parapoxvirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, which infect ungulates and may infect humans. ORF VIRUS is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Parapoxviruses of seals and sea lions make up a distinct subclade within the genus Parapoxvirus
    Hendrik H Nollens
    Marine Mammal Health Program and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, PO Box 100126, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Virology 349:316-24. 2006
  2. ncbi Isolation and partial characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a skin lesion of a Weddell seal
    M Tryland
    Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, PO Box 6204, N 9292 Tromsø, Norway
    Virus Res 108:83-7. 2005
  3. ncbi Real-time PCR detection of parapoxvirus DNA
    Andreas Nitsche
    Robert Koch Institut, Zentrum für Biologische Sicherheit 1, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Chem 52:316-9. 2006
  4. doi Specific antibodies induced by inactivated parapoxvirus ovis potently enhance oxidative burst in canine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes
    Nicole Schütze
    Institute of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken, 11, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Vet Microbiol 140:81-91. 2010
  5. ncbi Pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)
    Hendrik H Nollens
    Marine Mammal Health Program and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, PO Box 100126, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:23-32. 2006
  6. ncbi Seroepidemiology of parapoxvirus infections in captive and free-ranging California sea lions Zalophus californianus
    Hendrik H Nollens
    Marine Mammal Health Program and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA
    Dis Aquat Organ 69:153-61. 2006
  7. ncbi Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand encodes a variant of viral vascular endothelial growth factor
    Norihito Ueda
    Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Virus Res 124:50-8. 2007
  8. ncbi Parapoxvirus infection in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German North Sea
    G Muller
    Institut für Pathologie der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover, Bunteweg 17, D 30559 Hannover, Germany
    Vet Pathol 40:445-54. 2003
  9. ncbi Isolation of a parapoxvirus from a grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)
    P F Nettleton
    Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh
    Vet Rec 137:562-4. 1995
  10. doi Effects of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis on the cumulative incidence of pneumonia and cytokine secretion in foals on a farm with endemic infections caused by Rhodococcus equi
    Tracy L Sturgill
    Department of Large Animal Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 140:237-43. 2011

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Detail Information

Publications129 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Parapoxviruses of seals and sea lions make up a distinct subclade within the genus Parapoxvirus
    Hendrik H Nollens
    Marine Mammal Health Program and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, PO Box 100126, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Virology 349:316-24. 2006
    ..strains were closely related to the parapoxviruses, confirming their classification as members of the genus Parapoxvirus. A phylogenetic analysis showed that pinniped parapoxviruses form a monophyletic group within the genus ..
  2. ncbi Isolation and partial characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a skin lesion of a Weddell seal
    M Tryland
    Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, PO Box 6204, N 9292 Tromsø, Norway
    Virus Res 108:83-7. 2005
    ..Electron microscopy on a biopsy from the lesion revealed typical parapoxvirus particles...
  3. ncbi Real-time PCR detection of parapoxvirus DNA
    Andreas Nitsche
    Robert Koch Institut, Zentrum für Biologische Sicherheit 1, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Chem 52:316-9. 2006
    ..To date, however, no real-time PCR assay for the detection of parapoxviruses has been reported...
  4. doi Specific antibodies induced by inactivated parapoxvirus ovis potently enhance oxidative burst in canine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes
    Nicole Schütze
    Institute of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken, 11, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Vet Microbiol 140:81-91. 2010
    We have recently shown that inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) effectively stimulates canine blood phagocytes. However, a potential link between innate and adaptive immunity induced by iPPVO remained open...
  5. ncbi Pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)
    Hendrik H Nollens
    Marine Mammal Health Program and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, PO Box 100126, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:23-32. 2006
    ..Large, coalescing eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in the ballooned cells. A parapoxvirus (sea lion poxvirus 1, SLPV-1) was isolated on early passage California sea lion kidney cells inoculated with a ..
  6. ncbi Seroepidemiology of parapoxvirus infections in captive and free-ranging California sea lions Zalophus californianus
    Hendrik H Nollens
    Marine Mammal Health Program and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA
    Dis Aquat Organ 69:153-61. 2006
    Cutaneous nodular lesions caused by parapoxvirus infections are commonly observed in stranded pinnipeds following their arrival at rehabilitation facilities...
  7. ncbi Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand encodes a variant of viral vascular endothelial growth factor
    Norihito Ueda
    Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Virus Res 124:50-8. 2007
    b>Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ), a species of the Parapoxvirus genus, causes scabby lesions on the skin and the velvet of red deer...
  8. ncbi Parapoxvirus infection in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German North Sea
    G Muller
    Institut für Pathologie der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover, Bunteweg 17, D 30559 Hannover, Germany
    Vet Pathol 40:445-54. 2003
    ..Negative staining of mucosal tissue homogenates demonstrated parapoxvirus-like particles...
  9. ncbi Isolation of a parapoxvirus from a grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)
    P F Nettleton
    Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh
    Vet Rec 137:562-4. 1995
    ..Macroscopically and histologically the lesions resembled previous descriptions of parapoxvirus infections of seals and virus particles were observed in preparations of a scab and a skin lesion...
  10. doi Effects of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis on the cumulative incidence of pneumonia and cytokine secretion in foals on a farm with endemic infections caused by Rhodococcus equi
    Tracy L Sturgill
    Department of Large Animal Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 140:237-43. 2011
    The objectives of the present study were to determine if administration of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (IPPVO) can decrease the cumulative incidence of pneumonia and increase the number of IFN-γ- and IL-4-secreting cells among foals...
  11. ncbi Parapoxvirus of red deer: evidence for its inclusion as a new member in the genus parapoxvirus
    A J Robinson
    Health Research Council Virus Research Unit, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Virology 208:812-5. 1995
    There are three accepted members of the parapoxvirus genus, orf virus (OV), papular stomatitis virus (PSV), and pseudocowpox virus (PCV). OV is maintained in sheep and goats and PSV and PCV in cattle...
  12. ncbi Characterization of parapoxviruses circulating among wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus)
    Yasuo Inoshima
    National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 46:583-7. 2002
    We antigenically and molecularly compared 5 parapoxvirus isolates and 7 viral DNA samples from clinical lesions of Japanese serows with 3 viruses from sheep and goats...
  13. pmc Parapoxvirus causes a deleterious disease in red squirrels associated with UK population declines
    Daniel M Tompkins
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 269:529-33. 2002
    ..Evidence suggests that an emerging infectious disease, caused by a parapoxvirus, may be a significant component of the impact that the introduced grey squirrel has had on UK red squirrel ..
  14. ncbi Recent isolates of parapoxvirus of Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are closely related to bovine pseudocowpox virus
    Maria K Tikkanen
    National Veterinary and Food Research Institute, Department of Virology, PO Box 45, Hämeentie 57, FIN 00581 Helsinki, Finland
    J Gen Virol 85:1413-8. 2004
    ..classification of parapoxviruses (PPVs) and provides for the first time an extended phylogenetic analysis of PPVs isolated from Finland, established members of the genus Parapoxvirus and selected members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae.
  15. ncbi Detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction
    Y Inoshima
    National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Virol Methods 84:201-8. 2000
    The genus Parapoxvirus includes four members, bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), orf virus (ORFV) and parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ)...
  16. pmc Conventional bone marrow-derived dendritic cells contribute to toll-like receptor-independent production of alpha/beta interferon in response to inactivated parapoxvirus ovis
    Sabine Siegemund
    Institute of Immunology, University of Leipzig, Germany
    J Virol 83:9411-22. 2009
    b>Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO) is a member of the Poxviridae family and belongs to the genus Parapoxvirus...
  17. pmc Novel recombinant parapoxvirus vectors induce protective humoral and cellular immunity against lethal herpesvirus challenge infection in mice
    Timo Fischer
    Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, Institute of Immunology, D 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
    J Virol 77:9312-23. 2003
    Orf virus (ORFV; Parapoxvirus ovis) was used to develop a novel vector system for the generation of effective and safe live vaccines...
  18. ncbi Relatedness and heterogeneity at the near-terminal end of the genome of a parapoxvirus bovis 1 strain (B177) compared with parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus)
    H J Rziha
    Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, Institute of Immunology, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 28, D 72076 Tubingen, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Gen Virol 84:1111-6. 2003
    ..time an extended investigation of individual genes located at the near-terminal right end of the genome of parapoxvirus bovis 1, Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) strain B177 and Orf virus (ORFV)...
  19. ncbi Detection of Orf virus from an outbreak in goats and its genetic relation with other parapoxviruses
    B Mondal
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttaranchal
    Vet Res Commun 30:531-9. 2006
  20. ncbi Bovine papular stomatitis virus encodes a functionally distinct VEGF that binds both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2
    Marie K Inder
    Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Gen Virol 88:781-91. 2007
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, causes proliferative dermatitis in cattle and humans...
  21. doi In vitro and in vivo modulation of the equine immune response by parapoxvirus ovis
    D W Horohov
    Department of Veterinary Science, Maxwell H Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546 0099, USA
    Equine Vet J 40:468-72. 2008
    ..While immune modulators are used routinely in equine medicine, their mechanism of action is not always known...
  22. ncbi Persistent parapoxvirus infection in cattle
    Yuko Iketani
    National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 46:285-91. 2002
    The possibility of persistent parapoxvirus (PPV) infection was investigated by serologically and genetically using cattle infected with the virus experimentally and naturally...
  23. doi Development of methodology based on commercialized SERS-active substrates for rapid discrimination of Poxviridae virions
    Troy A Alexander
    U S Army Research Laboratory Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, Photonics Integration Branch Radiometric Sensor Development and Applications Team, AMSRD ARL SE EE, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783, USA
    Anal Chem 80:2817-25. 2008
    ..method, has been used to develop personal computer-borne algorithms useful for classification of unknown Parapoxvirus (e.g., bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpox virus) samples based solely on SERS spectral signatures...
  24. ncbi Atypical parapoxvirus infection in sheep
    Geoffrey W Smith
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana 61802, USA
    J Vet Intern Med 16:287-92. 2002
    ..microscopy of lesions, and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the lesions were the result of parapoxvirus infection...
  25. ncbi Gene homology between orf virus and smallpox variola virus
    A A Mercer
    Health Research Council Virus Research Unit, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Virus Genes 13:175-8. 1996
    About 47% identity was observed between the deduced amino acid sequences of a protein encoded by a gene of the parapoxvirus orf virus (OV) strain NZ2 and a 6 kDa protein of unknown function reported to be produced by an open reading frame ..
  26. pmc The structure of a putative scaffolding protein of immature poxvirus particles as determined by electron microscopy suggests similarity with capsid proteins of large icosahedral DNA viruses
    Jae Kyung Hyun
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Thomas Building, 3A Symonds Street, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Virol 81:11075-83. 2007
    Orf virus, the prototype parapoxvirus, is responsible for contagious ecthyma in sheep and goats...
  27. ncbi A severe outbreak of contagious ecthyma (orf) in a free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population in Norway
    Turid Vikøren
    National Veterinary Institute, Section for Wildlife Diseases, Oslo, Norway
    Vet Microbiol 127:10-20. 2008
    ..Electron microscopy (negative staining) of lesions from four animals detected parapoxvirus with the typical arrangement of the outer protein filaments...
  28. doi Investigation of orf virus structure and morphogenesis using recombinants expressing FLAG-tagged envelope structural proteins: evidence for wrapped virus particles and egress from infected cells
    Joanne L Tan
    Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Gen Virol 90:614-25. 2009
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the genus Parapoxvirus, but little is known about the structure or morphogenesis of the virus. In contrast, the structure and morphogenesis of vaccinia virus (VACV) has been extensively studied...
  29. doi A study of the process of apoptosis in animals infected with the contagious ecthyma virus
    G I Garrido-Fariña
    Department of Biological Sciences, Morphological Sciences Section, Support Laboratory for Histology and Biology, FES Cuautitlán UNAM, Mexico
    Vet Microbiol 129:28-39. 2008
    Contagious ecthyma virus (CEV) is a disease caused by a parapoxvirus, also is a potent genetic carrier with the capacity for regulating apoptosis in the cells of infected skin, a mechanism that serves for evading the immune response of ..
  30. doi Generalized parapoxvirus infection associated with increased antibody titres for varicella zoster virus and measles
    Clara Larcher
    Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Sanitaria dell Alto Adige, Bolzano, Italy
    Eur J Dermatol 19:375-9. 2009
    Human parapoxvirus infections are rare, self-limiting, zoonotic diseases. A 35-year-old veterinarian presented with a generalized rash of large umbilicated vesicles that appeared after antibiotic treatment for erysipelas on the forearm...
  31. ncbi In vitro evaluation of the anti-orf virus activity of alkoxyalkyl esters of CDV, cCDV and (S)-HPMPA
    Fabiana Dal Pozzo
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 75:52-7. 2007
    ..This parapoxvirus commonly causes infection in sheep, goats, but also humans...
  32. doi The genome of pseudocowpoxvirus: comparison of a reindeer isolate and a reference strain
    Maria Hautaniemi
    Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Research Department Veterinary Virology, Mustialankatu 3, FI 00790, Helsinki, Finland
    J Gen Virol 91:1560-76. 2010
    ..whole genome phylogenetic analyses confirm the classification of PCPV as a separate species within the genus Parapoxvirus and verify that the virus responsible for an outbreak of contagious stomatitis in reindeer over the winter of ..
  33. ncbi Orf virus encodes a homolog of the vaccinia virus interferon-resistance gene E3L
    C J McInnes
    Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
    Virus Genes 17:107-15. 1998
    ..of the vaccinia virus (VAC) interferon resistance gene E3L has been discovered in orf virus strain NZ-2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats and humans...
  34. ncbi Efficient priming against classical swine fever with a safe glycoprotein E2 expressing Orf virus recombinant (ORFV VrV-E2)
    Heiner Voigt
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Institute for Immunology, Tubingen, Germany
    Vaccine 25:5915-26. 2007
    ..Using the new recombinant parapoxvirus (PPV) Orf virus (ORFV) as a vaccine expressing the CSFV E2 glycoprotein we demonstrate that a single intra-..
  35. ncbi Ovine diseases. Orf
    D M Haig
    Moredun Research Institute, International Research Centre, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland, UK
    Vet Res 29:311-26. 1998
    Orf virus is an epitheliotropic DNA parapoxvirus with a worldwide distribution that induces acute pustular lesions in the skin of sheep, goats and man...
  36. ncbi Prime-boost immunization using DNA vaccine and recombinant Orf virus protects pigs against Pseudorabies virus (Herpes suid 1)
    Daniel Dory
    Viral Genetics and Biosafety Unit, French Food Safety Agency Afssa, BP 53, Fr 22440 Ploufragan, France
    Vaccine 24:6256-63. 2006
    ..viral glycoproteins gC and gD (gC- and gD-pSIN) and subsequently booster immunized with Orf virus (ORFV; Parapoxvirus) recombinants expressing gC and gD (D1701-VrVgC and -VrVgD)...
  37. doi Identification and phylogenetic analysis of an Orf virus isolated from an outbreak in sheep in the Jilin province of China
    Kui Zhao
    College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China
    Vet Microbiol 142:408-15. 2010
    ..insight into the genotype of the etiological agent responsible for the contagious ecthyma dermatitis outbreak in the Jilin province, and could also provide a comparative view of the central coding region genomics of parapoxvirus (PPV).
  38. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of Croatian orf viruses isolated from sheep and goats
    Ivana Lojkic
    Department of Virology, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
    Virol J 7:314. 2010
    The Orf virus (ORFV) is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide...
  39. pmc Immunomodulatory effects of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (ORF virus) on human peripheral immune cells: induction of cytokine secretion in monocytes and Th1-like cells
    Astrid Friebe
    Institute of Medical Immunology, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Virol 78:9400-11. 2004
    Inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus; PPVO) recently displayed strong immunostimulating and modulating capacities in several animal models for acute and chronic virus infections through the induction of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) as ..
  40. doi Diagnosis of bovine-associated parapoxvirus infections in humans: molecular and epidemiological evidence
    A MacNeil
    Poxvirus Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Zoonoses Public Health 57:e161-4. 2010
    ..We discuss three recent occurrences of parapoxvirus infection, involving contact with domestic bovine and use a combination of molecular and epidemiological data ..
  41. pmc A novel inhibitor of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway encoded by the parapoxvirus orf virus
    D G Diel
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, IL 61802, USA
    J Virol 84:3962-73. 2010
    The parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) is a pathogen of sheep and goats that has been used as a preventive and therapeutic immunomodulatory agent in several animal species...
  42. ncbi A novel strategy for determining protective antigens of the parapoxvirus, orf virus
    A A Mercer
    Virus Research Unit, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Virology 229:193-200. 1997
    ..Vaccination of OV-naive sheep with the recombinant library provided protection against a subsequent challenge with virulent OV. These data confirm the feasibility of the proposed strategy...
  43. ncbi Heparin binding activity of orf virus F1L protein
    A Scagliarini
    Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica Veterinaria e Patologia Animale, Alma Mater Studiorum, Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia Bologna, Italy
    Virus Res 105:107-12. 2004
    The orf virus is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus and is the causative agent of contagious echtyma, a debilitating skin disease of sheep and goats, which can also affect man...
  44. ncbi Orf virus infection and host immunity
    David M Haig
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik EH45 8RE, Scotland
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:127-31. 2006
    ..This is providing novel and interesting data on the viral mechanism of skin infection and the host response...
  45. pmc Neuropilin-1 in regulation of VEGF-induced activation of p38MAPK and endothelial cell organization
    Harukiyo Kawamura
    Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala, University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Blood 112:3638-49. 2008
    ..We used VEGF-A165 (which binds HS and NRP1), VEGF-A121 (binds neither HS nor NRP1), and parapoxvirus VEGF-E-NZ2 (binds NRP1 but not HS) to investigate the role of NRP1 in organization of endothelial cells into ..
  46. pmc A man with an umbilicated papule of the hand: what is your diagnosis?
    Deba P Sarma
    Department of Pathology, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131, USA
    Case Report Med 2010:524021. 2010
    Introduction. Ecthyma contagiosum is a zoonotic disease caused by the parapoxvirus that causes "sore mouth" in sheep and goats and orf in human. Case Presentation...
  47. ncbi Orf virus interleukin-10 inhibits cytokine synthesis in activated human THP-1 monocytes, but only partially impairs their proliferation
    Lyn Wise
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Gen Virol 88:1677-82. 2007
    The sheep parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) induces acute, pustular skin lesions in humans...
  48. ncbi Inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) has antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus and herpes simplex virus
    Olaf Weber
    BAYER AG Pharmaceutical Division, Antiinfective Research, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    J Gen Virol 84:1843-52. 2003
    It is known that some viruses are able to induce vigorous immune reactions. This study shows that inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus), strain D1701 (PPVO), induces an autoregulatory cytokine response that involves the upregulation ..
  49. ncbi Infection with recombinant orf viruses demonstrates that the viral interleukin-10 is a virulence factor
    Stephen B Fleming
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Gen Virol 88:1922-7. 2007
    Orf virus is the prototype parapoxvirus that causes the contagious skin disease orf. It encodes an orthologue of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10...
  50. pmc Orf virus ORFV121 encodes a novel inhibitor of NF-kappaB that contributes to virus virulence
    D G Diel
    University of Illinois, Urbana 61802, IL, USA
    J Virol 85:2037-49. 2011
    Orf virus (ORFV), the type member of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae, has evolved novel strategies (proteins and/or mechanisms of action) to modulate host cell responses regulated by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling ..
  51. pmc A homolog of interleukin-10 is encoded by the poxvirus orf virus
    S B Fleming
    Health Research Council Virus Research Unit and University of Otago Centre for Gene Research, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Virol 71:4857-61. 1997
    ..with homology to interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been discovered in the genome of orf virus (OV) strain NZ2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats, and humans...
  52. pmc Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the chemokine-binding protein from orf virus (Poxviridae)
    Rafael Miguez Couñago
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, New Zealand
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 66:819-23. 2010
    The parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) encodes a chemokine-binding protein (CBP) that functions to downregulate the host's immune response at the site of infection by blocking the chemokine-induced recruitment of immune cells...
  53. doi Molecular and virological studies on contagious pustular dermatitis isolates from Egyptian sheep and goats
    Mohamed Mahmoud
    Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, P O Box 12622, 33 El Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
    Res Vet Sci 89:290-4. 2010
    ..microscopy examination exposed negatively stained oval-shape virus particles trait for members of the genus Parapoxvirus. A 392 bp fragment of the late transcription factor (VLTF-1) gene of orf virus was amplified by PCR from the ..
  54. ncbi Isolation and characterization of an Indian ORF virus from goats
    M Hosamani
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar Campus, Nainital 263 138, Uttaranchal, India
    Zoonoses Public Health 54:204-8. 2007
    ..Viral morphology from the scab biopsy revealed typical ovoid-shaped particles characteristic of Parapoxvirus. Virus was isolated from sonicated scab suspension and characterized by restriction enzyme (RE) analysis and ..
  55. ncbi Non-substrate peptides influencing dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26 activity and immune cell function
    Sabine Wrenger
    Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany
    Front Biosci 13:3194-201. 2008
    ..proteins p37k of the orthopoxviruses variola virus and vaccinia virus, as well as the B2L antigen of the parapoxvirus orf, that also carry N-terminal Met-Trp-Pro, could mediate immunosuppressive effects...
  56. doi Novel deer-associated parapoxvirus infection in deer hunters
    Amira A Roess
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, and the Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    N Engl J Med 363:2621-7. 2010
    ..b>Parapoxvirus infection in humans begins with an incubation period of 3 to 7 days, followed by the development of one or more ..
  57. pmc A viral infection of the hand commonly seen after the feast of sacrifice: human orf (orf of the hand)
    M Uzel
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical Faculty of University of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
    Epidemiol Infect 133:653-7. 2005
    Orf of the hand is an uncommon zoonotic infection caused by a dermotropic DNA virus that belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae...
  58. ncbi Orf in humans: dramatic but benign
    Brian Steinhart
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    CJEM 7:417-9. 2005
    Orf is a parapoxvirus infection of sheep and goats that causes blistering lesions on the lips, nostrils, udders or toes of affected animals. Human contact can cause transmission by direct inoculation...
  59. pmc Mouse CD8alpha+ DCs and human BDCA3+ DCs are major producers of IFN-lambda in response to poly IC
    Henning Lauterbach
    Department of Research Immunology, Bavarian Nordic GmbH, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Exp Med 207:2703-17. 2010
    ..IC, whereas both CD8α(+) cDCs and plasmacytoid DCs produced large amounts of IFN-λ in response to HSV-1 or parapoxvirus. The nature of the stimulus and the cytokine milieu determined whether CD8α(+) cDCs produced IFN-λ or IL-..
  60. ncbi [Milker's nodes: transmission by fomites and virological identification]
    M Almagro
    Servico de Dermatologia, Hospital Naval de Ferrol, La Coruna
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 9:286-8. 1991
    ..We report a case of milker's nodules in a male who was not a professional cattle raiser with indirect and accidental transmission by fomites. A parapoxvirus was demonstrated from cutaneous lesions by electron microscopy with negative stain.
  61. ncbi Orf virus encodes a functional dUTPase gene
    R Cottone
    Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, Institute for Immunology, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 28, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Gen Virol 83:1043-8. 2002
    The present study is the first report on the functional activity of a parapoxvirus-encoded dUTPase. The dUTPase gene of the attenuated orf virus (ORFV), strain D1701, was expressed as a bacterial thioredoxin fusion protein...
  62. doi Looking back: a genetic retrospective study of Brazilian Orf virus isolates
    J S Abrahão
    Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia Veterinaria, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Boa Esperança, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Vet Rec 171:476. 2012
    Orf virus (ORFV), the prototype of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the aetiological agent of contagious ecthyma (CE), a pustular dermatitis that afflicts domestic and wild small ruminants...
  63. pmc A new rabies vaccine based on a recombinant ORF virus (parapoxvirus) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein
    Ralf Amann
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Immunology, Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    J Virol 87:1618-30. 2013
    ..This report demonstrates another example of the potential of the ORFV vector and also indicates the capability of the new recombinant for vaccination of animals...
  64. pmc Heterogeneity among orf virus isolates from goats in Fujian Province, Southern China
    Xuelin Chi
    College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, People s Republic of China University Key Laboratory for Integrated Chinese Traditional and Western Veterinary Medicine and Animal Healthc re in Fujian Province, College of Animal Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 8:e66958. 2013
    Orf virus is a parapoxvirus that causes recurring contagious ecthyma or orf disease in goat, sheep and other wild and domestic ruminants...
  65. ncbi Characterization of a North American orf virus isolated from a goat with persistent, proliferative dermatitis
    J Guo
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 4467, USA
    Virus Res 93:169-79. 2003
    ..These results indicate that OV-SA00 is a strain of OV rather than a different parapoxvirus. Further studies are necessary to determine if the severity of orf-induced lesions in this goat kid was the ..
  66. pmc Orf virus interferes with MHC class I surface expression by targeting vesicular transport and Golgi
    Jörg Rohde
    Department of Immunology, Interfaculty Institute for Cell Biology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    BMC Vet Res 8:114. 2012
    The Orf virus (ORFV), a zoonotic Parapoxvirus, causes pustular skin lesions in small ruminants (goat and sheep). Intriguingly, ORFV can repeatedly infect its host, despite the induction of a specific immunity...
  67. ncbi Cutaneous lymphomas and pseudolymphomas: newly described entities
    Dmitry V Kazakov
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Recent Results Cancer Res 160:283-93. 2002
    ..In the context of pseudolymphomas, cutaneous follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with monotypic plasma cells, pleomorphic reactions in molluscum contagiosum, and CD30+ reactions to parapoxvirus are discussed.
  68. ncbi Milkers' nodules complicated by erythema multiforme and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma
    Wendolyn R Slattery
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:e63-6. 2005
    We describe a case of cow-transmitted parapoxvirus infection--also known as milkers' nodules--after a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma...
  69. doi The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-E encoded by orf virus regulates keratinocyte proliferation and migration and promotes epidermal regeneration
    Lyn M Wise
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Cell Microbiol 14:1376-90. 2012
    ..Orf virus, a zoonotic parapoxvirus, induces proliferative skin lesions that initiate in wounds and are characterized by extensive blood vessel ..
  70. pmc ORFV: a novel oncolytic and immune stimulating parapoxvirus therapeutic
    Julia L Rintoul
    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
    Mol Ther 20:1148-57. 2012
    ..b>Parapoxvirus ovis or Orf virus (ORFV) is the prototypic species of the Parapoxvirus genus, causing a benign disease in its ..
  71. pmc Generation of recombinant Orf virus using an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene as a selectable marker
    Zhangyong Ning
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Champaign Urbana, 61802, USA
    BMC Vet Res 7:80. 2011
    ..Routine selection of the recombinant parapoxvirus is time-consuming and labor intensive. Therefore, developing a novel method for selection is critical.
  72. pmc Original findings associated with two cases of bovine papular stomatitis
    F Dal Pozzo
    Veterinary Virology and Animal Viral Diseases, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Boulevard de Colonster 20, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    J Clin Microbiol 49:4397-400. 2011
    ....
  73. doi Bovine papular stomatitis affecting dairy cows and milkers in midwestern Brazil
    Fabiano J F de Sant'ana
    Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Goias, Jataí, Goias, Brazil
    J Vet Diagn Invest 24:442-5. 2012
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) is a parapoxvirus associated with papular and erosive lesions on the muzzle, lips, and oral mucosa of cattle...
  74. ncbi Clinical and pathological description of a chronic form of bovine papular stomatitis
    I Yeruham
    Hachaklait Gedera, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
    J Comp Pathol 111:279-86. 1994
    ..Diagnosis was based on the clinical disease, histological findings, electron microscopical characterization of the causative virus, and virus isolation. A description of the acute form of the disease is presented for comparison...
  75. pmc Nested-multiplex PCR detection of Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus directly from exanthematic clinical samples
    Jonatas S Abrahao
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratorio de Virus, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270 901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Virol J 6:140. 2009
    Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV) have been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks. Some species of these genera are able to infect humans and domestic animals, causing serious economic losses and public health impact...
  76. pmc Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Orf virus from sheep in Brazil: a case report
    Jonatas S Abrahao
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Virol J 6:47. 2009
    Orf virus (ORFV), the prototype of the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV), is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a severe exanthematic dermatitis that afflicts domestic and wild small ruminants...
  77. ncbi [Recent developments in the diagnosis of parapoxviruses]
    C P Czerny
    Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Infektions und Seuchenmedizin, Tierärztliche Fakultät der Ludwig Maximilians Universität München
    Tierarztl Prax 22:230-3. 1994
    ..For a rapid diagnosis of parapoxviruses transmission-electron microscopy, immunofluorescence- or immunoperoxidase-staining, antigen capture ELISA, and polymerase-chain-reaction were used...
  78. doi Molecular and biological characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor of parapoxviruses isolated from wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus)
    Yasuo Inoshima
    Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1 1 Yanagido, Gifu 501 1193, Japan
    Vet Microbiol 140:63-71. 2010
    Contagious dermatitis in domestic and wild ruminants caused by parapoxvirus (PPV) occurs worldwide...
  79. doi Multicolour, multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of human-pathogenic poxviruses
    Kati Schroeder
    Robert Koch Institut, Centre for Biological Safety 1, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Mol Cell Probes 24:110-3. 2010
    ..7, 22.08 and 28.1 copies/assay (95% CI) for molluscipoxvirus, orthopoxvirus and parapoxvirus DNA, respectively...
  80. ncbi [Orf of the hand]
    Aida Khaled
    Hôpital Charles Nicolle de Tunis
    Tunis Med 87:352-3. 2009
    ..The orf is a zoonotic infection which can be transmitted to humans...
  81. doi Effects of two commercially available immunostimulants on leukocyte function of foals following ex vivo exposure to Rhodococcus equi
    Clare Ryan
    Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 138:198-205. 2010
    ..Treatment consisted of inactivated Propionibacterium acnes (PA), inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO), or saline (control) administered on days 0 (7 days of age), 2, and 8...
  82. ncbi Production and efficacy of an attenuated live vaccine against contagious ovine ecthyma
    Maria Teresa Mercante
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell Abruzzo e del Molise G Caporale IZS A and M, 64100 Teramo, Italy
    Vet Ital 44:537-42, 543-7. 2008
    Contagious ecthyma is caused by the orf virus, a member of the family Poxviridae, genus Parapoxvirus. Morbidity in affected sheep flocks is approximately 100%, while mortality varies between 1% and 10%...
  83. ncbi Differentiation of parapoxviruses by application of orf virus-specific monoclonal antibodies against cell surface proteins
    S L Lard
    Division of Anti Infective Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20857
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 28:247-58. 1991
    ..The data suggest that it may be possible to define parapoxvirus strains on the basis of small variations in specific virus-directed cell surface proteins.
  84. ncbi Investigation and analysis of a human orf outbreak among people living on the same farm
    Yasar Bayindir
    Inonu University, Medical Faculty, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Malatya, TR 44280, Turkey
    New Microbiol 34:37-43. 2011
    Human orf is a viral zoonotic infection caused by Parapoxvirus. The skin lesions of human orf can be misdiagnosed as cutaneous anthrax leading to overtreatment and also fear...
  85. doi Genus specific evolution of codon usage and nucleotide compositional traits of poxviruses
    Sourav Roychoudhury
    School of Information Technology, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur Howrah, 711103 West Bengal, India
    Virus Genes 42:189-99. 2011
    ..Four other Chordopox genera- Molluscipoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus, and some unclassified Chordopoxvirus are dominated by the GC rich viruses...
  86. pmc Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy
    Alessandra Scagliarini
    Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:684-7. 2011
    ..Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus...
  87. doi The chemokine-binding protein encoded by the poxvirus orf virus inhibits recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of skin inflammation and migration to peripheral lymph nodes
    Zabeen Lateef
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Cell Microbiol 12:665-76. 2010
    Orf virus (ORFV) is a zoonotic parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in sheep and humans...
  88. doi Validation of a high-throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of capripoxviral DNA
    Samuel Stubbs
    Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom
    J Virol Methods 179:419-22. 2012
    ..from outbreaks around the world and did not amplify DNA from related viruses in the genera Orthopoxvirus or Parapoxvirus. The high-throughput robotic DNA extraction procedure did not adversely affect the sensitivity of the assay ..
  89. pmc Diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of Orf virus from goats in China: a case report
    Keshan Zhang
    Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Xujiaping No, 1, Yanchangpu, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, China
    Virol J 7:78. 2010
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious pustular dermatitis and is the prototype of the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV). It causes a severe exanthematous dermatitis that afflicts domestic and wild small ruminants.
  90. doi [Expanding papillomatous nodule on forearm with acute lymphangitis. Case of diagnosis]
    M A Radtke
    Klinik und Poliklinik fur Dermatologie und Venerologie, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg Eppendorf
    Hautarzt 60:498-501. 2009
    Ecthyma contagiosum (orf) is a dermatosis commonly seen in those in contact with sheep. It is caused by Parapoxvirus ovis (orf virus), an oval epitheliotropic DNA parapox virus...
  91. doi Orf virus-encoded chemokine-binding protein is a potent inhibitor of inflammatory monocyte recruitment in a mouse skin model
    Zabeen Lateef
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Gen Virol 90:1477-82. 2009
    The parapoxvirus orf virus causes pustular dermatitis in sheep and is transmissible to humans. The virus encodes a secreted chemokine-binding protein (CBP)...
  92. ncbi The zoonotic poxviruses
    Susan Lewis-Jones
    Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, Scotland
    Dermatol Nurs 14:79-82, 85-6; quiz 87. 2002
    ..Animal poxviruses occasionally produce human skin disease often associated with systemic illness. Lesions are painful blisters and crusted eschars and are usually self-limiting and rarely fatal. Treatment is generally supportive...
  93. ncbi Poxvirus interference with the host cytokine response
    D M Haig
    Moredun Research Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 63:149-56. 1998
    ..The parapoxvirus orf virus encodes a homologue of ovine IL-10 and a novel GM-CSF-binding protein...
  94. ncbi Comparative analysis of genome sequences of three isolates of Orf virus reveals unexpected sequence variation
    Andrew A Mercer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Virus Res 116:146-58. 2006
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus. Here, we present the genomic sequence of the most well studied ORFV isolate, strain NZ2...
  95. pmc Characterisation of parapoxviruses isolated from Norwegian semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)
    Joern Klein
    Department of Microbiology and Virology, University of Tromsø, Breivika, N 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    Virol J 2:79. 2005
    ..Contagious ecthyma is an epidermal disease of sheep and goats worldwide, which is caused by the zoonotic parapoxvirus orf virus...
  96. ncbi An epidemic of parapoxvirus infection among cattle: isolation and antibody survey
    Y Kuroda
    National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 61:749-53. 1999
    ..The virus was identified by physicochemical examinations and electromicroscopic observation as a parapoxvirus. A seroepidemiological survey was performed on antibody to the isolated virus by the agar gel immunodiffusion ..
  97. ncbi Gianotti-Crosti syndrome following milkers' nodules
    Carlos De la Torre
    Service of Dermatology, Complejo Hospitalario de Pontevedra, Spain
    Cutis 74:316-8. 2004
    ..We report a case of a boy exhibiting involutive lesions of milkers' nodules who subsequently developed a rash with the clinical features of GCS. The temporal relationship suggested the possibility of a causal association...
  98. pmc Appearance of the bona fide spiral tubule of ORF virus is dependent on an intact 10-kilodalton viral protein
    D Spehner
    INSERM E 0345, EFS Alsace, Strasbourg, France
    J Virol 78:8085-93. 2004
    ..We have examined Orf virus (ORFV; the prototype species of the Parapoxvirus genus) by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-negative staining EM...
  99. ncbi Simple preparation of parapoxvirus genome DNA for endonuclease analysis
    Y Inoshima
    National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 44:69-72. 2000
    We compared five methods for improved extraction of very-large parapoxvirus DNA from infected cells: (i) alkaline-lysis procedure followed by phenol extraction; (ii) modified Hirt procedure, which was a neutral lysis procedure followed by ..
  100. pmc Genomes of the parapoxviruses ORF virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus
    G Delhon
    Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Greenport, New York 11944, USA
    J Virol 78:168-77. 2004
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and orf virus (ORFV), members of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively...
  101. ncbi A novel poxvirus lethal to red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris)
    Kathryn Thomas
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik EH26 0PZ, UK
    J Gen Virol 84:3337-41. 2003
    A parapoxvirus has been implicated in the decline of the red squirrel in the United Kingdom. Virus was isolated from an outbreak of lethal disease in red squirrels in the north-east of England...

Research Grants2

  1. Plague vaccine candidates by a functional genomic screen
    Kathryn Sykes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Discovery of new anti-bacteremia vaccines for anthrax
    Kathryn Sykes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These will be ready for preclinical trials. We should also have in place a high-throughput antigen discovery system that could be applied to other biothreat and emerging pathogens. ..