influenza a virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.

Top Publications

  1. pmc A distinct lineage of influenza A virus from bats
    Suxiang Tong
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4269-74. 2012
  2. doi The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses
    Benjamin G Hale
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2359-76. 2008
  3. ncbi Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Influenza Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 289:179-86. 2003
  4. pmc The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus
    Abraham L Brass
    Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Cell 139:1243-54. 2009
  5. pmc Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans
    Rebecca J Garten
    WHO Collaborating Center for Influenza, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Science 325:197-201. 2009
  6. pmc An overlapping protein-coding region in influenza A virus segment 3 modulates the host response
    B W Jagger
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Science 337:199-204. 2012
  7. ncbi Universal primer set for the full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses
    E Hoffmann
    Department of Virology and Molecular Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105-2794, USA
    Arch Virol 146:2275-89. 2001
  8. ncbi Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 292:1333-40. 2004
  9. pmc Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection
    Takeshi Ichinohe
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5354-9. 2011
  10. pmc The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates in vivo innate immunity to influenza A virus through recognition of viral RNA
    Irving C Allen
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Immunity 30:556-65. 2009

Detail Information

Publications332 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A distinct lineage of influenza A virus from bats
    Suxiang Tong
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4269-74. 2012
    b>Influenza A virus reservoirs in animals have provided novel genetic elements leading to the emergence of global pandemics in humans...
  2. doi The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses
    Benjamin G Hale
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2359-76. 2008
    ....
  3. ncbi Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Influenza Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 289:179-86. 2003
    ..Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Statistical methods used to estimate deaths in the United States attributable to influenza have not accounted for RSV circulation...
  4. pmc The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus
    Abraham L Brass
    Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Cell 139:1243-54. 2009
    ..modifiers of influenza A H1N1 viral infection, we used a functional genomic screen and identified over 120 influenza A virus-dependency factors with roles in endosomal acidification, vesicular trafficking, mitochondrial metabolism, ..
  5. pmc Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans
    Rebecca J Garten
    WHO Collaborating Center for Influenza, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Science 325:197-201. 2009
    ..Antigenically the viruses are homogeneous and similar to North American swine A(H1N1) viruses but distinct from seasonal human A(H1N1)...
  6. pmc An overlapping protein-coding region in influenza A virus segment 3 modulates the host response
    B W Jagger
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Science 337:199-204. 2012
    b>Influenza A virus (IAV) infection leads to variable and imperfectly understood pathogenicity. We report that segment 3 of the virus contains a second open reading frame ("X-ORF"), accessed via ribosomal frameshifting...
  7. ncbi Universal primer set for the full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses
    E Hoffmann
    Department of Virology and Molecular Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105-2794, USA
    Arch Virol 146:2275-89. 2001
    To systematically identify and analyze the 15 HA and 9 NA subtypes of influenza A virus, we need reliable, simple methods that not only characterize partial sequences but analyze the entire influenza A genome...
  8. ncbi Influenza-associated hospitalizations in the United States
    William W Thompson
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 292:1333-40. 2004
    ..Respiratory viral infections are responsible for a large number of hospitalizations in the United States each year...
  9. pmc Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection
    Takeshi Ichinohe
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5354-9. 2011
    ..Our results reveal the importance of commensal microbiota in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa through the proper activation of inflammasomes...
  10. pmc The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates in vivo innate immunity to influenza A virus through recognition of viral RNA
    Irving C Allen
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Immunity 30:556-65. 2009
    ..Together, these data place the NLRP3 inflammasome as an essential component in host defense against influenza infection through the sensing of viral RNA...
  11. pmc The pathogenesis of influenza virus infections: the contributions of virus and host factors
    Satoshi Fukuyama
    ERATO Infection Induced Host Responses Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332 0012, Japan
    Curr Opin Immunol 23:481-6. 2011
    ..Here, we review the contributions of both virus and host factors to the pathogenesis of these viral infections...
  12. pmc Spatial, temporal, and species variation in prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds
    Vincent J Munster
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 3:e61. 2007
    ..from 323 bird species belonging to 18 orders, of which only 25 species of three orders were positive for influenza A virus. Information on species, locations, and timing is provided for all samples tested...
  13. pmc A complicated message: Identification of a novel PB1-related protein translated from influenza A virus segment 2 mRNA
    Helen M Wise
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:8021-31. 2009
    b>Influenza A virus segment 2 is known to encode two polypeptides in overlapping open reading frames: PB1, the polymerase, and PB1-F2, a proapoptotic virulence factor...
  14. pmc Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by the host viral RNA sensor RIG-I
    Michaela Ulrike Gack
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:439-49. 2009
    ..Here, we report that the influenza A virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) specifically inhibits TRIM25-mediated RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, thereby ..
  15. pmc Single-reaction genomic amplification accelerates sequencing and vaccine production for classical and Swine origin human influenza a viruses
    Bin Zhou
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    J Virol 83:10309-13. 2009
    ..Together, M-RTPCR and the modified reverse-genetics plasmids that we designed streamline the creation of vaccine seed stocks (9 to 12 days)...
  16. pmc A highly conserved neutralizing epitope on group 2 influenza A viruses
    Damian C Ekiert
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 333:843-50. 2011
    ..Thus, a cocktail of two antibodies may be sufficient to neutralize most influenza A subtypes and, hence, enable development of a universal flu vaccine and broad-spectrum antibody therapies...
  17. ncbi Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza
    Anne Moscona
    Department of Pediatrics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:1363-73. 2005
  18. ncbi A novel influenza A virus mitochondrial protein that induces cell death
    W Chen
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Med 7:1306-12. 2001
    While searching for alternative reading-frame peptides encoded by influenza A virus that are recognized by CD8+ T cells, we found an abundant immunogenic peptide encoded by the +1 reading frame of PB1...
  19. ncbi Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 437:209-14. 2005
    ..Policy effectiveness depends critically on how quickly clinical cases are diagnosed and the speed with which antiviral drugs can be distributed...
  20. ncbi A review of avian influenza in different bird species
    D J Alexander
    Avian Virology, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Vet Microbiol 74:3-13. 2000
    ..Secondary spread is usually associated with human involvement, probably by transferring infective faeces from infected to susceptible birds...
  21. pmc Influenza virus M2 protein mediates ESCRT-independent membrane scission
    Jeremy S Rossman
    Department of Biochemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Cell 142:902-13. 2010
    ..These data suggest that M2 mediates the final steps of budding for influenza viruses, bypassing the need for host ESCRT proteins...
  22. pmc The influenza virus protein PB1-F2 inhibits the induction of type I interferon at the level of the MAVS adaptor protein
    Zsuzsanna T Varga
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002067. 2011
    ..In summary, we have characterized the anti-interferon function of PB1-F2 and we suggest that this activity contributes to the enhanced pathogenicity seen with PB1-F2 N66S- expressing influenza viruses...
  23. pmc New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays
    Mikhail Matrosovich
    Institute of Virology, Philipps University, Hans Meerwein Str, 3, 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Virol J 3:63. 2006
    ..To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CLtrade mark as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses...
  24. pmc Matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus blocks autophagosome fusion with lysosomes
    Monique Gannage
    Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University Hospital of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Cell Host Microbe 6:367-80. 2009
    b>Influenza A virus is an important human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality every year and threatening the human population with epidemics and pandemics...
  25. pmc IFITM3 restricts the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza
    Aaron R Everitt
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
    Nature 484:519-23. 2012
    ..model, we now test this hypothesis directly and find that IFITM3 is essential for defending the host against influenza A virus in vivo...
  26. ncbi A question of self-preservation: immunopathology in influenza virus infection
    Nicole L La Gruta
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 85:85-92. 2007
    ....
  27. ncbi RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5'-phosphates
    Andreas Pichlmair
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Science 314:997-1001. 2006
    ..We showed that influenza A virus infection does not generate dsRNA and that RIG-I is activated by viral genomic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) ..
  28. pmc The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase affects virulence by interacting with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein and inhibiting expression of beta interferon
    Katy M Graef
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3203, USA
    J Virol 84:8433-45. 2010
    ..Overall this study implicates the PB2 protein in the regulation of host antiviral innate immune pathways and suggests an important role for the mitochondrial association of the PB2 protein in determining virulence...
  29. ncbi Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds
    Bjorn Olsen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Umea University, SE 90187 Umea, Sweden
    Science 312:384-8. 2006
    ....
  30. doi Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution
    Jan Medlock
    Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8034, USA
    Science 325:1705-8. 2009
    ..We also found that previous and new recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both for the novel swine-origin influenza and, particularly, for seasonal influenza, are suboptimal for all outcome measures...
  31. pmc Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls
    Ron A M Fouchier
    Dept of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, P O Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 79:2814-22. 2005
    ..We propose that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA and NA subtypes...
  32. pmc Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence
    Alexei J Drummond
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Biol 4:e88. 2006
    ..From these we conclude that our method is phylogenetically more accurate and precise than the traditional unrooted model while adding the ability to infer a timescale to evolution...
  33. pmc Vaccination with a synthetic peptide from the influenza virus hemagglutinin provides protection against distinct viral subtypes
    Taia T Wang
    Department of Microbiology and Medicine, Emerging Pathogens Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18979-84. 2010
    ..These results provide proof of concept for an HA2-based influenza vaccine that could diminish the threat of pandemic influenza disease and generally reduce the significance of influenza viruses as human pathogens...
  34. pmc IFITM3 inhibits influenza A virus infection by preventing cytosolic entry
    Eric M Feeley
    Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002337. 2011
    ..inducible transmembrane protein family members, IFITM1, 2 and 3, are IEGs required for inhibition of influenza A virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus replication in vitro...
  35. ncbi Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus
    Derek J Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 305:371-6. 2004
    ..Further, this approach offers a route to predicting the relative success of emerging strains, which could be achieved by quantifying the combined effects of population level immune escape and viral fitness on strain evolution...
  36. pmc The ferret as a model organism to study influenza A virus infection
    Jessica A Belser
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Dis Model Mech 4:575-9. 2011
    ..We highlight the recent and emerging uses of this species in influenza virus research that are advancing our understanding of virus-host interactions...
  37. pmc Identification of potential conserved RNA secondary structure throughout influenza A coding regions
    Walter N Moss
    Department of Chemistry and Center for RNA Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 0216, USA
    RNA 17:991-1011. 2011
    ..While much is understood about the life cycle of the virus, knowledge of RNA secondary structure in influenza A virus is sparse. Predictions of RNA secondary structure can focus experimental efforts...
  38. pmc Host genetic background strongly influences the response to influenza a virus infections
    Barkha Srivastava
    Department of Experimental Mouse Genetics, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Braunschweig, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4857. 2009
    The genetic make-up of the host has a major influence on its response to combat pathogens. For influenza A virus, several single gene mutations have been described which contribute to survival, the immune response and clearance of the ..
  39. pmc Human host factors required for influenza virus replication
    Renate König
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research
    Nature 463:813-7. 2010
    b>Influenza A virus is an RNA virus that encodes up to 11 proteins and this small coding capacity demands that the virus use the host cellular machinery for many aspects of its life cycle...
  40. pmc Contrasting effects of CCR5 and CCR2 deficiency in the pulmonary inflammatory response to influenza A virus
    T C Dawson
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7525, USA
    Am J Pathol 156:1951-9. 2000
    The immune response to influenza A virus is characterized by an influx of both macrophages and T lymphocytes into the lungs of the infected host, accompanied by induced expression of a number of CC chemokines...
  41. doi Interplay between influenza A virus and the innate immune signaling
    Christina Ehrhardt
    Institute of Molecular Virology IMV, Center for Molecular Biology of Inflammation ZMBE, Westfaelische Wilhelms University, Muenster, Germany
    Microbes Infect 12:81-7. 2010
    ..Further we summarize progress related to recently identified IFN induced proteins and the role of RNA interference in the context of IAV infection...
  42. pmc Influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase membrane glycoproteins
    Steven J Gamblin
    Medical Research Council, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 285:28403-9. 2010
    ..made toward understanding the structural basis of the interaction of the two major surface glycoproteins of influenza A virus with their common ligand/substrate: carbohydrate chains terminating in sialic acid...
  43. pmc Influenza virus assembly and budding
    Jeremy S Rossman
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 3500, USA
    Virology 411:229-36. 2011
    b>Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global health burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome...
  44. ncbi Lethal influenza infection in the absence of the natural killer cell receptor gene Ncr1
    Roi Gazit
    The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Nat Immunol 7:517-23. 2006
    ..We noted accumulation of natural killer cells at the site of influenza infection by tracking the green fluorescent protein. Our results demonstrate a critical function for Ncr1 in the in vivo eradication of influenza virus...
  45. pmc Insight into the mechanism of the influenza A proton channel from a structure in a lipid bilayer
    Mukesh Sharma
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
    Science 330:509-12. 2010
    The M2 protein from the influenza A virus, an acid-activated proton-selective channel, has been the subject of numerous conductance, structural, and computational studies...
  46. pmc The ESEV PDZ-binding motif of the avian influenza A virus NS1 protein protects infected cells from apoptosis by directly targeting Scribble
    Hongbing Liu
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, BCMD 824DB, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Virol 84:11164-74. 2010
    ..This study shows that one function of the avian ESEV PBM is to reduce apoptosis during infection through disruption of Scribble's proapoptotic function...
  47. ncbi Avian flu: influenza virus receptors in the human airway
    Kyoko Shinya
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Nature 440:435-6. 2006
    ..Our findings may provide a rational explanation for why H5N1 viruses at present rarely infect and spread between humans although they can replicate efficiently in the lungs...
  48. pmc Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals
    Debby van Riel
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, P O Box 2040, 3015 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Am J Pathol 171:1215-23. 2007
    ..The PVA in human respiratory tract most closely mirrored that in ferrets and pigs for human influenza viruses and that in ferrets, pigs, and cats for avian influenza viruses...
  49. pmc The pathology of influenza virus infections
    Jeffery K Taubenberger
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Pathol 3:499-522. 2008
    ....
  50. pmc Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Ron A M Fouchier
    Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1356-61. 2004
    ..A highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus of subtype H7N7, closely related to low pathogenic virus isolates obtained from wild ducks, was isolated ..
  51. pmc Cellular transcriptional profiling in influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial cells: the role of the nonstructural NS1 protein in the evasion of the host innate defense and its potential contribution to pandemic influenza
    Gary K Geiss
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10736-41. 2002
    The NS1 protein of influenza A virus contributes to viral pathogenesis, primarily by enabling the virus to disarm the host cell type IFN defense system...
  52. pmc Conserved epitopes of influenza A virus inducing protective immunity and their prospects for universal vaccine development
    Zuzana Staneková
    Institute of Virology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Virol J 7:351. 2010
    ....
  53. pmc Contributions of antinucleoprotein IgG to heterosubtypic immunity against influenza virus
    Mark W Lamere
    Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 186:4331-9. 2011
    b>Influenza A virus causes recurring seasonal epidemics and occasional influenza pandemics...
  54. pmc Origin and evolution of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus hemagglutinin gene
    A H Reid
    Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Cellular Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306 6000, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1651-6. 1999
    ..Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the 1918 virus HA gene, although more closely related to avian strains than any other mammalian sequence, is mammalian and may have been adapting in humans before 1918...
  55. pmc The structure of a biologically active influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complex
    Rocío Coloma
    Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000491. 2009
    ..The structure reported here will serve as a framework to generate a quasi-atomic model of the molecular machine responsible for viral RNA synthesis and to test new models for virus RNA replication and transcription...
  56. ncbi Predicting the evolution of human influenza A
    R M Bush
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 286:1921-5. 1999
    ..However, not all codons in these sites had predictive value. Monitoring new H3 isolates for additional changes in positively selected codons might help identify the most fit extant viral strains that arise during antigenic drift...
  57. pmc TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells are the necessary evil of lethal influenza virus infection
    Jerry R Aldridge
    Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, and Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5306-11. 2009
    ..Targeting the tipDCs in this way thus offers possibilities for therapeutic intervention in the face of a catastrophic pandemic...
  58. ncbi Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to influenza virus
    J C de Jong
    National Influenza Centre, Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Dev Biol (Basel) 115:63-73. 2003
    ..However, even in completely healthy elderly individuals the response to vaccination with an antigenically new virus may be strongly reduced compared with younger vaccinees...
  59. doi High infectivity and pathogenicity of influenza A virus via aerosol and droplet transmission
    Peter F M Teunis
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, RIVM, Anthonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, Netherlands
    Epidemics 2:215-22. 2010
    ..More studies are needed to clarify the role of different modes of transmission in other settings...
  60. ncbi Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread
    Viviane Hénaux
    University of Wisconsin, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Wildl Dis 47:566-78. 2011
    ..Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive epizootiologic models of disease risks...
  61. ncbi Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands
    Marion Koopmans
    Diagnostic Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Perinatal Screening, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    Lancet 363:587-93. 2004
    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 started at the end of February, 2003, in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands...
  62. pmc Naturally occurring antibodies in humans can neutralize a variety of influenza virus strains, including H3, H1, H2, and H5
    Nobuko Ohshima
    Division of Antibody Project, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi 470 1192, Japan
    J Virol 85:11048-57. 2011
    ..The possible epitope recognized by these clones is discussed...
  63. ncbi Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses
    M Hatta
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Science 293:1840-2. 2001
    In 1997, an H5N1 influenza A virus was transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong, killing 6 of the 18 people infected. When mice were infected with the human isolates, two virulence groups became apparent...
  64. ncbi Virus glycosylation: role in virulence and immune interactions
    David J Vigerust
    Department of Pediatrics, Program in Vaccine Sciences, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Trends Microbiol 15:211-8. 2007
    ..This review focuses on recent findings on the importance of glycosylation to viral virulence and immune evasion for several prominent human pathogens...
  65. pmc Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions
    S L Zebedee
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208
    J Virol 62:2762-72. 1988
    The influenza A virus M2 protein is an integral membrane protein of 97 amino acids that is expressed at the surface of infected cells with an extracellular N-terminal domain of 18 to 23 amino acid residues, an internal hydrophobic domain ..
  66. ncbi Role of IgA versus IgG in the control of influenza viral infection in the murine respiratory tract
    Kathryn B Renegar
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Immunol 173:1978-86. 2004
    ....
  67. pmc Age-associated decline in T cell repertoire diversity leads to holes in the repertoire and impaired immunity to influenza virus
    Eric J Yager
    The Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    J Exp Med 205:711-23. 2008
    ..These observations have important implications for the design of vaccine strategies for the elderly...
  68. ncbi The evolution of epidemic influenza
    Martha I Nelson
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 8:196-205. 2007
    ....
  69. pmc Cases of swine influenza in humans: a review of the literature
    Kendall P Myers
    Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:1084-8. 2007
    ..Because prior studies have shown that persons who work with swine are at increased risk of zoonotic influenza virus infection, it is prudent to include them in pandemic planning efforts...
  70. pmc Species-specific contribution of the four C-terminal amino acids of influenza A virus NS1 protein to virulence
    Sébastien M Soubies
    INRA, UMR 1225, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, F 31076 Toulouse, France
    J Virol 84:6733-47. 2010
    ..H7N1 virus with a C-terminal RSKV motif replicated to higher levels in ducks and induced higher levels of Mx, a type I interferon-stimulated gene. Thus, we identify the C-terminal domain of NS1 as a species-specific virulence domain...
  71. ncbi Quantifying influenza vaccine efficacy and antigenic distance
    Vishal Gupta
    Departments of Bioengineering and Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street MS 142, Houston, TX 77005 1892, USA
    Vaccine 24:3881-8. 2006
    ..We suggest that this new measure of antigenic distance be used in the design of the annual influenza vaccine and in the interpretation of vaccine efficacy monitoring...
  72. pmc A recombinant influenza A virus expressing an RNA-binding-defective NS1 protein induces high levels of beta interferon and is attenuated in mice
    Nicola R Donelan
    Department of Microbiology Microbiology Graduate School Training Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 77:13257-66. 2003
    Previously we found that the amino-terminal region of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus plays a key role in preventing the induction of beta interferon (IFN-beta) in virus-infected cells...
  73. doi A new player in a deadly game: influenza viruses and the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway
    Christina Ehrhardt
    Institute of Molecular Virology IMV, Center of Molecular Biology of Inflammation ZMBE, Westfaelische Wilhelms University, 48149 Muenster, Germany
    Cell Microbiol 11:863-71. 2009
    Upon influenza A virus infection of cells, a wide variety of antiviral and virus-supportive signalling pathways are induced...
  74. pmc Hemagglutinin sequence clusters and the antigenic evolution of influenza A virus
    Joshua B Plotkin
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:6263-8. 2002
    Continual mutations to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza A virus generate novel antigenic strains that cause annual epidemics...
  75. ncbi Potent immunogenicity and efficacy of a universal influenza vaccine candidate comprising a recombinant fusion protein linking influenza M2e to the TLR5 ligand flagellin
    James W Huleatt
    VaxInnate Corporation, 300 George Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Vaccine 26:201-14. 2008
    ..the epitope defined by monoclonal antibody 14C2, which has been shown to protect mice from challenge with influenza A virus. Moreover, immunization with STF2.4xM2e at a dose of 0...
  76. pmc Association of the influenza A virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with cellular RNA polymerase II
    Othmar G Engelhardt
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    J Virol 79:5812-8. 2005
    ..The present findings provide a framework for further studies to elucidate the mechanistic principles of transcription by a viral RNA polymerase and have implications for the regulation of Pol II activities in infected cells...
  77. ncbi Binding of the influenza A virus NS1 protein to PKR mediates the inhibition of its activation by either PACT or double-stranded RNA
    Shoudong Li
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Virology 349:13-21. 2006
    ..To evade the antiviral effects of PKR, many viruses, including influenza A virus, have evolved multiple mechanisms...
  78. pmc Characterization of H9 subtype influenza viruses from the ducks of southern China: a candidate for the next influenza pandemic in humans?
    K S Li
    Joint Influenza Research Centre SUMC and HKU, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515031, P R China
    J Virol 77:6988-94. 2003
    ..Such reassortants may directly or indirectly play a role in the emergence of the next pandemic virus...
  79. ncbi Pathology of fatal human infection associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus
    K F To
    Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China
    J Med Virol 63:242-6. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of influenza A H5N1 infection might be different from that of the usual human subtypes H1-H3...
  80. pmc Detection of influenza A viruses from different species by PCR amplification of conserved sequences in the matrix gene
    R A Fouchier
    National Influenza Center and Department of Virology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 38:4096-101. 2000
    ..that were obtained from birds, humans, pigs, horses, and seals and that included all known subtypes of influenza A virus. It was not reactive with the 11 other RNA viruses tested...
  81. pmc Caspase 3 activation is essential for efficient influenza virus propagation
    Walter J Wurzer
    Institute of Molecular Medicine IMM, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Universitatsstrasse 1, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    EMBO J 22:2717-28. 2003
    Apoptosis is a hallmark event observed upon infection with many viral pathogens, including influenza A virus. The apoptotic process is executed by a proteolytic system consisting of a family of cysteinyl proteases, termed caspases...
  82. pmc Involvement of Hsp90 in assembly and nuclear import of influenza virus RNA polymerase subunits
    Tadasuke Naito
    Department of Infection Biology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305 8575, Japan
    J Virol 81:1339-49. 2007
    ....
  83. doi Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells
    Ronan Le Goffic
    Unite de Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaires, Unité de Recherche 892 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Domaine de Vilvert, Jouy en Josas, France
    J Immunol 185:4812-23. 2010
    The PB1-F2 protein of the influenza A virus (IAV) contributes to viral pathogenesis by a mechanism that is not well understood. PB1-F2 was shown to modulate apoptosis and to be targeted by the CD8(+) T cell response...
  84. pmc Sialic acid receptor detection in the human respiratory tract: evidence for widespread distribution of potential binding sites for human and avian influenza viruses
    John M Nicholls
    Pathology Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR
    Respir Res 8:73. 2007
    ....
  85. pmc Genetic trans-complementation establishes a new model for influenza virus RNA transcription and replication
    Núria Jorba
    Centro Nacional de Biotecnología CSIC and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000462. 2009
    ..In contrast, transcription of the vRNP would occur in cis and the resident polymerase complex would be responsible for mRNA synthesis and polyadenylation...
  86. ncbi Antiviral agents active against influenza A viruses
    Erik De Clercq
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 5:1015-25. 2006
    ..This article reviews agents that have been shown to have activity against influenza A viruses and discusses their therapeutic potential, and also describes emerging strategies for targeting these viruses...
  87. pmc Nuclear import and assembly of influenza A virus RNA polymerase studied in live cells by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy
    Sebastien Huet
    Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Virol 84:1254-64. 2010
    ....
  88. doi Genome packaging in influenza A virus
    Edward C Hutchinson
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    J Gen Virol 91:313-28. 2010
    The negative-sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is composed of eight segments, which encode 12 proteins between them...
  89. pmc Predicting antigenic variants of influenza A/H3N2 viruses
    Min Shi Lee
    MedImmune Vaccines, Mountain View, California 94043, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1385-90. 2004
    ..The methods described in this study could be applied to predict vaccine-induced cross-reactive antibody responses in humans, which may further improve the selection of vaccine strains...
  90. pmc Full factorial analysis of mammalian and avian influenza polymerase subunits suggests a role of an efficient polymerase for virus adaptation
    Olive T W Li
    State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
    PLoS ONE 4:e5658. 2009
    ..These results suggested that the viral polymerase activity might be relevant for the genesis of influenza viruses of human health concern...
  91. pmc Species and age related differences in the type and distribution of influenza virus receptors in different tissues of chickens, ducks and turkeys
    Smitha P S Pillai
    Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA
    Virol J 7:5. 2010
    ....
  92. doi Reassortment networks for investigating the evolution of segmented viruses
    Shahid H Bokhari
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Ohio State University, 3190 Graves Hall, 333 W 10th Ave Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 7:288-98. 2010
    ..The reassortment network, with O(taun2) nodes, is then constructed using these distances. The ancestors and descendents of a specific virus can be traced via shortest paths in this network, which can be found in O(taun3) time...
  93. pmc Mechanisms and functional implications of the degradation of host RNA polymerase II in influenza virus infected cells
    Frank T Vreede
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Virology 396:125-34. 2010
    ..Our results also suggest a mechanism for the temporal regulation of viral mRNA synthesis...
  94. pmc Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus
    Emily H M Wong
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China
    BMC Evol Biol 10:253. 2010
    The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century...
  95. pmc The Rab11 pathway is required for influenza A virus budding and filament formation
    Emily A Bruce
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court, Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:5848-59. 2010
    b>Influenza A virus buds through the apical plasma membrane, forming enveloped virus particles that can take the shape of pleomorphic spheres or vastly elongated filaments...
  96. pmc Nucleolar localization of influenza A NS1: striking differences between mammalian and avian cells
    Romain Volmer
    INRA, UMR 1225, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, F 31076 Toulouse, France
    Virol J 7:63. 2010
    ..Thus, nucleolar localization of NS1 in avian cells appears to rely on a different nucleolar localization signal that is more conserved among influenza virus strains...
  97. ncbi Full restoration of viral fitness by multiple compensatory co-mutations in the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutants
    G F Rimmelzwaan
    Department of Virology and WHO National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Gen Virol 86:1801-5. 2005
    Amino acid substitutions have been identified in the influenza A virus nucleoprotein that are associated with escape from recognition by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
  98. pmc Analysis of the PDZ binding specificities of Influenza A virus NS1 proteins
    Miranda Thomas
    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste, Italy
    Virol J 8:25. 2011
    The Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor with several protein-protein interaction domains, involved in preventing apoptosis of the infected cell and in evading the interferon response...
  99. pmc The influenza A virus NS1 protein inhibits activation of Jun N-terminal kinase and AP-1 transcription factors
    Stephan Ludwig
    Institut für Molekulare Medizin, Heinrich Heine Universitat, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Virol 76:11166-71. 2002
    The influenza A virus nonstructural NS1 protein is known to modulate host cell gene expression and to inhibit double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated antiviral responses...
  100. pmc Glycine 184 in nonstructural protein NS1 determines the virulence of influenza A virus strain PR8 without affecting the host interferon response
    Sabine Steidle
    Department of Virology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 84:12761-70. 2010
    The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza A virus counteracts the interferon (IFN) system and thereby promotes viral replication. NS1 has acquired different mechanisms to limit induction of IFN...
  101. ncbi The cotton rat as a model to study influenza pathogenesis and immunity
    Maryna C Eichelberger
    Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Viral Immunol 20:243-9. 2007
    ..This review describes innate and adaptive responses to influenza in infected cotton rats, and points out immune mechanisms that contribute to protection against disease...

Research Grants99

  1. The influenza A virus nucleoprotein: structure and function
    YIZHI JANE contact TAO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Influenza A virus causes annual epidemics and is potential threat for widespread pandemics...
  2. The influenza A virus nucleoprotein: structure and function
    Yizhi Tao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Influenza A virus causes annual epidemics and is potential threat for widespread pandemics...
  3. Host factors involved in viral RNA recombination
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..number of human, animal and plant viruses, including poliovirus, dengue virus, infectious bronchitis virus, influenza A virus, hantavirus, hepatitis D virus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Corona-, Rota-, Flavi-, Calici-, Arteri-, ..
  4. Strain Specific Detection of Influenza at the Point-of-Care
    HYONGSOK TOM SOH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RELEVANCE: Strain Specific Detection of Influenza at the Point-of-Care Due to the fact that the envelope of influenza A virus differs among subtypes and evolves continuously, there is an urgent need for a field-portable genetic ..
  5. Strain Specific Detection of Influenza at the Point-of-Care
    HYONGSOK SOH; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..RELEVANCE: Strain Specific Detection of Influenza at the Point-of-Care Due to the fact that the envelope of influenza A virus differs among subtypes and evolves continuously, there is an urgent need for a field-portable genetic ..
  6. Function of NALT in nasal immunization to heterotypic strains of influenza
    Troy D Randall; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Relevance to public health: Influenza A virus is a significant natural pathogen of man that is responsible for an average of 35,000 deaths annually in the ..
  7. Function of NALT in nasal immunization to heterotypic strains of influenza
    Troy Randall; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Relevance to public health: Influenza A virus is a significant natural pathogen of man that is responsible for an average of 35,000 deaths annually in the ..
  8. Development of siRNAs to Prevent and Treat Influenza Infection
    Qing Ge; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Influenza A virus causes one of the most wide-spread infections in humans. The threat of a flu pandemic looms with the growing number of avian influenza outbreaks and deaths...
  9. Development of siRNAs to Prevent and Treat Influenza Infection
    JAMES MCSWIGGEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    b>Influenza A virus causes one of the most wide-spread infections in humans. The threat of a flu pandemic looms with the growing number of avian influenza outbreaks and deaths...
  10. Targeting the NS1 Protein for the Development of Influenza Virus Antivirals
    ROBERT KRUG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The current antivirals against influenza A virus target either the M2 ion channel protein (amantadine/rimantadine) or the neuraminidase (NA) (oseltamivir/..
  11. Regulation of mRNA Export by Viral Proteins
    BEATRIZ MARINA AVILA FONTOURA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..NS1 is a major virulence factor of influenza A virus that is essential for pathogenesis. These viral-host interactions inhibit expression of antiviral proteins...
  12. Regulation of mRNA Export by Viral Proteins
    Beatriz Fontoura; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..NS1 is a major virulence factor of influenza A virus that is essential for pathogenesis. These viral-host interactions inhibit expression of antiviral proteins...
  13. Chronic alcohol and pulmonary immunity
    Kevin L Legge; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..our preliminary studies indicate that chronic EtOH increases both the morbidity and mortality of influenza A virus infections...
  14. Structural and Functional Study of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin
    Qinghua Wang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One now has extensive knowledge on structure and function of influenza A virus HA (AHA) that was greatly facilitated by knowing the structure of H3 subtype that was solved almost 30 years ..
  15. Structural and Functional Study of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin
    Qinghua Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..One now has extensive knowledge on structure and function of influenza A virus HA (AHA) that was greatly facilitated by knowing the structure of H3 subtype that was solved almost 30 years ..
  16. STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ADHERENCE AND OTITIS MEDIA PATH
    Thomas Demaria; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3) To continue to define the mechanisms whereby influenza A virus affects Spn adherence, colonization, and OM...
  17. Developing a Paramyxovirus-based H5N1 Vaccine
    Biao He; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of 104 PFU of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a HA gene from the H3 subtype provided immunity against influenza A virus subtype 3 infection in mice...
  18. High Throughput Assays for Ion Channel Activities of Influenza A & B Viruses
    LAWRENCE PINTO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Influenza contributes substantially to worldwide morbidity and mortality. Influenza A virus has caused all human pandemics and influenza B virus infections occur annually and in some recent years they have constituted 50% of total ..
  19. Developing a Paramyxovirus-based H5N1 Vaccine
    Biao He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of 104 PFU of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a HA gene from the H3 subtype provided immunity against influenza A virus subtype 3 infection in mice...
  20. Solid-state NMR of influenza M2 protein in lipid bilayers
    Mei Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The M2 protein of influenza A virus forms a pH-gated proton channel that is important for viral infection and replication...
  21. Dissecting the mechanism of viral RNA recombination
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..including Picorna-, Flavi-, Rota-, Corona-, Calici-, Arteri-, Astro-, Alphaviruses, hepatitis D virus and influenza A virus. In spite of its significance, understanding of the mechanism of RNA recombination is incomplete...
  22. Lambda phage as a scaffold for influenza immunization
    Stephen Dewhurst; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The central hypothesis of this proposal is that influenza A virus vaccine approaches can be improved, by using lambda phage as a scaffold to display viral antigens in a ..
  23. M2 peptide based vaccines against influenza
    Andrew Pekosz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Annual epidemics of influenza A virus are responsible for over 32,000 deaths, 120,000 hospitalizations in the United States alone...
  24. REPLICATION OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
    Robert M Krug; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The NS1 proteins of influenza A virus (NS1A protein) and of influenza B virus (NS1B protein) are multifunctional proteins that suppress cellular ..
  25. MECHANISM OF CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..chronic exposure to NT, although anti-inflammatory, increases the replication and/or dissemination of the influenza A virus and the yeast-like fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans...
  26. REPLICATION OF INFLUENZA VIRUS
    ROBERT KRUG; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The NS1 protein of influenza A virus (NS1A protein) is an unique posttranscriptional regulator that has several activities: inhibition of the ..
  27. New Vaccine against Influenza
    Mingtao Zeng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to develop an effective influenza vaccine using the relatively conserved matrix protein 2 (M2) of H5N1 avian influenza A virus as an antigen delivered by a detoxified anthrax edema toxin...
  28. Mechanisms of Influenza a Virus Transmission in Ferretts
    Daniel Perez; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  29. Protective activity of the lectin-like domain of TNF in permeability edema
    Rudolf Lucas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae represents the main etiological agent of the disease. Moreover, mortality after influenza A virus (IAV) infection has been suggested to be mainly due to secondary pneumoccocal infections...
  30. Anionic Surfactant Lipid Regulation of Inflammation and Infection in the Lung
    Dennis R Voelker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PtdGro and PtdIns also potently suppress infection of lung cells by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (IFA). RSV is a major cause of hospitalization in the first two years of life...
  31. Virological Surveillance of influenza A in Asian lakes
    Scott Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Influenza A virus affects 10-20% of the world's population every year, causing 500,000 to 1,000,000 deaths. Aquatic birds are the primary biotic reservoir for all influenza viruses, and most of these birds are migratory...
  32. SURVIVAL AND EXTINCTION IN RNA VIRUS POPULATIONS
    ISABEL NOVELLA; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..For instance, among human pathogens, HIV1, poliovirus, human influenza A virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus (which replicates through RNA templates), have all exhibited a great ..
  33. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF INFLUENZA PANDEMICS
    Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..a number of several new viral pathogens have appeared in humans (including human immunodeficiency virus, influenza A virus, Hanta virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox virus, and Borna virus), after being maintained in small isolated human ..
  34. Molecular tools for Bunyavirus antiviral screening
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and utilized for other negative strand viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, Ebola virus, and influenza A virus. We plan to use the LAC infection-independent system in an automated, high throughput screening program to ..