venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Summary

Summary: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Protective cytotoxic T-cell responses induced by venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons expressing Ebola virus proteins
    Gene G Olinger
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Division of Virology, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Virol 79:14189-96. 2005
  2. ncbi Infection and dissemination of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the epidemic mosquito vector, Aedes taeniorhynchus
    Darci R Smith
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Histopathology Service Core, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:176-87. 2007
  3. ncbi Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus replicons protect guinea pigs and nonhuman primates
    M Hevey
    United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, 21702, USA
    Virology 251:28-37. 1998
  4. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the mosquito vector Aedes taeniorhynchus: infection initiated by a small number of susceptible epithelial cells and a population bottleneck
    Darci R Smith
    Department of Pathology and Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical, Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Virology 372:176-86. 2008
  5. pmc Vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus for equine-virulent subtype IE strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Eleanor R Deardorff
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:1047-52. 2010
  6. ncbi A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody completely protects mice against lethal challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Wei Gang Hu
    Defence Research and Development Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada T1A 8K6
    Vaccine 28:5558-64. 2010
  7. pmc A heterologous DNA prime-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle boost dengue vaccine regimen affords complete protection from virus challenge in cynomolgus macaques
    Lan Chen
    Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Virol 81:11634-9. 2007
  8. pmc Analysis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein function in the inhibition of cellular transcription
    Natalia Garmashova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 81:13552-65. 2007
  9. pmc C3H/HeN mouse model for the evaluation of antiviral agents for the treatment of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection
    Justin G Julander
    Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, 5600 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322 5600, United States
    Antiviral Res 78:230-41. 2008
  10. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles encoding respiratory syncytial virus surface glycoproteins induce protective mucosal responses in mice and cotton rats
    Hoyin Mok
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Virol 81:13710-22. 2007

Detail Information

Publications204 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Protective cytotoxic T-cell responses induced by venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons expressing Ebola virus proteins
    Gene G Olinger
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Division of Virology, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J Virol 79:14189-96. 2005
    ..Previous studies indicated that exposure to Ebola virus proteins expressed from packaged Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons elicited protective immunity in mice and that antibody-mediated protection could only be ..
  2. ncbi Infection and dissemination of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the epidemic mosquito vector, Aedes taeniorhynchus
    Darci R Smith
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Histopathology Service Core, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:176-87. 2007
    The mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus is an important epidemic vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), but detailed studies of its infection are lacking...
  3. ncbi Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus replicons protect guinea pigs and nonhuman primates
    M Hevey
    United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, 21702, USA
    Virology 251:28-37. 1998
    ..Three monkeys vaccinated with replicons which expressed MBGV GP, and three others vaccinated with both replicons that expressed GP or NP, remained aviremic and were completely protected from disease...
  4. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the mosquito vector Aedes taeniorhynchus: infection initiated by a small number of susceptible epithelial cells and a population bottleneck
    Darci R Smith
    Department of Pathology and Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical, Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Virology 372:176-86. 2008
    We evaluated infection of Aedes taeniorhynchus mosquitoes, vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), using radiolabeled virus and replicon particles expressing green (GFP) or cherry fluorescent protein (CFP)...
  5. pmc Vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus for equine-virulent subtype IE strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Eleanor R Deardorff
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:1047-52. 2010
    The mosquito Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus is a proven vector of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE in Central America...
  6. ncbi A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody completely protects mice against lethal challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Wei Gang Hu
    Defence Research and Development Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada T1A 8K6
    Vaccine 28:5558-64. 2010
    A recombinant humanized antibody to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was constructed in a monocistronic adenoviral expression vector with a foot-and-mouth-disease virus-derived 2A self-cleavage oligopeptide inserted between the ..
  7. pmc A heterologous DNA prime-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle boost dengue vaccine regimen affords complete protection from virus challenge in cynomolgus macaques
    Lan Chen
    Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Virol 81:11634-9. 2007
    ..66 and 0.75 day, respectively, compared to 6.33 days for the control group of animals...
  8. pmc Analysis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein function in the inhibition of cellular transcription
    Natalia Garmashova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 81:13552-65. 2007
    ..These findings can be used in designing a new generation of live, attenuated, recombinant vaccines against the New World alphaviruses...
  9. pmc C3H/HeN mouse model for the evaluation of antiviral agents for the treatment of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection
    Justin G Julander
    Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, 5600 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322 5600, United States
    Antiviral Res 78:230-41. 2008
    The TC-83 vaccine strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes encephalitis and death in C3H/HeN mice infected by intranasal (i.n.) instillation...
  10. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles encoding respiratory syncytial virus surface glycoproteins induce protective mucosal responses in mice and cotton rats
    Hoyin Mok
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Virol 81:13710-22. 2007
    ..Previously, immunization with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRPs) demonstrated effectiveness in inducing mucosal protection against various ..
  11. ncbi Comparison of individual and combination DNA vaccines for B. anthracis, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Jenny Riemenschneider
    Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Vaccine 21:4071-80. 2003
    ..pathogens that are known biowarfare agents, Bacillus anthracis, Ebola (EBOV), Marburg (MARV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), can elicit protective immunity in relevant animal models...
  12. pmc Venezuelan equine Encephalitis virus capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with CRM1 and importin alpha/beta that obstructs nuclear pore complex function
    Svetlana Atasheva
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 Third Avenue South, BBRB 373 Box 3, Birmingham, AL 53294 2170, USA
    J Virol 84:4158-71. 2010
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the pathogenic strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has developed a unique mechanism of nuclear import inhibition...
  13. ncbi Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease
    Scott C Weaver
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:789-801. 2004
    ..We discuss viruses of medical importance, including Venezuelan equine and Japanese encephalitis viruses, dengue viruses and West Nile viruses...
  14. pmc Monoclonal antibodies capable of distinguishing epizootic from enzootic varieties of subtype 1 Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses in a rapid indirect immunofluorescence assay
    J T Roehrig
    National Center of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 35:1887-90. 1997
    ..Because VEE virus virulence has been associated in part with the E2 glycoprotein, this observed antigenic change in the 1E virus E2 glycoprotein may explain the apparent equine virulence of this unusual VEE 1E virus...
  15. pmc Positively charged amino acid substitutions in the e2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Aaron C Brault
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 76:1718-30. 2002
    ..Maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that one change at E2 position 213 has been influenced by positive selection and convergent evolution of the epizootic phenotype...
  16. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus transmission and effect on pathogenesis
    Darci R Smith
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1190-6. 2006
    ..We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood ..
  17. pmc Replicon particles of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus as a reductionist murine model for encephalitis
    Alexandra Schäfer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Carolina Vaccine Institute, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Virol 83:4275-86. 2009
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) were used to model the initial phase of VEE-induced encephalitis in the mouse brain...
  18. pmc A multisystem approach for development and evaluation of inactivated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)
    Donald L Fine
    DynPort Vaccine Company LLC DVC, A CSC Company, 64 Thomas Johnson Drive, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Virol Methods 163:424-32. 2010
    A multisystem approach was used to assess the efficiency of several methods for inactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidates...
  19. ncbi Characterization of enzootic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western Venezuela
    R Barrera
    Instituto de Zoologia Tropical, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 1:219-30. 2001
    ..By contrast, equines could actually become naturally vaccinated, thus preventing the local emergence of epizootic IC VEE virus strains and protecting humans indirectly...
  20. ncbi Analysis of microRNAs induced by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in mouse brain
    Manish Bhomia
    Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 395:11-6. 2010
    ..b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an RNA virus and is a member of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae...
  21. pmc Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques
    Michael P Muehlenbein
    Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA
    Virol J 3:19. 2006
    Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological ..
  22. ncbi Contrasting sylvatic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in northern South America
    Roberto Barrera
    Instituto de Zoologia Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:324-34. 2002
    ....
  23. ncbi Inhibition of multiple strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by a pool of four short interfering RNAs
    Lyn O'Brien
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
    Antiviral Res 75:20-9. 2007
    ..study, four siRNAs were designed to target areas of conserved sequence between divergent strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). A pool of these siRNAs inhibited the replication of all six strains of VEEV tested...
  24. pmc Comparison of the immunological responses and efficacy of gamma-irradiated V3526 vaccine formulations against subcutaneous and aerosol challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB
    Shannon S Martin
    DynPort Vaccine Company LLC DVC, A CSC Company, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Vaccine 28:1031-40. 2010
    We recently developed a gamma-irradiation method to inactivate V3526, a live-attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidate...
  25. ncbi Humanization and mammalian expression of a murine monoclonal antibody against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Wei Gang Hu
    Defence Research Development Canada Suffield, Box 4000, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada T1A 8K6
    Vaccine 25:3210-4. 2007
    The murine monoclonal antibody 1A4A1 can strongly neutralize Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and is a good candidate for development of humanized antibody...
  26. ncbi Spatial dispersion of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a sylvatic focus of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    W Mendez
    , Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas
    J Med Entomol 38:813-21. 2001
    We studied the spatial localization of mosquitoes in sylvatic focus of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western Venezuela to identify mosquito species potentially involved in the hypothesized transport of viruses out of enzootic ..
  27. pmc Development of a novel monoclonal antibody with reactivity to a wide range of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strains
    Lyn M O'Brien
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, UK
    Virol J 6:206. 2009
    ..There is currently a requirement for antiviral therapies capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), as a licensed vaccine is not available for general human use...
  28. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of mosquito cells requires acidification as well as mosquito homologs of the endocytic proteins Rab5 and Rab7
    Tonya M Colpitts
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX, USA
    Virology 369:78-91. 2007
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. It remains a naturally emerging disease as well as a highly developed biological weapon...
  29. ncbi Development of immunofiltration assay by light addressable potentiometric sensor with genetically biotinylated recombinant antibody for rapid identification of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Wei Gang Hu
    Chemical and Biological Defence Section, Defence R and D Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada
    J Immunol Methods 289:27-35. 2004
    A genetically biotinylated single chain fragment variable antibody (scFv) against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) was applied in a system consisting of an immunofiltration enzyme assay (IFA) with a light addressable ..
  30. ncbi Genetic engineering of streptavidin-binding peptide tagged single-chain variable fragment antibody to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Wei Gang Hu
    Chemical Biological Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada Suffield, Box 4000, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada T1A 8K6
    Hybrid Hybridomics 21:415-20. 2002
    A recombinant gene encoding a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) was cloned into a prokaryotic T7 RNA polymerase-regulated expression vector...
  31. pmc Evaluation of formalin inactivated V3526 virus with adjuvant as a next generation vaccine candidate for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Shannon S Martin
    DynPort Vaccine Company LLC, A CSC Company, 64 Thomas Johnson Drive, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Vaccine 28:3143-51. 2010
    V3526, a genetically modified strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), was formalin inactivated for evaluation as a next generation vaccine candidate for VEEV...
  32. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein
    Aaron C Brault
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11344-9. 2004
    ..Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence...
  33. pmc IRES-dependent replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus makes it highly attenuated and incapable of replicating in mosquito cells
    Eugenia Volkova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    Virology 377:160-9. 2008
    ..In spite of efficient replication in cultured vertebrate cells, the genetically modified VEEV demonstrated a highly attenuated phenotype in newborn mice, and yet induced protective immunity against VEEV infection...
  34. ncbi Oligonucleotide array analysis of Toll-like receptors and associated signalling genes in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-infected mouse brain
    Anuj Sharma
    Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Gen Virol 90:1836-47. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate the upregulation of TLRs and associated signalling genes following VEEV infection of the brain, with important implications for how VEEV induces inflammation and neurodegeneration...
  35. ncbi Genetic variability and heterogeneity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vector Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations of the Colombian Atlantic coast, based on microsatellite loci
    F Bello
    Universidad del Rosario, Bogota, D C, Colombia
    Genet Mol Res 8:1179-90. 2009
    ..Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus has been identified as an efficient vector of the epidemic-epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. We evaluated the genetic variability and heterogeneity of this mosquito in Colombian populations ..
  36. pmc Recombinant sindbis/Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is highly attenuated and immunogenic
    Slobodan Paessler
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 77:9278-86. 2003
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important, naturally emerging zoonotic virus...
  37. ncbi Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion
    Andrey A Kolokoltsov
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Virology 347:333-42. 2006
    ..contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)...
  38. pmc Experimental infection of potential reservoir hosts with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Mexico
    Eleanor R Deardorff
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:519-25. 2009
    ..The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death...
  39. pmc Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru
    Patricia V Aguilar
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:880-8. 2004
    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region...
  40. pmc Protection from Ebola virus mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the viral nucleoprotein
    J A Wilson
    Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5011, USA
    J Virol 75:2660-4. 2001
    ..Here, we report that C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons encoding the Ebola virus nucleoprotein (NP) survived lethal challenge with Ebola virus...
  41. pmc Arbovirus evolution in vivo is constrained by host alternation
    Lark L Coffey
    Department of Pathology and Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6970-5. 2008
    ..Therefore, we tested it using an in vivo system with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an emerging alphavirus of the Americas...
  42. pmc Noncytopathic replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus replicons in Mammalian cells
    Olga Petrakova
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 79:7597-608. 2005
    ....
  43. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein inhibits nuclear import in Mammalian but not in mosquito cells
    Svetlana Atasheva
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1072, USA
    J Virol 82:4028-41. 2008
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) represents a continuous public health threat in the United States. It has the ability to cause fatal disease in humans and in horses and other domestic animals...
  44. pmc Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection
    Edna R Caceda
    American Embassy, Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru
    PLoS ONE 2:e1034. 2007
    ..Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera...
  45. ncbi Vaccination of macaques with SIV immunogens delivered by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vectors followed by a mucosal challenge with SIVsmE660
    Robert E Johnston
    Carolina Vaccine Institute, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, CB 7292, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Vaccine 23:4969-79. 2005
    VEE replicon particles (VRP), non-propagating vaccine vectors derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), were engineered to express immunogens from the cloned isolate SIVsmH-4, combined in a vaccine cocktail and inoculated ..
  46. ncbi Evaluation of methods to assess transmission potential of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by mosquitoes and estimation of mosquito saliva titers
    Darci R Smith
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:33-9. 2005
    ..Therefore, we compared three traditional artificial transmission methods using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes...
  47. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disrupts STAT1 signaling by distinct mechanisms independent of host shutoff
    Jason D Simmons
    Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Virol 83:10571-81. 2009
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important human and veterinary pathogen causing sporadic epizootic outbreaks of potentially fatal encephalitis...
  48. ncbi Determining functionally important amino acid residues of the E1 protein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Surendra S Negi
    Sealy Center for Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0857, USA
    J Mol Model 12:921-9. 2006
    ..The InterProSurf method is, thus, an important new tool for predicting viral protein interactions. These results can aid in the design of new vaccines against alphaviruses and other viruses...
  49. ncbi Alpha interferon as an adenovirus-vectored vaccine adjuvant and antiviral in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection
    Lyn O'Brien
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
    J Gen Virol 90:874-82. 2009
    ..are no widely available vaccines or antiviral drugs capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), although an adenovirus vector expressing VEEV structural proteins protects mice from ..
  50. ncbi Monoclonal antibody protects mice against infection and disease when given either before or up to 24 h after airborne challenge with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    R J Phillpotts
    Dstl, Medical Sciences Department, Porton Down, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ, UK
    Vaccine 20:1497-504. 2002
    Airborne infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a significant hazard for laboratory workers, who may not be immunised against VEEV infection as there is no vaccine currently available suitable for human use...
  51. ncbi Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex-specific monoclonal antibody provides broad protection, in murine models, against airborne challenge with viruses from serogroups I, II and III
    R J Phillpotts
    Biomedical Sciences, Dstl, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK
    Virus Res 120:107-12. 2006
    The alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is highly infectious by the airborne route. It is a hazard to laboratory workers, has been developed as a biological weapon and is a potential bioterrorist agent...
  52. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-vectored vaccines protect mice against anthrax spore challenge
    John S Lee
    Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Infect Immun 71:1491-6. 2003
    ..Mice were unprotected from challenge after inoculation with the carboxy-terminal 63-kDa PA vaccine. These results suggest that these VEE-vectored vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax...
  53. pmc Evaluation in nonhuman primates of vaccines against Ebola virus
    Thomas W Geisbert
    U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:503-7. 2002
    ..The following immunogens were used: RNA replicon particles derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) expressing EBOV glycoprotein and nucleoprotein; recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing EBOV ..
  54. ncbi Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus
    Michael J Turell
    Virology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702 5011, USA
    J Med Entomol 40:306-10. 2003
    ..These data indicate that Cx. pseudes is an efficient laboratory vector of both epizootic and enzootic strains of VEE and that Oc. taeniorhynchus could be an important vector of epizootic subtypes of VEE...
  55. ncbi Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB outbreaks
    S C Weaver
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555 0609, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:441-8. 1999
    ..These data support the hypothesis of a vaccine origin for many VEE outbreaks. However, continuous, cryptic circulation of IAB viruses cannot be ruled out as a source of epizootic emergence...
  56. pmc Increased immunogenicity of a DNA-launched Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-based replicon DNA vaccine
    Karl Ljungberg
    Carolina Vaccine Institute, 9th Floor Burnett Womack, West Drive, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7292, USA
    J Virol 81:13412-23. 2007
    A novel genetic vaccine that is based on a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon launched from plasmid DNA is described...
  57. ncbi Protection of mice by equine herpesvirus type 1 based experimental vaccine against lethal Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in the absence of neutralizing antibodies
    Cristina T Rosas
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:83-92. 2008
    ..type 1 (EHV-1) was generated as an alternative for safe and efficient prophylaxis against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infection...
  58. pmc Comparison of dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassays to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Yersinia pestis-specific F1 antigen, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    D R Smith
    Diagnostic Systems Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:1070-5. 2001
    ..for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Yersinia pestis-specific F1 antigen, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These assays were compared to previously developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) by ..
  59. ncbi Immunopathogenesis and immune modulation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-induced disease in the mouse
    P C Charles
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7290, USA
    Virology 284:190-202. 2001
    ..However, in contrast to other neurovirulent alphaviruses, VEE was directly cytopathic for the cells of the CNS, even in the absence of an immune response...
  60. pmc Generation and characterization of closely related epizootic and enzootic infectious cDNA clones for studying interferon sensitivity and emergence mechanisms of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Michael Anishchenko
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 78:1-8. 2004
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a reemerging pathogen and a continuing threat to humans and equines in the Americas...
  61. ncbi Directed molecular evolution improves the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus DNA vaccine
    Lesley C Dupuy
    Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
    Vaccine 27:4152-60. 2009
    We employed directed molecular evolution to improve the cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) envelope glycoproteins...
  62. ncbi Toll-like receptor and cytokine expression patterns of CD56+ T cells are similar to natural killer cells in response to infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons
    Kamal U Saikh
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:1562-70. 2003
    ..Infection of mononuclear cells in vitro with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRPs) resulted in a significant increase in CD56(+) T cells and in the ..
  63. pmc Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles
    Joseph M Thompson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3722-7. 2006
    ..that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP)...
  64. ncbi Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Oropouche virus infections among Peruvian army troops in the Amazon region of Peru
    D M Watts
    U S Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment, NAMRID Unit 3800, American Embassy, Lima, Peru
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 56:661-7. 1997
    ..These data indicated that VEE ID virus was one of the causes of illness among Peruvians soldiers and that this was the first association of this VEE subtype with human disease in Peru...
  65. pmc Comparison of immune responses to gonococcal PorB delivered as outer membrane vesicles, recombinant protein, or Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles
    Weiyan Zhu
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease Research, 8341 Medical Biomolecular Research Bldg, 103 Mason Farm Road, CB 7031, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Infect Immun 73:7558-68. 2005
    ..This information coupled with an understanding of protective antigonococcal immune responses will enable the design of the optimal vaccine for N. gonorrhoeae...
  66. ncbi Gene expression profiling of nonhuman primates exposed to aerosolized Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    James Koterski
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 9211, USA
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 51:462-72. 2007
    ..Altogether, this work provides novel information on common and tissue-specific host responses against VEEV in a nonhuman primate model of aerosol exposure...
  67. ncbi Multiagent vaccines vectored by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon elicits immune responses to Marburg virus and protection against anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin in mice
    John S Lee
    Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Vaccine 24:6886-92. 2006
    ..These studies demonstrate the utility of combining individual VRP vaccines into multiagent formulations for eliciting protective immune responses to various types of diseases...
  68. ncbi Pseudotyped viruses permit rapid detection of neutralizing antibodies in human and equine serum against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Andrey A Kolokoltsov
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:702-9. 2006
    ..b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes acute febrile illness in humans and has high mortality in equines...
  69. pmc Efficient functional pseudotyping of oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus envelope proteins
    Andrey A Kolokoltsov
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Virol 79:756-63. 2005
    ..of murine oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the envelope proteins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)...
  70. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico
    Jose G Estrada-Franco
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:2113-21. 2004
    ..These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans...
  71. pmc Alpha-beta T cells provide protection against lethal encephalitis in the murine model of VEEV infection
    Slobodan Paessler
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Virology 367:307-23. 2007
    ..Prolonged replication of encephalitic VEEV in the brain of pre-immunized mice is not lethal and adoptive transfer experiments indicate that CD3(+) T cells are required for protection...
  72. ncbi A novel, rapid assay for detection and differentiation of serotype-specific antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses
    Eryu Wang
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathology, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:805-10. 2005
    ..It could also be used to determine the epidemic potential of a VEE virus following an intentional introduction for bioterrorism...
  73. ncbi Intranasal immunisation with defective adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus E2 glycoprotein protects against airborne challenge with virulent virus
    R J Phillpotts
    Biomedical Sciences, Dstl, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK
    Vaccine 23:1615-23. 2005
    ..is no vaccine licensed for human use to protect laboratory or field workers against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)...
  74. ncbi Genetically engineered, live, attenuated vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with a virulent IE strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Douglas S Reed
    Center for Aerobiological Sciences, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Vaccine 23:3139-47. 2005
    Two live, attenuated strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), IE1150K and V3526, were administered to macaques to determine if they could elicit protection against an aerosol challenge with virulent VEE virus of the IE ..
  75. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of spiny rats
    Anne Sophie Carrara
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:663-9. 2005
    Enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) circulate in forested habitats of Mexico, Central, and South America, and spiny rats (Proechimys spp.) are believed to be the principal reservoir hosts in several foci...
  76. pmc Envelope glycoprotein mutations mediate equine amplification and virulence of epizootic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Ivorlyne P Greene
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 79:9128-33. 2005
    ....
  77. ncbi Transmission of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex Alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru
    Stephen P Yanoviak
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:404-8. 2005
    ..This species, like the other seven proven VEE complex alphavirus vectors, is a member of the Spissipes section of this subgenus. The composition of mosquitoes collected at the site over the sampling period was typical for the region...
  78. pmc Venezuelan encephalitis emergence mediated by a phylogenetically predicted viral mutation
    Michael Anishchenko
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4994-9. 2006
    ..We studied the emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an alphavirus pathogen of people and equines that has had severe health and economic ..
  79. ncbi Susceptibility of Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) Venezuelan Equine encephalitis viruses
    Diana I Ortiz
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:857-63. 2005
    To test the hypothesis that adaptation to epizootic mosquito vectors mediates the emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, VEEV) from enzootic progenitors, the susceptibility of the ..
  80. ncbi Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses: evidence for epizootic strain adaptation
    Diana I Ortiz
    Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Med Entomol 41:987-93. 2004
    To test the hypothesis that adaptation to epizootic mosquito vectors mediates emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) from enzootic progenitors, experimental infection studies were conducted to determine the ..
  81. ncbi Short report: Isolation and identification of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from a human in Panama
    Joseph A Mangiafico
    Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702 5011, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:112-3. 2002
    ..The virus was isolated from the acute phase serum and identified as VEE, subtype ID virus by monoclonal antibodies, and was confirmed by cross plaque-reduction neutralization tests...
  82. ncbi CpG used as an adjuvant for an adenovirus-based Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine increases the immune response to the vector, but not to the transgene product
    Stuart D Perkins
    Biomedical Sciences Department, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Wiltshire, UK
    Viral Immunol 21:451-7. 2008
    An adenovirus-based (ad-based) vaccine delivering antigens from the Alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a strategy that offers clinical potential...
  83. ncbi Immune protection against staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced toxic shock by vaccination with a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon
    John S Lee
    Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1192-6. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that the VEE replicon is a practical and convenient model system for evaluating efficacy of vaccines for the control of bacterial diseases...
  84. ncbi Alphavirus replicon particles expressing the two major envelope proteins of equine arteritis virus induce high level protection against challenge with virulent virus in vaccinated horses
    Udeni B R Balasuriya
    Bernard and Gloria Salick Equine Viral Disease Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Ave, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vaccine 20:1609-17. 2002
    ..These data confirm that replicons that co-express the G(L) and M envelope proteins effectively, induce EAV neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity in horses...
  85. ncbi Eradication of established tumors by vaccination with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles delivering human papillomavirus 16 E7 RNA
    M P Velders
    Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University-Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
    Cancer Res 61:7861-7. 2001
    ....
  86. ncbi Onset and duration of protective immunity to IA/IB and IE strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in vaccinated mice
    M K Hart
    Virology Division and Toxinology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Vaccine 20:616-22. 2001
    ..These data show that the molecularly cloned V3526 vaccine induces equivalent or improved immunity to homologous and heterologous VEE viruses than the existing vaccines...
  87. ncbi Isolation of single-chain antibody fragments against Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from two different immune sources
    J M Duggan
    Biomedical Sciences, DERA, Porton Down, Wiltshire, UK
    Viral Immunol 14:263-73. 2001
    ..The data presented in this article suggest that although scFvs may be useful tools for the detection of viruses, there are serious limitations with the use of phage display as a tool for the isolation of specific antibodies...
  88. pmc The crystal structures of Chikungunya and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP3 macro domains define a conserved adenosine binding pocket
    Helene Malet
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS and Universités d Aix Marseille I et II, UMR 6098, ESIL case 925, 13288 Marseille, France
    J Virol 83:6534-45. 2009
    ..structures of the macro domain from the Chikungunya virus (an "Old World" alphavirus) and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (a "New World" alphavirus) were determined at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.30 A, respectively...
  89. ncbi Ecological studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in north-central Venezuela, 1997-1998
    R A Salas
    Instituto Nacional de Higiene, Caracas, Venezuela
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:84-92. 2001
    ..Sequences of 1,677 nucleotides from the P62 gene of 2 virus isolates indicated that they represent a subtype ID lineage that is distinct from all others characterized previously, and are unrelated to epizootic VEE emergence...
  90. ncbi Comparative neurovirulence of attenuated and non-attenuated strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in mice
    G V Ludwig
    Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5011, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:49-55. 2001
    ..c. inoculation of V3526 were consistently less severe and of shorter duration than those observed in TC-83-inoculated mice. Based on these results, V3526 is stable and appears to be significantly less neurovirulent in mice than TC-83...
  91. pmc Role of alpha/beta interferon in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis: effect of an attenuating mutation in the 5' untranslated region
    L J White
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7290, USA
    J Virol 75:3706-18. 2001
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) is an important equine and human pathogen of the Americas. In the adult mouse model, cDNA-derived, virulent V3000 inoculated subcutaneously (s.c...
  92. pmc Role of dendritic cell targeting in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis
    G H MacDonald
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7290, USA
    J Virol 74:914-22. 2000
    The initial steps of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) spread from inoculation in the skin to the draining lymph node have been characterized...
  93. ncbi Kinetics of cytokine expression and regulation of host protection following infection with molecularly cloned Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    F B Grieder
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences USUHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA
    Virology 233:302-12. 1997
    In the mouse model, the arbovirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicates in lymphoid tissues prior to either inducing protective immunity (attenuated VEE mutant) or progressing to lethal encephalitis (virulent parent VEE)...
  94. ncbi Apoptotic cell death is an important cause of neuronal injury in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of mice
    A C Jackson
    Department of Medicine, Queen s University, Ontario, Canada
    Acta Neuropathol 93:349-53. 1997
    ..There is strong morphological and biochemical evidence of apoptotic cell death in this experimental model of VEE virus infection...
  95. ncbi Role for mucosal immune responses and cell-mediated immune functions in protection from airborne challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Stephen J Elvin
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratories, Chemical and Biological Sciences, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
    J Med Virol 67:384-93. 2002
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) replicates in lymphoid tissues following peripheral inoculation and a high titre viraemia develops...
  96. pmc Development of human antibody fragments using antibody phage display for the detection and diagnosis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)
    Martina Inga Kirsch
    Abteilung Biotechnologie, Institut für Biochemie und Biotechnologie, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Spielmannstrabetae 7, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany
    BMC Biotechnol 8:66. 2008
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the Alphavirus group. Several species of this family are also pathogenic to humans and are recognized as potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism...
  97. ncbi Vector competence of rural and urban strains of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from São Paulo State, Brazil for IC, ID, and IF subtypes of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Z Fernandez
    National Institution of Hygiene Rafael Rangel, Ap Postal 60412, Caracas, Venezuela
    J Med Entomol 40:522-7. 2003
    ..albopictus from São Paulo State (Brazil) for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) subtypes IC, ID, and IF, and to evaluate the effect of infection with subtype IC of VEE on ..
  98. ncbi Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon immunization overcomes intrinsic tolerance and elicits effective anti-tumor immunity to the 'self' tumor-associated antigen, neu in a rat mammary tumor model
    Edward L Nelson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, School of Medicine and Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 97697 4060, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 82:169-83. 2003
    ..These data support the continued development and potential clinical application of this alphaviral replicon vector system and the use of appropriately designed target antigen sequences for anti-tumor immunotherapy...
  99. pmc Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of cotton rats
    Anne Sophie Carrara
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555 0609, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1158-65. 2007
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir hosts has received little study...
  100. pmc The use of chimeric Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses as an approach for the molecular identification of natural virulence determinants
    A M Powers
    Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 74:4258-63. 2000
    ..These results implicate viral components in both the structural and nonstructural portions of the genome in contributing to the epizootic phenotype and indicate the potential for epidemic emergence from the IE enzootic VEE viruses...
  101. ncbi Genetically engineered, live attenuated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis: testing in animal models
    William D Pratt
    Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Vaccine 21:3854-62. 2003
    The central objective of this research was to test molecularly defined, live attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidates that were produced through precise genetic manipulation of rationally selected viral ..

Research Grants47

  1. Novel DNA-Launched Attenuated Vaccine for VEE Virus
    PETER M PUSHKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a dangerous, NIH/NIAID category B human pathogen and a potential bioterrorism threat...
  2. Viral and Host Determinants of New World Alphaviral Entry
    ASIM AMINSHARIF AHMED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and broad host range that includes the related agents Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)...
  3. Novel Therapeutics for Neurotropic Alphaviruses
    David J Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  4. Pathogenesis of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus
    ALISON PAIGE ADAMS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Research: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a naturally emerging arbovirus that threatens human health throughout the Americas...
  5. VEE Virus Infection on the Mosquito Vector
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An example is Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an important, reemerging alphavirus pathogen of humans and equines in the New World, and ..
  6. MOLECULAR BASIS OF ALPHAVIRUS ASSEMBLY
    Richard J Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This insight will enable us, and others, to pursue novel strategies for virus and disease intervention. ..
  7. Efficacy of the antiviral state versus Sindbis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis
    William B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While this system is generally effective, we have found that the human-virulent alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), is much more resistant to the activity of the antiviral state than the human-avirulent ..
  8. Nanoparticle Analysis of Enveloped Virus Entry Pathways
    Robert Davey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..techniques to construct fluorescent NPs coated in the envs of Friend murine leukemia virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (NIH category B agent) and Ebola (NIH category An agent)...
  9. Effect of a viral replicon adjuvant on dendritic cell activity
    DANIEL TONKIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    It has been demonstrated in this lab that infectious, non-propagating replicon particles from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) act as an adjuvant when co-delivered parenterally with antigen...
  10. Receptor Trafficking in Entry of Murine Leukemia Viruses
    Robert A Davey; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We compared infection of Friend murine leukemia virus (Fr-MLV) to Vesicular stomatitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Ebola using an envelope pseudotyping system...
  11. A Cell-Based HTS to Discover Molecules that Inhibit VEEV Replication
    DONGHOON CHUNG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is transmitted to humans and equine by mosquitoes and represents neuroinvasive diseasees...
  12. TRIM Interactions with Arthritic Alphaviruses
    Mark T Heise; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..antiviral activity against CHIKV and RRV, but not against two other alphaviruses, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), suggesting that TRIM21 and TRIM34 specifically interact with a subset of related ..
  13. Characterization of alphavirus infection receptors
    William B Klimstra; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our plan is to use a novel chimeric alphavirus replicon system in which a propagation-defective Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus genome is packaged in the structural proteins of different Old World and New World alphaviruses to ..
  14. Dissecting the alphavirus entry receptor NRAMP
    Sara Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additional studies suggest that NRAMP is also an entry receptor for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. Furthermore, in mammalian cells the ubiquitously expressed homolog, NRAMP2, can mediate infection ..
  15. A Novel Systemic and Mucosal Adjuvant for Biodefense
    Mario Barro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our studies to date indicate that propagation-defective Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles safely exhibit potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity when ..
  16. STRENGTHENING INFECTIOUS-DISEASE RESEARCH CAPACITY FOR PUBLIC-HEALTH ACTION IN
    Celia Cordon-Rosales; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..WNV and other potentially relevant arbovirus in a tropical ecosystem (including dengue viruses and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus)...
  17. Defining the determinants on the alphavirus receptor NRAMP required for virus bin
    Sara Cherry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additional studies suggest that NRAMP is also an entry receptor for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. Furthermore, in mammalian cells the ubiquitously expressed homolog, NRAMP2, can mediate infection ..
  18. Replicon-based screening for inhibitors of alphaviruses
    PAUL OLIVO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..targeting the more pathogenic encephalitis-causing viruses from the alphavirus genus, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) which ..
  19. Alphavirus Replicons for Mucosal HIV Vaccines
    Michael Vajdy; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..particles which are chimeric structures combining the replicons of SIN with envelope proteins from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE). The mucosal immunogenicity of these novel chimeric particles remains to be investigated...
  20. Studies on ZAP, a broad-spectrum alphavirus inhibitor
    Margaret MacDonald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Sindbis virus (SIN), Ross River virus, Semliki Forest virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replication were all inhibited to varying extents...
  21. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ALPHAVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These viruses also include potential bioterrorist agents such as the alphavirus Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (a class B agent)...
  22. Host factors in the alphavirus replication complex
    Margaret MacDonald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..strand replicases from three representative alphaviruses, Sindbis virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. The host factors present in the replication complexes will be identified by proteomic techniques...
  23. Arbovirus quasispecies-impact of arthropod transmission
    GREGORY EBEL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, exist within each host as a genetically diverse swarm of competing genotypes that has been termed ..
  24. Cell-free VEE assembly system and alphavirus drug screen
    JAISRI LINGAPPA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes epidemics of neurological disease with high mortality, and can be spread by aerosol transmission. Thus, it has been categorized as an NIAID Class B priority pathogen...
  25. Developement of an alphavirus vaccine for melanoma
    Gerald Donovan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will explore vaccine replicon particles (VRP) based on the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. The VRP platform has elicited potent cellular and humoral immune responses to diverse antigens in ..
  26. IN VITRO CONSTRUCTION OF ATTENUATED VEE VIRUS MUTANTS
    Robert Johnston; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) is a lymphotropic and neurotropic alphavirus, currently causing an explosive human epidemic in Colombia and Venezuela with over 45,000 cases to date...
  27. BROADLY EFFECTIVE NEUTRALIZATION AND CTL AGAINST HIV 1
    Gerald Quinnan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Immunization will be accomplished by expression of envelopes in vivo using the highly immunogenic, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon system...
  28. BROAD NEUTRALIZING RESPONSE TO HIV/VEE REPLICONS
    Gerald Quinnan; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..cross-clade reactive, primary virus neutralizing antibodies (NA) when expressed in vivo using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicons...
  29. Tropical Vector-borne Viral and Rickettsial Infections
    David Walker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies will enhance knowledge of West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, other arboviruses, typhus, murine typhus, R...
  30. The Use of VEE Replicons Encoding GAD65 to Treat IDDM
    Roland Tisch; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..With this in mind, we propose to investigate the feasibility of using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicons encoding P cell autoantigens and appropriate cytokines to treat IDDM in NOD mice...
  31. Interacting motifs of alphavirus envelope proteins.
    Werner Braun; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..characterization of the receptor binding sites and antigenic signatures on the envelope proteins of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eventually for all alphaviruses...
  32. A NOVEL VEE REPLICON VACCINE FOR HIV
    Robert Johnston; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..a human immunodeficiency virus type l (HIV) vaccine in which HIV antigens are expressed in vivo by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicons...
  33. Therapeutic Vaccination for HIV Using VEE Vectors
    Robert Johnston; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The vaccine vector to be employed is derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) and has been used successfully for immunization of macaques against Marburg and simian ..
  34. HIV VACCINE CLINICAL TRIALS UNIT
    Peter Wright; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of the Vanderbilt HVTU consortium will be on the evaluation of novel vaccines vectors (including Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEE), adeno-associated virus (AAV), poxvirus, nucleic acid vaccines, and other constructs), the ..
  35. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This information will be invaluable in targeting prevention and control resources, especially for obtaining maximum benefit in developing countries with limited resources. ..
  36. High throughput icosahedral particle reconstruction
    Wah Chiu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..technology enhancements to our already funded projects on P22 bacteriophage and herpes virus in addition to a new project with the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, a select agent with potential bioterrorism threat.
  37. VEE PATHOGENESIS AND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    Slobodan Paessler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research focuses on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an important, naturally emerging human pathogen and a potent biological weapon categorized ..
  38. A VEE Replicon-Based Vaccine for Dengue Virus
    Laura White; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We hypothesize that a vaccine for DEN based on non-propagating Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vectors (VRP) will be able to induce an endogenous immune response in young mice, even in the ..
  39. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    Z Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. Broad Detection System for Tick-Borne Pathogens
    Mark Eshoo; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Results of this work will lead to a commercially available diagnostic to detect and identify tick-borne diseases in humans for improved medical treatment and public health surveillance. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  41. Transgenic Plant-Derived CMV Glycoprotein B Vaccine
    Mark Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will advance the fields of plant and CMV vaccines. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  42. Innate immune evasion and/or antagonism by eastern equine encephalitis virus
    KATHERINE RYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..mammalian IFN-a/b is extremely attenuated in mice whereas, a mouse-virulent alphavirus, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), is relatively much more resistant to the antiviral activity of IFN-a/b...
  43. Structure and Assembly of KSHV Capsids and Virions
    Z Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results of these experiments will lead to a better understanding of the process of KSHV lytic replication and the identification of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  44. Novel Strategy for Animal Model Testing of HCMV Vaccines
    Mark Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will represent the first efficacy test of a human CMV subunit vaccine in a small animal model of congenital CMV infection. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. VACCINES FOR PREVENTION OF EXPERIMENTAL CONGENITAL CMV
    Mark Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We anticipate that these subunit vaccine studies in this small animal model will clarify which strategies may be of value for vaccination against congenital HCMV infection. ..
  46. Development of an VEE Replicon Vaccine Against Smallpox
    Kurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....