poxviridae

Summary

Summary: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Poxviruses and immune evasion
    Bruce T Seet
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Annu Rev Immunol 21:377-423. 2003
  2. pmc Poxvirus-encoded gamma interferon binding protein dampens the host immune response to infection
    Isaac G Sakala
    The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia
    J Virol 81:3346-53. 2007
  3. doi Targeted and armed oncolytic poxviruses: a novel multi-mechanistic therapeutic class for cancer
    David H Kirn
    Jennerex Biotherapeutics Inc, San Francisco, California 94105, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 9:64-71. 2009
  4. pmc Eukaryotic large nucleo-cytoplasmic DNA viruses: clusters of orthologous genes and reconstruction of viral genome evolution
    Natalya Yutin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Virol J 6:223. 2009
  5. doi Poxvirus host cell entry
    Florian Ingo Schmidt
    Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr 18, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Virol 2:20-7. 2012
  6. pmc Rational strain selection and engineering creates a broad-spectrum, systemically effective oncolytic poxvirus, JX-963
    Steve H Thorne
    Department of Pediatrics and Bio X Program, James H Clark Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:3350-8. 2007
  7. pmc TRAIL gene-armed oncolytic poxvirus and oxaliplatin can work synergistically against colorectal cancer
    M F Ziauddin
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Gene Ther 17:550-9. 2010
  8. pmc Poxvirus multiprotein entry-fusion complex
    Tatiana G Senkevich
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0445, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18572-7. 2005
  9. pmc Poxvirus protein evolution: family wide assessment of possible horizontal gene transfer events
    Mary R Odom
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    Virus Res 144:233-49. 2009
  10. ncbi The poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC as gene delivery systems for vaccination against infectious diseases and cancer
    Carmen E Gomez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain
    Curr Gene Ther 8:97-120. 2008

Detail Information

Publications205 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Poxviruses and immune evasion
    Bruce T Seet
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Annu Rev Immunol 21:377-423. 2003
    ..Furthermore, because of their anti-inflammatory nature, many of these poxvirus proteins hold promise as potential therapeutic agents for acute or chronic inflammatory conditions...
  2. pmc Poxvirus-encoded gamma interferon binding protein dampens the host immune response to infection
    Isaac G Sakala
    The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia
    J Virol 81:3346-53. 2007
    ....
  3. doi Targeted and armed oncolytic poxviruses: a novel multi-mechanistic therapeutic class for cancer
    David H Kirn
    Jennerex Biotherapeutics Inc, San Francisco, California 94105, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 9:64-71. 2009
    ..Initial preclinical and clinical results show that products from this therapeutic class can systemically target cancers in a highly selective and potent fashion using a multi-pronged mechanism of action...
  4. pmc Eukaryotic large nucleo-cytoplasmic DNA viruses: clusters of orthologous genes and reconstruction of viral genome evolution
    Natalya Yutin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Virol J 6:223. 2009
    ....
  5. doi Poxvirus host cell entry
    Florian Ingo Schmidt
    Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr 18, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Virol 2:20-7. 2012
    ..This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of poxvirus MV and EV cell entry...
  6. pmc Rational strain selection and engineering creates a broad-spectrum, systemically effective oncolytic poxvirus, JX-963
    Steve H Thorne
    Department of Pediatrics and Bio X Program, James H Clark Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:3350-8. 2007
    ..JX-963 therefore holds promise as a rationally designed, targeted virotherapeutic for the systemic treatment of cancer in humans and warrants clinical testing...
  7. pmc TRAIL gene-armed oncolytic poxvirus and oxaliplatin can work synergistically against colorectal cancer
    M F Ziauddin
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Gene Ther 17:550-9. 2010
    ..This combination strategy may provide a new avenue to treating peritoneal carcinomatosis and other types of metastases of colorectal cancer...
  8. pmc Poxvirus multiprotein entry-fusion complex
    Tatiana G Senkevich
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0445, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18572-7. 2005
    ....
  9. pmc Poxvirus protein evolution: family wide assessment of possible horizontal gene transfer events
    Mary R Odom
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    Virus Res 144:233-49. 2009
    To investigate the evolutionary origins of proteins encoded by the Poxviridae family of viruses, we examined all poxvirus protein coding genes using a method of characterizing and visualizing the similarity between these proteins and ..
  10. ncbi The poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC as gene delivery systems for vaccination against infectious diseases and cancer
    Carmen E Gomez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain
    Curr Gene Ther 8:97-120. 2008
    ....
  11. pmc Vaccinia virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase subunits are differentially required for replication and pathogenesis
    Don B Gammon
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000984. 2010
    ....
  12. ncbi Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis
    Caroline Gubser
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:105-17. 2004
    ..This suggests that CPV-BR and GRI-90 should be separate species...
  13. doi Effective induction of high-titer antibodies by viral vector vaccines
    Simon J Draper
    The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
    Nat Med 14:819-21. 2008
    ..Antibodies induced against a blood-stage malaria antigen by this viral vector platform are highly effective against Plasmodium yoelii parasites in mice and against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro...
  14. ncbi Electron microscopy and antigenic studies of uncharacterized viruses. I. Evidence suggesting the placement of viruses in families Arenaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, or Poxviridae
    H G Zeller
    Division of Vector Borne Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Fort Collins, Colorado
    Arch Virol 108:191-209. 1989
    ..20 Rhabdoviridae, 14 Reoviridae, one Togaviridae, one Paramyxoviridae (Mapuera virus, from a bat), and one Poxviridae (Yoka virus, from mosquitoes)...
  15. pmc Kinetic analysis of a complete poxvirus transcriptome reveals an immediate-early class of genes
    Erika Assarsson
    Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2140-5. 2008
    ..Additionally, genes within each kinetic class were spatially grouped together in the genome. This genome-wide picture of transcription alters our understanding of how orthopoxviruses regulate gene expression...
  16. pmc Sequence-divergent chordopoxvirus homologs of the o3 protein maintain functional interactions with components of the vaccinia virus entry-fusion complex
    P S Satheshkumar
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:1696-705. 2012
    ..Analysis of chimeras formed by swapping domains of O3 with those of other proteins indicated that the N-terminal transmembrane segment was responsible for EFC interactions and for the complementation of infectivity...
  17. pmc Expression profiling of the intermediate and late stages of poxvirus replication
    Zhilong Yang
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    J Virol 85:9899-908. 2011
    ..The differentiation of intermediate and late genes may enhance understanding of poxvirus replication and lead to improvements in expression vectors and recombinant vaccines...
  18. doi Multimeric soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) efficiently enhances HIV specific cellular immune responses during DNA prime and boost with attenuated poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC expressing HIV antigens
    Carmen E Gomez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Vaccine 27:3165-74. 2009
    ..These findings provided evidence for the immunostimulatory benefit of sCD40L when DNA and the poxvirus vectors MVA and NYVAC are used as immunogens...
  19. pmc The product of the vaccinia virus L5R gene is a fourth membrane protein encoded by all poxviruses that is required for cell entry and cell-cell fusion
    Alan C Townsley
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0445, USA
    J Virol 79:10988-98. 2005
    The L5R gene of vaccinia virus is conserved among all sequenced members of the Poxviridae but has no predicted function or recognized nonpoxvirus homolog. Here we provide the initial characterization of the L5 protein...
  20. pmc Differential CD4+ versus CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different poxvirus-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine candidates provide comparable efficacies in primates
    Petra Mooij
    Department of Virology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre BPRC, P O Box 3306, 2280 GH Rijswijk, The Netherlands
    J Virol 82:2975-88. 2008
    ..In contrast, in this setting, animals with strong vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4(+) T-cell responses showed efficacies similar to those with stronger CD8(+) T-cell responses...
  21. ncbi Near death experiences: poxvirus regulation of apoptotic death
    John M Taylor
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2S2
    Virology 344:139-50. 2006
    ..This review describes the numerous mechanisms by which poxviruses inhibit apoptosis thereby modulating life and death of the cell...
  22. ncbi Systemic armed oncolytic and immunologic therapy for cancer with JX-594, a targeted poxvirus expressing GM-CSF
    J H Kim
    Department of Pharmacology and MRCCMT, Dong A University Medical College, Busan 604 714, South Korea
    Mol Ther 14:361-70. 2006
    ..JX-594 holds promise as an i.v.-delivered, targeted virotherapeutic. These two tumor models hold promise for the optimization of this approach...
  23. pmc Vaccinia virus H2 protein is an essential component of a complex involved in virus entry and cell-cell fusion
    Tatiana G Senkevich
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Dr, MSC 0445, Bethesda, MD 20892 0445, USA
    J Virol 79:4744-54. 2005
    ..Therefore, H2 and A28 are the only proteins presently known to be specifically required for vaccinia virus entry and are likely components of a fusion complex...
  24. pmc Poxviruses as possible vectors for horizontal transfer of retroposons from reptiles to mammals
    Oliver Piskurek
    Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B21 Nagatsuta cho, Midori ku, Yokohama 226 8501, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12046-51. 2007
    Poxviruses (Poxviridae) are a family of double-stranded DNA viruses with no RNA stage. Members of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) are highly invasive and virulent...
  25. pmc Cell cycle deregulation by a poxvirus partial mimic of anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11
    Min Mo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19527-32. 2009
    ..Here, we report a viral mimic of an APC component and reveal an intriguing mechanism by which viruses can manipulate cell cycle progression and, thereby, promote their own replication...
  26. ncbi Genome-based phylogeny of poxvirus
    Ke Xing
    State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Science, Sun Yat Sen Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, PR China
    Intervirology 49:207-14. 2006
    A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Poxviridae was performed in this study. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from whole genomic information including gene order, gene content, and all conserved gene protein sequences...
  27. pmc Host-derived pathogenicity islands in poxviruses
    Melissa Da Silva
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada
    Virol J 2:30. 2005
    ..We are interested in evolution of poxvirus genomes and especially how these viruses acquire host-derived genes that are believed to function as virulence factors...
  28. pmc Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of prime-boost immunization with recombinant poxvirus FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara encoding the full-length Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein
    Michael Walther
    Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 74:2706-16. 2006
    ..Vaccines containing this antigen proved safe and induced modest immune responses but showed no evidence of efficacy in a sporozoite challenge...
  29. ncbi Poxviruses and apoptosis: a time to die
    Helen Everett
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, 4 63 Medical Sciences Building, Edmonton, T6G 2H7, Alberta, Canada
    Curr Opin Microbiol 5:395-402. 2002
    ..The mechanistic classes of these poxvirus-encoded inhibitors are quite diverse, and indicate that a wide variety of distinct host proteins in cellular apoptotic pathways have been targeted for inhibition by individual poxviruses...
  30. ncbi Host-related immunomodulators encoded by poxviruses and herpesviruses
    G McFadden
    The John P Robarts Research Institute, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    Curr Opin Microbiol 3:371-8. 2000
    ....
  31. pmc Evolution of DNA ligases of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses of eukaryotes: a case of hidden complexity
    Natalya Yutin
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Biol Direct 4:51. 2009
    ..However, the details of the evolution of these genes that bear on the complexity of the putative ancestral NCLDV and on the evolutionary relationships between viruses and their hosts are not well understood...
  32. pmc Poxvirus immunomodulatory strategies: current perspectives
    J B Johnston
    Robarts Research Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6G 2V4
    J Virol 77:6093-100. 2003
  33. pmc Poxvirus orthologous clusters: toward defining the minimum essential poxvirus genome
    Chris Upton
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    J Virol 77:7590-600. 2003
    ..We have reannotated and resequenced fragments of this genome and verified that these genes are conserved in Tian Tan. The results for poxvirus genes and genomes are discussed in light of evolutionary processes...
  34. doi Poxvirus K7 protein adopts a Bcl-2 fold: biochemical mapping of its interactions with human DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3
    Arnout P Kalverda
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    J Mol Biol 385:843-53. 2009
    ..Furthermore, thermodynamic studies have mapped the K7-binding region to a 30-residue N-terminal fragment of DDX3, ahead of the core RNA helicase domains...
  35. pmc Poxvirus Bioinformatics Resource Center: a comprehensive Poxviridae informational and analytical resource
    Elliot J Lefkowitz
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BBRB 276 11 1530 3rd Avenue S, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:D311-6. 2005
    ..resources to the scientific community to aid research directed at providing a better understanding of the Poxviridae family of viruses...
  36. ncbi Equivalent immunogenicity of the highly attenuated poxvirus-based ALVAC-SIV and NYVAC-SIV vaccine candidates in SIVmac251-infected macaques
    Zdenek Hel
    Aventis Pasteur, Ltd 1755 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario, M2R 3T4, Canada
    Virology 304:125-34. 2002
    ..Thus, both these vaccine modalities alone or in combination may be suitable candidate vaccines for immune therapy of HIV-1-infected individuals...
  37. ncbi [The time scale in poxvirus evolution]
    I V Babkin
    Mol Biol (Mosk) 40:20-4. 2006
    ..and the sequence of DNA polymerase gene (about 3 kbp) of the viruses belonging to various genera from the family Poxviridae were analyzed...
  38. ncbi Gene therapy with poxvirus vectors
    Dorota Moroziewicz
    Columbia University, Department of Surgery, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, MHB 7SK, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Curr Opin Mol Ther 7:317-25. 2005
    ..This review focuses on the current status of recombinant poxviruses as vectors for gene therapy of human disease...
  39. pmc The 1.51-Angstrom structure of the poxvirus L1 protein, a target of potent neutralizing antibodies
    Hua Poo Su
    Structural Biology Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12441 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4240-5. 2005
    ..The structure of L1 is a step in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms common to all poxviruses that may stimulate the design of safer vaccines and new antipoxvirus drugs...
  40. pmc Crystal structure of TNFalpha complexed with a poxvirus MHC-related TNF binding protein
    Zhiru Yang
    Division of Biology 114 96, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 16:1189-91. 2009
    ..Overlap between the 2L and host TNF receptor-binding sites on TNFalpha rationalizes 2L inhibition of TNFalpha-TNF receptor interactions and prevention of TNFalpha-induced immune responses...
  41. ncbi Head-to-head comparison on the immunogenicity of two HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates based on the attenuated poxvirus strains MVA and NYVAC co-expressing in a single locus the HIV-1BX08 gp120 and HIV-1(IIIB) Gag-Pol-Nef proteins of clade B
    Carmen Elena Gómez
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Vaccine 25:2863-85. 2007
    ..All of the immunization protocols induced some humoral response against the gp160 protein from HIV-1 clone LAV. Our findings indicate that MVA-B and NYVAC-B meet the criteria to be potentially useful vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS...
  42. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by poxviruses
    K M Cunnion
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 67:278-82. 1999
    ..T2 has also been shown to interfere with TNF-induced apoptosis in vitro. Understanding the role viral TNF receptor homologues play in altering host immune responses may suggest ways to develop specific anti-inflammatory therapeutics...
  43. pmc Protection of rhesus monkeys by a DNA prime/poxvirus boost malaria vaccine depends on optimal DNA priming and inclusion of blood stage antigens
    Walter R Weiss
    Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e1063. 2007
    ..The present study reports three further experiments where we investigate the effects of DNA dose, timing, and formulation. We also compare vaccines utilizing only the pre-erythrocytic antigens with the four antigen vaccine...
  44. pmc Potent oncolytic activity of raccoonpox virus in the absence of natural pathogenicity
    Laura Evgin
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Ottawa, Centre for Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Ther 18:896-902. 2010
    ..Raccoonpox virus (RCNV) is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of Poxviridae and closely related to vaccinia virus, yet has no known pathogenicity in any mammalian species...
  45. ncbi Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion
    Bernard Moss
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0445, USA
    Virology 344:48-54. 2006
    ..Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors...
  46. pmc Cellular and biochemical differences between two attenuated poxvirus vaccine candidates (MVA and NYVAC) and role of the C7L gene
    José Luis Nájera
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 80:6033-47. 2006
    ..Overall, our findings demonstrate distinct behavior between NYVAC and MVA strains in cultured cells, as well as a new role for the C7L viral gene as an inhibitor of apoptosis in NYVAC infection...
  47. ncbi Containment of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in vaccinated macaques: correlation with the magnitude of virus-specific pre- and postchallenge CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses
    Zdenek Hel
    Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 169:4778-87. 2002
    ..The results presented in this work also further demonstrate the potential of a DNA-prime/attenuated poxvirus-boost vaccine regimen in an animal model that well mirrors human AIDS...
  48. ncbi Poxvirus cancer therapy
    Philippe Alexandre Gilbert
    Robarts Research Institute, BioTherapeutics Research Group, Siebens Drake Building Room 133, 1400 Western Road, London, Ontario, Canada N6G 2V4
    Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 1:309-21. 2006
    ..This review will cover their utilization as anti-cancer therapeutics by describing recent patents (2000-2005)...
  49. pmc Extensive gene gain associated with adaptive evolution of poxviruses
    Aoife McLysaght
    Department of Ecology, Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, School of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15655-60. 2003
    ..Here, we use complete genome data from 20 poxvirus genomes to build a robust phylogeny of the Poxviridae and to study patterns of genome evolution...
  50. ncbi Fowlpox virus thymidine kinase: nucleotide sequence and relationships to other thymidine kinases
    D B Boyle
    Virology 156:355-65. 1987
    ..Characterization of the FPV TK gene may facilitate the construction of recombinant FPVs as vehicles for the delivery of vaccine antigens to poultry and other avian species...
  51. ncbi Comparison of a conserved region in fowlpox virus and vaccinia virus genomes and the translocation of the fowlpox virus thymidine kinase gene
    M M Binns
    Institute for Animal Health, Houghton Laboratory, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, U K
    J Gen Virol 69:1275-83. 1988
    ..These results are discussed in terms of genome stability in poxviruses and the use of the TK gene as a non-essential region for the introduction of foreign genes into poxviruses...
  52. ncbi The genome of molluscum contagiosum virus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses
    T G Senkevich
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Virology 233:19-42. 1997
    ..Despite the acquisition of unique genes for host interactions and changes in GC content, the physical order and regulation of essential ancestral poxvirus genes have been largely conserved in MCV and OPV...
  53. pmc DNA sequence homology between the terminal inverted repeats of Shope fibroma virus and an endogenous cellular plasmid species
    C Upton
    Mol Cell Biol 6:265-76. 1986
    ..The potential role of such cellular plasmid-like DNA species as a mediator in the exchange of genetic information between the host cell and a cytoplasmically replicating poxvirus is discussed...
  54. ncbi Poxvirus genome evolution by gene gain and loss
    Austin L Hughes
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 35:186-95. 2005
    The poxviruses (Poxviridae) are a family of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes and substantial numbers (often >200) of genes per genome...
  55. ncbi Screening predicted coding regions in poxvirus genomes
    C Upton
    Department Biochemistry and Microbiology, University Victoria, BC, Canada
    Virus Genes 20:159-64. 2000
    ..The use of amino acid composition and pI appears to be a generally applicable tool to aid identification of viral ORFs that are unlikely to be functional genes...
  56. ncbi Vaccinia, Inc.--probing the functional substructure of poxviral replication factories
    Richard C Condit
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, P O Box 100266, Gainesville, FL 31610, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 2:205-7. 2007
    ..These factories thus comprise a highly structured virus organelle that isolates and coordinates late viral replication events, facilitating competition for cellular resources...
  57. ncbi Viral vectors for malaria vaccine development
    Shengqiang Li
    PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Vaccine 25:2567-74. 2007
    ..Understanding the vector's ability to induce an immune response and the expression of malaria antigens in mammalian cells will be critical in designing the next generation of viral-vectored malaria vaccines...
  58. ncbi Poxviruses and the passive quest for novel hosts
    R L Regnery
    Poxvirus Program, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail stop G 43, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 315:345-61. 2007
    ..e., the Chordopoxvirus subfamily of the family Poxviridae. Brief note is made of examples of members of the genera Leporipoxvirus and Parapoxvirus-like agents that have ..
  59. ncbi Poxvirus protein N1L targets the I-kappaB kinase complex, inhibits signaling to NF-kappaB by the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of receptors, and inhibits NF-kappaB and IRF3 signaling by toll-like receptors
    Gary DiPerna
    Viral Immune Evasion Group, Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 279:36570-8. 2004
    ..Furthermore, N1L inhibited IRF3 signaling, which is also regulated by TBK1. These studies define a role for N1L as an immunomodulator of innate immunity by targeting components of NF-kappaB and IRF3 signaling pathways...
  60. ncbi Poxvirus Orthologous Clusters (POCs)
    Angelika Ehlers
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada
    Bioinformatics 18:1544-5. 2002
    ....
  61. pmc Yaba-like disease virus: an alternative replicating poxvirus vector for cancer gene therapy
    Y Hu
    Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 75:10300-8. 2001
    ..YLD virus has favorable characteristics as a vector for cancer gene therapy, and this potential should be explored further...
  62. pmc Identification of multiple independent horizontal gene transfers into poxviruses using a comparative genomics approach
    Kirsten A Bratke
    Smurfit Institute of Genetics, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    BMC Evol Biol 8:67. 2008
    ..We propose to use synteny conservation around the horizontally transferred gene (HTgene) to distinguish between single and multiple events...
  63. ncbi Poxvirus tropism
    Grant McFadden
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, and Robarts Research Institute, Siebens Drake Building, Room 133, 1400 Western Road, London, Ontario N6G 2V4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:201-13. 2005
    ....
  64. ncbi Complete genomic sequence of the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses
    A L Bawden
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Virology 274:120-39. 2000
    ..The complete genomic sequence of AmEPV paves the way for an understanding and comparison of the molecular properties and pathogenesis between the entomopoxviruses of insects and the more intensively studied vertebrate poxviruses...
  65. pmc Identification and nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of Shope fibroma virus
    C Upton
    J Virol 60:920-7. 1986
    ..These data suggest a common ancestral origin for at least some of the unique internal regions of the leporipoxviruses and orthopoxviruses as exemplified by SFV and vaccinia virus, respectively...
  66. ncbi Poxviruses: past, present and future
    E J Lefkowitz
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    Virus Res 117:105-18. 2006
    ..Here, we review various comparative analyses of the poxviruses including gene prediction, gene conservation and function, genome organization, and poxvirus taxonomy and evolution...
  67. ncbi Vaccinia as a vector for gene delivery
    Z Sheng Guo
    University of Pittsburgh, Division of Surgical Oncology, 5150 Center Avenue, Suite 459, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 4:901-17. 2004
    ..Other potential strategies for improving this vector for gene delivery will also be discussed in this review...
  68. pmc Structural basis for the binding of the neutralizing antibody, 7D11, to the poxvirus L1 protein
    Hua Poo Su
    Structural Biology Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12441 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Virology 368:331-41. 2007
    ..In addition, the sequence and structure of Fab-7D11 will contribute to the development of L1-targeted immunotherapeutics...
  69. ncbi Manipulating the local tumor microenvironment with poxviruses expressing costimulatory molecules
    Howard L Kaufman
    Columbia University Medical Center, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, MHB 7SK, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1062:41-50. 2005
    ..Herein, we review the general rationale for this approach, discuss the results of ongoing clinical trials, and highlight critical questions that can be addressed in well-designed preclinical and clinical studies...
  70. ncbi The impact of vaccines and the future of genetically modified poxvirus vaccines for poultry
    Deoki N Tripathy
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61802, USA
    Anim Health Res Rev 5:263-6. 2004
    ..In this regard, avianpox virus vectors appear to be promising for the generation of polyvalent vaccines expressing antigens from multiple pathogens...
  71. pmc Interferon function is not required for recovery from a secondary poxvirus infection
    Vijay Panchanathan
    Infection and Immunity Group, Division of Immunology and Genetics, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12921-6. 2005
    ..Importantly, the depletion of CD8+ T lymphocytes during a secondary challenge in IFN-deficient mice does not affect their capacity to clear ECTV, indicating that Ab is critical for the control of a secondary infection...
  72. ncbi Correlates of protective immunity in poxvirus infection: where does antibody stand?
    Vijay Panchanathan
    Division of Biochemistry and Moelcular Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 86:80-6. 2008
    ..These findings have important clinical implications and would greatly assist the design of therapeutic interventions and new vaccines for smallpox...
  73. doi Single-dose immunogenicity and protective efficacy of simian adenoviral vectors against Plasmodium berghei
    Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 38:732-41. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that T(EM) cells are important as a first line of defense against fast-replicating pathogens such as murine Plasmodium and demonstrate the potential of replication-defective SAd as future malaria vaccines for humans...
  74. ncbi Antiviral potential of a new generation of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, the 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]-2,4-diaminopyrimidines
    Erik De Clercq
    Address correspondence to Erik De Clercq, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K U Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, Leuven B 3000, Belgium
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 24:331-41. 2005
    ..The 6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]-2,4-diaminopyrimidines offer substantial potential for the treatment of a broad range of retro-, hepadna-, herpes-, adeno-, and poxvirus infections...
  75. ncbi The potential role of fowlpox virus in rational vaccine design
    Emma L Beukema
    Experimental Therapeutics Laboratory, Hanson Institute, Level 4, Hanson Institute Building, Frome Road, Adelaide, South Australia, 5000, Australia
    Expert Rev Vaccines 5:565-77. 2006
    ..In this review, the issues surrounding the use of fowlpox virus as a vaccine vector and possible strategies for enhancing its efficacy are discussed...
  76. ncbi Smallpox vaccines: Past, present, and future
    Janie Parrino
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3017, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:1320-6. 2006
    ....
  77. ncbi Fas-associated death domain-containing protein-mediated antiviral innate immune signaling involves the regulation of Irf7
    Siddharth Balachandran
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    J Immunol 178:2429-39. 2007
    ..These data indicate that FADD's antiviral activity involves regulation of IRF-7-dependent production of IFN-alpha subtypes and consequent induction of secondary antiviral genes...
  78. ncbi Cancer immunotherapy using virally transduced dendritic cells: animal studies and human clinical trials
    Miriam E Mossoba
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 67 College Street, Room 426, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2MI, Canada
    Expert Rev Vaccines 5:717-32. 2006
    ..It covers mouse and nonhuman primate studies, preclinical in vitro human cell experiments and clinical trials...
  79. ncbi Protective immunization against murine cytomegalovirus infection using adenoviruses and poxviruses expressing hepatitis B virus chimeras
    Bruna P de Andrade
    Department of Microbiology, Institute for Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Int Microbiol 10:261-9. 2007
    ....
  80. pmc Identification from diverse mammalian poxviruses of host-range regulatory genes functioning equivalently to vaccinia virus C7L
    Xiangzhi Meng
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Virology 372:372-83. 2008
    ....
  81. pmc A poxvirus host range protein, CP77, binds to a cellular protein, HMG20A, and regulates its dissociation from the vaccinia virus genome in CHO-K1 cells
    Jye Chian Hsiao
    Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Virol 80:7714-28. 2006
    ..In summary, our data revealed that a novel cellular protein, HMG20A, the dissociation of which from viral DNA is regulated by CP77, providing the first cellular target regulated by viral host range CP77 protein...
  82. pmc Heterologous prime/boost immunization of rhesus monkeys by using diverse poxvirus vectors
    Sampa Santra
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 81:8563-70. 2007
    ..This study supports further exploration of combining recombinant vectors of the same family in prime/boost immunization strategies to optimize vaccine-elicited cellular immune responses...
  83. ncbi Human cytotoxic CD4+ T cells recognize HLA-DR1-restricted epitopes on vaccinia virus proteins A24R and D1R conserved among poxviruses
    Shibani Mitra-Kaushik
    Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Immunol 179:1303-12. 2007
    ....
  84. ncbi Mucosal vaccine vectors: replication-competent versus replication-deficient poxviruses
    Lukena U Karkhanis
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 13:2015-23. 2007
    ....
  85. ncbi Recent advances in the development of adenovirus- and poxvirus-vectored tuberculosis vaccines
    Zhou Xing
    Infectious Diseases Division, Centre for Gene Therapeutics and Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Curr Gene Ther 5:485-92. 2005
    ..Since modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)- and adenovirus-vectored TB vaccines have been most extensively studied, this review will focus on recent advances in the development and applications of these two viral TB vaccines...
  86. ncbi Preclinical and clinical studies of recombinant poxvirus vaccines for carcinoma therapy
    Philip M Arlen
    Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1750, USA
    Crit Rev Immunol 27:451-62. 2007
    ..In addition, clinical studies combining vaccines with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and second-line hormone therapy have provided preliminary evidence of prolongation of time to disease progression and antigen cascade postvaccination...
  87. pmc Identification by a random sequencing strategy of the fowlpoxvirus DNA polymerase gene, its nucleotide sequence and comparison with other viral DNA polymerases
    M M Binns
    Nucleic Acids Res 15:6563-73. 1987
    ..The method used to identify the fowlpoxvirus gene could have applications towards defining genomic organisations in other viral systems...
  88. ncbi New approaches to the prevention and eradication of rabies
    Bernhard Dietzschold
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Suite 459, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2:399-406. 2003
    ..Finally, we discuss new immune therapeutics aimed at replacing the conventional administration of antirabies immunoglobulin used in rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in humans...
  89. ncbi A triad of costimulatory molecules synergize to amplify T-cell activation in both vector-based and vector-infected dendritic cell vaccines
    J Schlom
    Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 31:193-228. 2003
    ..In vivo, peptide-pulsed DCs infected with TRICOM vectors induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity markedly and significantly greater than peptide-pulsed DCs...
  90. ncbi Vaccine therapy of established tumors in the absence of autoimmunity
    James W Hodge
    Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1750, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 9:1837-49. 2003
    ..To our knowledge, the study reported here is the first description of a vaccine to a defined antigen where the regimen is potent enough to induce tumor therapy in the absence of autoimmunity...
  91. ncbi Poxviruses as vectors for cancer immunotherapy
    Heesun Kwak
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Departments of Surgery and Pathology, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, MHB 7SK, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 6:161-8. 2003
    ..In this review, we focus on recent advances in the use of poxvirus-based vaccines as cancer therapeutic agents...
  92. ncbi Virotherapy clinical trials for regional disease: in situ immune modulation using recombinant poxvirus vectors
    Michael J Mastrangelo
    Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    Cancer Gene Ther 9:1013-21. 2002
    ..We hypothesize that such an approach will ultimately lead to enhanced immune recognition of tumor and the development of an effective systemic antitumor immune response capable of eradicating primary and metastatic tumor foci...
  93. ncbi The vaccinia virus C12L protein inhibits mouse IL-18 and promotes virus virulence in the murine intranasal model
    Julian A Symons
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, UK
    J Gen Virol 83:2833-44. 2002
    ..However, infection of BALB/c mice by the intranasal route showed that the deletion mutant was attenuated and induced lower weight loss and signs of illness compared to controls...
  94. ncbi Immune response to poxvirus infections in various animals
    Scott A Smith
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, KY, USA
    Crit Rev Microbiol 28:149-85. 2002
    ..This review discusses the host immune response against poxvirus infections in various animals, the viral counter response to the host, and the animal models used to study poxvirus infection and immune modulating proteins...
  95. ncbi Immune evasion by a novel family of viral PHD/LAP-finger proteins of gamma-2 herpesviruses and poxviruses
    Klaus Fruh
    Oregon Health and Science University, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Virus Res 88:55-69. 2002
    ..However, several lines of evidence suggest that they might function as ubiquitin ligases that regulate the intracellular transport of transmembrane proteins through ubiquitination...
  96. ncbi Poxvirus immune modulators: functional insights from animal models
    Peter C Turner
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 0266, USA
    Virus Res 88:35-53. 2002
    ..The fact that multiple immune modulators can target the same pathway at different steps may explain why single knockout mutants are not always attenuated in animals...
  97. pmc Characterization of wild-type and cidofovir-resistant strains of camelpox, cowpox, monkeypox, and vaccinia viruses
    Donald F Smee
    Institute for Antiviral Research, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 5600, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1329-35. 2002
    ..Studies will need to be conducted with cidofovir-resistant monkeypox virus in monkeys to further support these hypotheses...
  98. ncbi Immunology 102 at poxvirus U: avoiding apoptosis
    J L Shisler
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445, MSC 0445, USA
    Semin Immunol 13:67-72. 2001
    ..These include inhibitors of apoptosis induced by ligand binding to cell surface receptors, peroxides, ultraviolet light, DNA damaging agents and other cell signaling pathways...
  99. pmc Identification, cloning, and sequencing of a fragment of Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus DNA containing the spheroidin gene and three vaccinia virus-related open reading frames
    R L Hall
    Department of Immunology and Medical Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610 0266
    J Virol 65:6516-27. 1991
    ..An analysis of open reading frames around the spheroidin gene suggests that the colinear core of "essential genes" typical of the vertebrate poxviruses is absent in A. moorei entomopoxvirus...
  100. ncbi Sequence analysis of an 11.2 kilobase, near-terminal, BamHI fragment of fowlpox virus
    F Tomley
    AFRC Institute for Animal Disease Research, Houghton Laboratory, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, U K
    J Gen Virol 69:1025-40. 1988
    ..In addition, there are two families of ORFs within the fragment which potentially encode related polypeptides. One of these, family B, contains three ORFs which are related to those of chicken and rat hepatic lectins...
  101. ncbi Similar genetic organization between a region of fowlpox virus DNA and the vaccinia virus HindIII J fragment despite divergent location of the thymidine kinase gene
    R Drillien
    Virology 160:203-9. 1987
    ..Despite this intriguing divergence, our results indicate that the Avipoxviruses are more closely related to the Orthopoxviruses than previously suspected...

Research Grants82

  1. Retrocyclin reinforcement of pulmonary defenses against viral aerosols
    Robert Lehrer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..HPIV3 (Paramyxoviridae), West Nile and Yellow Fever virus (Flaviviridae) SARS-CoV (Coronaviridae), Vaccinia (Poxviridae), VEE, an alphavirus (Togaviridae), and Tacaribe virus (Arenaviridae) 2...
  2. Vaccinia Virus Genetics and Morphogenesis
    Richard C Condit; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  3. Optimization of HPMPA and CDV Analogs for Treatment of Smallpox
    Karl Y Hostetler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This project could lead to safer and more effective drugs for biodefense against smallpox as well as for civilian viral diseases because the agents are broad spectrum antivirals which are active against many viral infections. ..
  4. Mechanisms of Virus Replication and Gene Expression
    Anne Simon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An innovative program has also been designed to help attract additional underrepresented students to the training program. ..
  5. Defense against Biowarfare and Emerging Infection Agents
    Myron Levine; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. CD8+ T cell specificity in mouse models of smallpox vaccination and challenge
    David Tscharke; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This study will provide basic information about the immune response to poxviruses and will help us know how best to use immunological knowledge and tools to design and test new smallpox: vaccines. ..
  7. VACCINIA VIRUS BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS
    Richard Condit; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  8. VACCINIA VIRUS BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS
    Richard C Condit; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  9. VACCINIA VIRUS BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS
    Richard C Condit; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  10. Automated Simultaneous Detection of Bioterrorism Agents
    David Ecker; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the instrumentation needs further development and validation for NIAID/CDC-priority pathogens such as the Poxviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae (especially VEE), and Filoviridea families and the alpha, ..
  11. NLR Family Proteins: Mechanisms and Regulation
    John Reed; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, studies of NLRs have relevance to a wide diversity of human diseases. ..
  12. NLR Family Proteins: Mechanisms and Regulation
    John C Reed; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, studies of NLRs have relevance to a wide diversity of human diseases. ..
  13. Poxvirus adverse effects on cardiac cells and the heart
    Barbara Sherry; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Studies proposed in this R21 application will provide the foundation for future in-depth studies with the goal of improving current and future smallpox vaccines. ..
  14. ANALOGS OF HPMPA FOR TREATMENT OF SMALLPOX
    Karl Hostetler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..HPMPA analogs are broad spectrum antivirals and other uses are anticipated which could make commercial development more likely. ..
  15. GENE REGULATION OF MAMMALIAN DNA VIRUSES
    Richard Moyer; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..We will try to correlate increases in pathogenesis with changes in host range in culture which might serve as a simple index of potential vaccine complications and side effects...
  16. BIOLOGY OF VACCINIA VIRUS ACYLPROTEINS
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  17. Region VI Center for Biodefence and Emerging Infections
    David Walker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Host proteins in Vaccinia viral membrane biogenesis
    Victor Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. VACCINIA DNA REPLICATION
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Thus, gaining an understanding of poxvirus replication is of significant practical importance and well as intellectual interest. ..
  20. VACCINIA VIRUS LATE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR
    Cynthia Wright; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Also, it is expected that knowledge of the transcriptional processes of the virus will increase its application as a vector for gene expression and vaccine use. ..