatment as prevention: systematic comparison of mathematical models of the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy on HIV incidence in South Africa
    Jeffrey W Eaton
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 9:e1001245. 2012
    Many mathematical models have investigated the impact of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on new HIV infections...
  55. pmc Breaking down the barrier: the effects of HIV-1 on the blood-brain barrier
    Marianne Strazza
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Molecular Virology and Translational Neuroscience, Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
    Brain Res 1399:96-115. 2011
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primarily infects CD4(+) T cells and cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, resulting in immunodeficiency in an infected patient...
  56. pmc HIV-infected T cells are migratory vehicles for viral dissemination
    Thomas T Murooka
    the Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 490:283-7. 2012
    After host entry through mucosal surfaces, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates to lymphoid tissues to establish a generalized infection of the immune system...
  57. pmc Mechanisms of HIV-associated lymphocyte apoptosis: 2010
    N W Cummins
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Cell Death Dis 1:e99. 2010
    The inevitable decline of CD4T cells in untreated infection with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is due in large part to apoptosis, one type of programmed cell death...
  58. pmc Health care system and policy factors influencing engagement in HIV medical care: piecing together the fragments of a fractured health care delivery system
    Michael J Mugavero
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Universityof Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 52:S238-46. 2011
    ..describe salient health care system and policy factors that influence engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical care...
  59. pmc HIV integration targeting: a pathway involving Transportin-3 and the nuclear pore protein RanBP2
    Karen E Ocwieja
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001313. 2011
    Genome-wide siRNA screens have identified host cell factors important for efficient HIV infection, among which are nuclear pore proteins such as RanBP2/Nup358 and the karyopherin Transportin-3/TNPO3...
  60. pmc Adherence to combination prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in Tanzania
    Inga Kirsten
    Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e21020. 2011
    Since 2008, Tanzanian guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT) recommend combination regimen for mother and infant starting in gestational week 28...
  61. pmc Regulatory T cells control HIV replication in activated T cells through a cAMP-dependent mechanism
    Maria E Moreno-Fernandez
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Blood 117:5372-80. 2011
    We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) could play a beneficial role during HIV infection by controlling HIV replication in conventional T cells (Tcons). Purified Tregs and Tcons from healthy donors were activated separately...
  62. pmc Limelight on two HIV/SIV accessory proteins in macrophage infection: is Vpx overshadowing Vpr?
    Diana Ayinde
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    Retrovirology 7:35. 2010
    b>HIV viruses encode a set of accessory proteins, which are important determinants of virulence due to their ability to manipulate the host cell physiology for the benefit of the virus...
  63. pmc Episodic sexual transmission of HIV revealed by molecular phylodynamics
    Fraser Lewis
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
    PLoS Med 5:e50. 2008
    ..For HIV, the long period of infectivity has made the interpretation of contact networks more difficult, and major ..
  64. pmc Recombination rate and selection strength in HIV intra-patient evolution
    Richard A Neher
    Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000660. 2010
    The evolutionary dynamics of HIV during the chronic phase of infection is driven by the host immune response and by selective pressures exerted through drug treatment...
  65. ncbi The HIV coreceptor switch: a population dynamical perspective
    Roland R Regoes
    Department of Biology, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Trends Microbiol 13:269-77. 2005
    Over the course of infection, the coreceptor usage of the HIV virus changes from a preference for CCR5 to a preference for CXCR4 in approximately 50% of infected individuals...
  66. doi Measuring HIV neutralization in a luciferase reporter gene assay
    David C Montefiori
    Department of Surgery, Laboratory for AIDS, Vaccine Research and Development, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 485:395-405. 2009
    Neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are used to study the immune response in infected individuals, to examine monoclonal antibodies and viral diversity, and to judge the potential value of candidate ..
  67. ncbi Cell-dependent interference of a series of new 6-aminoquinolone derivatives with viral (HIV/CMV) transactivation
    Miguel Stevens
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:847-55. 2005
    Quinolone derivatives have been shown to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication at the transcriptional level...
  68. pmc Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania
    Deborah Watson-Jones
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London
    N Engl J Med 358:1560-71. 2008
    ..simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with an increased risk of acquiring infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study tested the hypothesis that HSV-2 suppressive therapy reduces the risk of HIV acquisition.
  69. ncbi The molecular basis of HIV capsid assembly--five years of progress
    Catherine S Adamson
    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    Rev Med Virol 14:107-21. 2004
    The assembly of HIV is relatively poorly investigated when compared with the process of virus entry...
  70. pmc Evidence for direct involvement of the capsid protein in HIV infection of nondividing cells
    Masahiro Yamashita
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Pathog 3:1502-10. 2007
    b>HIV and other lentiviruses can productively infect nondividing cells, whereas most other retroviruses, such as murine leukemia virus, require cell division for efficient infection...
  71. doi Misclassification of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure based on immunological monitoring of HIV infection in resource-limited settings
    Rami Kantor
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:454-62. 2009
    The monitoring of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are treated with antiretroviral medications in resource-limited settings is typically performed by use of clinical and immunological criteria...
  72. ncbi Titers of HIV-based vectors encoding shRNAs are reduced by a dicer-dependent mechanism
    Ananthalakshmi Poluri
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Mol Ther 16:378-86. 2008
    ..We constructed HIV-based vectors encoding shRNA against HIV coreceptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5)...
  73. pmc Innate immunity against HIV: a priority target for HIV prevention research
    Persephone Borrow
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, The Jenner Institute, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire, UK
    Retrovirology 7:84. 2010
    ..summarizes recent advances and current gaps in understanding of innate immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and identifies key scientific priorities to enable application of this knowledge to the development of ..
  74. pmc Molecular epidemiology of HCV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection in injection drug users in Liuzhou, Southern China
    Yi Tan
    Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    PLoS ONE 3:e3608. 2008
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU). Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations...
  75. doi Endocytosis of HIV: anything goes
    Marc Permanyer
    Retrovirology Laboratory irsiCaixa, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08916 Barcelona, Spain
    Trends Microbiol 18:543-51. 2010
    The major pathway for HIV internalization in CD4+ T cells has been thought to be the direct fusion of virus and cell membranes, because the cell surface is the point of entry of infectious particles...
  76. pmc Vascular risk factors, HIV serostatus, and cognitive dysfunction in gay and bisexual men
    J T Becker
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Neurology 73:1292-9. 2009
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive performance, risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  77. pmc HIV envelope-CXCR4 signaling activates cofilin to overcome cortical actin restriction in resting CD4 T cells
    Alyson Yoder
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
    Cell 134:782-92. 2008
    Binding of the HIV envelope to the chemokine coreceptors triggers membrane fusion and signal transduction. The fusion process has been well characterized, yet the role of coreceptor signaling remains elusive...
  78. doi Integrase variability and susceptibility to HIV integrase inhibitors: impact of subtypes, antiretroviral experience and duration of HIV infection
    Carolina Garrido
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:320-6. 2010
    Little is known about the extent and predictors of polymorphisms potentially influencing the susceptibility to HIV integrase inhibitors (INIs).
  79. pmc IL-10 induces aberrant deletion of dendritic cells by natural killer cells in the context of HIV infection
    Galit Alter
    Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:1905-13. 2010
    ..of IL-10 play a central role in progressive immune dysfunction associated with chronic viral infections such as HIV, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
  80. pmc Improving defences at the portal of HIV entry: mucosal and innate immunity
    Robin J Shattock
    St George s, University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e81. 2008
  81. doi Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 33:307-20. 2009
    In 2008, 25 years after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered as the then tentative aetiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), exactly 25 anti-HIV compounds have been formally approved for clinical ..
  82. pmc HIV, transmitted drug resistance, and the paradox of preexposure prophylaxis
    Virginie Supervie
    Center for Biomedical Modeling, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12381-6. 2010
    The administration of antiretrovirals before HIV exposure to prevent infection (i.e., preexposure prophylaxis; PrEP) is under evaluation in clinical trials...
  83. pmc Chemokine coreceptor signaling in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis
    Yuntao Wu
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000520. 2009
    Binding of the HIV-1 envelope to its chemokine coreceptors mediates two major biological events: membrane fusion and signaling transduction...
  84. doi Inferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up
    Jens D Lundgren
    Copenhagen HIV Programme CHIP, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    J Infect Dis 197:1145-55. 2008
    ..antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL...
  85. doi High-definition mapping of retroviral integration sites identifies active regulatory elements in human multipotent hematopoietic progenitors
    Claudia Cattoglio
    Istituto Scientifico H San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Blood 116:5507-17. 2010
    ..build genomewide, high-definition maps of > 60 000 integration sites of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV)- and HIV-based retroviral vectors in the genome of human CD34(+) multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and used ..
  86. pmc Sequence alignment reveals possible MAPK docking motifs on HIV proteins
    Perry Evans
    Genomics and Computational Biology and Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e8942. 2010
    Over the course of HIV infection, virus replication is facilitated by the phosphorylation of HIV proteins by human ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)...
  87. ncbi Routine human immunodeficiency virus testing: an economic evaluation of current guidelines
    Rochelle P Walensky
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Partners AIDS Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Am J Med 118:292-300. 2005
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling, testing, and referral for all patients in hospitals with an HIV prevalence of >or=1%...
  88. pmc Timing the emergence of resistance to anti-HIV drugs with large genetic barriers
    Pankhuri Arora
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
    PLoS Comput Biol 5:e1000305. 2009
    ..New antiretroviral drugs that offer large genetic barriers to resistance, such as the recently approved inhibitors of HIV-1 protease, tipranavir and darunavir, present promising weapons to avert the failure of current therapies for HIV ..
  89. ncbi Safety and efficacy of a lentiviral vector containing three anti-HIV genes--CCR5 ribozyme, tat-rev siRNA, and TAR decoy--in SCID-hu mouse-derived T cells
    Joseph Anderson
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort, Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    Mol Ther 15:1182-8. 2007
    Gene therapeutic strategies show promise in controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and in restoring immunological function...
  90. pmc Pseudovirion particles bearing native HIV envelope trimers facilitate a novel method for generating human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV
    Mark D Hicar
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 2905, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 54:223-35. 2010
    Monomeric HIV envelope vaccines fail to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies or to protect against infection. Neutralizing antibodies against HIV bind to native functionally active Env trimers on the virion surface...
  91. pmc Three generic nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatments in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients: multicentric observation cohort
    Taisheng Li
    Department of Infectious Disease, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 3:e3918. 2008
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatments for adult antiretroviral-naïve Chinese patients with HIV-1 infection.
  92. pmc The genotype of early-transmitting HIV gp120s promotes α (4) β(7)-reactivity, revealing α (4) β(7) +/CD4+ T cells as key targets in mucosal transmission
    Fatima Nawaz
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001301. 2011
    Mucosal transmission of HIV is inefficient. The virus must breach physical barriers before it infects mucosal CD4+ T cells...
  93. ncbi Advantages of predicted phenotypes and statistical learning models in inferring virological response to antiretroviral therapy from HIV genotype
    Andre Altmann
    Computational Biology and Applied Algorithmics, Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarbr product operatorcken, Germany
    Antivir Ther 14:273-83. 2009
    ..The utility of an intermediate step of predicting in vitro drug susceptibility is currently controversial. Here, we provide a retrospective comparison of approaches using either genotype or predicted phenotypes alone, or in combination...
  94. pmc Innate sensing of HIV-infected cells
    Alice Lepelley
    Institut Pasteur, Virus and Immunity Unit, URA CNRS 3015, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001284. 2011
    Cell-free HIV-1 virions are poor stimulators of type I interferon (IFN) production. We examined here how HIV-infected cells are recognized by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and by other cells...
  95. doi Adaptation of HIV-1 envelope gp120 to humoral immunity at a population level
    Evelien M Bunnik
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Med 16:995-7. 2010
    By comparing HIV-1 variants from people who became infected at the beginning of the epidemic and from people who have recently contracted the virus, we observed an enhanced resistance of the virus to antibody neutralization over time, ..
  96. ncbi Pleiotrophin inhibits HIV infection by binding the cell surface-expressed nucleolin
    Elias A Said
    UPR 2228 CNRS, UFR Biomédicale des Saints Pères, Paris, France
    FEBS J 272:4646-59. 2005
    ..reported to bind heparan sulfate and nucleolin, two components of the cell surface implicated in the attachment of HIV-1 particles to cells...
  97. pmc Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection
    Trine H Mogensen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, DK 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark
    Retrovirology 7:54. 2010
    The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood...
  98. doi Effect of rifampicin on lopinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected children with tuberculosis
    Yuan Ren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:566-9. 2008
    ..We evaluated the effect of additional ritonavir on plasma lopinavir concentrations in HIV-infected children receiving rifampicin-based treatment for tuberculosis.
  99. pmc Relationship between residual plasma viremia and the size of HIV proviral DNA reservoirs in infected individuals receiving effective antiretroviral therapy
    Tae Wook Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:135-8. 2011
    Residual plasma viremia (<50 copies/mL) persists in certain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the relationship between the degree of residual plasma viremia, the ..
  100. pmc Preventing mucosal HIV transmission with topical microbicides: challenges and opportunities
    Florian Hladik
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Antiviral Res 88:S3-9. 2010
    A combination of prevention and treatment modalities will be needed to successfully control the global spread of HIV. Microbicides, drug products topically applied to mucosal surfaces to prevent HIV infection, are one of these biomedical ..
  101. pmc Hepatitis C virus glycoproteins mediate pH-dependent cell entry of pseudotyped retroviral particles
    Mayla Hsu
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7271-6. 2003
    b>HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (strain H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and PLC/PR5...

Research Grants91

  1. Relationship of metabolic abnormalities to hepatic steatosis in HIV
    Richard Sterling; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Abnormal liver enzymes are frequently seen in those with HIV. Although many of these individuals are co-infected with HBV or HCV, histology in HIV patients with abnormal liver enzymes in the absence of viral hepatitis has not been ..
  2. Role of the OPI1 gene in controlling viability of Candida glabrata
    TODD REYNOLDS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..However, as the population of patients treated by HAART ages, the needs of elderly Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients will become a very important concern because immune function will decline...
  3. Vaccination against mucosal HIV clade C transmission
    Ruth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Most HIV transmissions occur mucosally, including mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). As HIV clade C predominates worldwide, we initially focused on immunoprevention of HIV clade C MTCT...
  4. Evaluation of RNA transport elements in HIV-1 vectors
    SRINIVAS KUMAR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the viral Rev protein, in conjunction with an RNA element (Rev-response element or RRE), has been shown to assist ..
  5. International HIV-associated Opportunistic Pneumonias (IHOP) Study
    Laurence Huang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..opportunistic pneumonias have been major causes of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons...
  6. International HIV-associated Opportunistic Pneumonias (IHOP) Study
    Laurence Huang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..opportunistic pneumonias have been major causes of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons...
  7. Genome Integrity in Candida albicans
    Judith G Berman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..candidiasis is often the earliest detectable clinical manifestation of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the most prevalent opportunistic infection observed in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)...
  8. Haemophilus ducreyi Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides
    MARGARET BAUER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..transmitted genital ulcer disease that facilitates transmission and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and thus contributes to the spread of HIV in areas with endemic chancroid. H...
  9. Infant immunoprophylaxis against a primate lentivirus
    Ruth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Our long-term goal is to develop passive immunization against maternal HIV transmission during birth and through breast milk...
  10. MUCOSAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    David R Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..at mucosal immune sites by detecting and eliminating enteric pathogens, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Salmonella enterica...
  11. MUCOSAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    David Brown; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..at mucosal immune sites by detecting and eliminating enteric pathogens, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Salmonella enterica...
  12. Effect of Cdk inhibitor on HIV-1 replication
    Fatah Kashanchi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    There are currently 40-100 million individuals in the world infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and nearly 16,000 new infections occur worldwide each day based on World Health Organization estimates...
  13. Positron Emission Tomography to Evaluate Thymic Function
    Laura Napolitano; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Acquired immunodeficiencies, such as those caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, are frequently characterized by T cell loss and an increased risk of illness or death from infection...
  14. NUCLEOSIDES WITH DUAL ANTI-HIV AND HBV ACTIVITY
    RAYMOND SCHINAZI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The search for new therapies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), led to the discovery that certain 2',3'- didehydro-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides (d4N) and their 2'-fluoro analogs are ..
  15. Methamphetamine, HIV, Neuroinflammation and Behavior
    Rodney Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..is associated with increased frequency of high-risk sexual behavior leading to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exposure...
  16. Epigenetic regulation of HIV latency
    ERIC M VERDIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ABSTRACT The presence of latent reservoirs has prevented the eradication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) from infected patients successfully treated with antiretroviral therapy...
  17. Virologic and Immunologic Studies of Murine CMV Retinitis
    Sally S Atherton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis has decreased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients concomitant with the widespread use of highly actively antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  18. Virologic and Immunologic Studies of Murine CMV Retinitis
    Sally Atherton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis has decreased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients concomitant with the widespread use of highly actively antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  19. Establishment fo HIV infection in cotton rats
    Jorge Blanco; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The development of a small animal model to study human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection would significantly facilitate studies of disease pathogenesis, as well as vaccine and anti-viral drug development and testing...
  20. HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS PROTEINASE
    Ben Dunn; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..is to examine the biochemical consequences of the wide genetic diversity in the sequence of the proteolytic enzyme, HIV PR...
  21. Role of Cellular Factors in Retroviral Uncoating and Synthesis of Viral DNA
    Felipe Diaz Griffero; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Early steps in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication involve delivery of the viral core into the cytoplasm of the host cell. When the viral core has reached the cytoplasm a process known as "uncoating" takes place...
  22. Structure-based discovery and development of HIV-1 gp41 fusion inhibitors
    Miriam Gochin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..discovery and development of low molecular weight gp41 inhibitors effective against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) fusion...