Summary: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of respiratory tract infections
    Robin Brittain-Long
    Department of Infection, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, 416 85 Goteborg, Sweden
    J Clin Virol 41:53-6. 2008
  2. ncbi Evolution of cell recognition by viruses
    E Baranowski
    , , Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Science 292:1102-5. 2001
  3. ncbi Host defense, viruses and apoptosis
    G N Barber
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    Cell Death Differ 8:113-26. 2001
  4. ncbi Viral metagenomics
    Eric L Delwart
    Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Rev Med Virol 17:115-31. 2007
  5. ncbi Viruses, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and interferon responses
    B He
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Cell Death Differ 13:393-403. 2006
  6. ncbi Functional metagenomic profiling of nine biomes
    Elizabeth A Dinsdale
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA
    Nature 452:629-32. 2008
  7. ncbi Rates of evolutionary change in viruses: patterns and determinants
    Siobain Duffy
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:267-76. 2008
  8. ncbi Marine viruses--major players in the global ecosystem
    Curtis A Suttle
    University of British Columbia, Departments of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Botany, and Microbiology and Immunology, 1461 BioSciences, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:801-12. 2007
  9. pmc Human CD14dim monocytes patrol and sense nucleic acids and viruses via TLR7 and TLR8 receptors
    Jerome Cros
    U838 INSERM, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Immunity 33:375-86. 2010
  10. pmc Viruses in the faecal microbiota of monozygotic twins and their mothers
    Alejandro Reyes
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 466:334-8. 2010

Detail Information

Publications259 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of respiratory tract infections
    Robin Brittain-Long
    Department of Infection, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, 416 85 Goteborg, Sweden
    J Clin Virol 41:53-6. 2008
    ..Broad diagnostics of respiratory infection by molecular assays has not yet won acceptance due to technical difficulties and high costs...
  2. ncbi Evolution of cell recognition by viruses
    E Baranowski
    , , Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Science 292:1102-5. 2001
    Evolution of receptor specificity by viruses has several implications for viral pathogenesis, host range, virus-mediated gene targeting, and viral adaptation after organ transplantation and xenotransplantation, as well as for the ..
  3. ncbi Host defense, viruses and apoptosis
    G N Barber
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    Cell Death Differ 8:113-26. 2001
    ..This likelihood is additionally underlined by the elaborate strategies developed by viruses to inhibit IFN-antiviral function and the mechanisms of cell death.
  4. ncbi Viral metagenomics
    Eric L Delwart
    Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Rev Med Virol 17:115-31. 2007
    Characterisation of new viruses is often hindered by difficulties in amplifying them in cell culture, limited antigenic/serological cross-reactivity or the lack of nucleic acid hybridisation to known viral sequences...
  5. ncbi Viruses, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and interferon responses
    B He
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Cell Death Differ 13:393-403. 2006
    ..Thus, to establish productive infection, viruses have evolved mechanisms to overcome the deleterious effects of PKR...
  6. ncbi Functional metagenomic profiling of nine biomes
    Elizabeth A Dinsdale
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA
    Nature 452:629-32. 2008
  7. ncbi Rates of evolutionary change in viruses: patterns and determinants
    Siobain Duffy
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 9:267-76. 2008
    ..We review our current knowledge of the rates of mutation and substitution, as well as their determinants, in RNA viruses, DNA viruses and retroviruses...
  8. ncbi Marine viruses--major players in the global ecosystem
    Curtis A Suttle
    University of British Columbia, Departments of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Botany, and Microbiology and Immunology, 1461 BioSciences, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:801-12. 2007
    b>Viruses are by far the most abundant 'lifeforms' in the oceans and are the reservoir of most of the genetic diversity in the sea...
  9. pmc Human CD14dim monocytes patrol and sense nucleic acids and viruses via TLR7 and TLR8 receptors
    Jerome Cros
    U838 INSERM, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Immunity 33:375-86. 2010
    ..Instead, they selectively produced TNF-α, IL-1β, and CCL3 in response to viruses and immune complexes containing nucleic acids, via a proinflammatory TLR7-TLR 8-MyD88-MEK pathway...
  10. pmc Viruses in the faecal microbiota of monozygotic twins and their mothers
    Alejandro Reyes
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 466:334-8. 2010
    ..These results indicate that a predatory viral-microbial dynamic, manifest in a number of other characterized environmental ecosystems, is notably absent in the very distal intestine...
  11. ncbi Viral metagenomics
    Robert A Edwards
    Department of Biology, Center for Microbial Sciences, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:504-10. 2005
    b>Viruses, most of which infect microorganisms, are the most abundant biological entities on the planet...
  12. ncbi Rapidly evolving CRISPRs implicated in acquired resistance of microorganisms to viruses
    Gene W Tyson
    Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Environ Microbiol 10:200-7. 2008
    Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that bacteria acquire resistance to viruses by incorporation of short transcribed nucleotide sequences into regions of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)...
  13. pmc The landscape of human proteins interacting with viruses and other pathogens
    Matthew D Dyer
    Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology Program, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e32. 2008
    ..with bacterial pathogens, viral pathogens, and those interacting with multiple bacteria and with multiple viruses. Gene Ontology functions enriched in these sets reveal a number of processes, such as cell cycle regulation, ..
  14. ncbi Metagenomics and future perspectives in virus discovery
    John L Mokili
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
    Curr Opin Virol 2:63-77. 2012
    ..of the virus in cell culture, a proven technique responsible for the identification of the vast majority of viruses known to date...
  15. pmc Expanding roles for CD4⁺ T cells in immunity to viruses
    Susan L Swain
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue N, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 12:136-48. 2012
    ..other lymphocytes, and have described previously unappreciated functions for memory CD4(+) T cells in immunity to viruses. Here, we review the full range of antiviral functions of CD4(+) T cells, discussing the activities of these ..
  16. ncbi Endogenous viruses: insights into viral evolution and impact on host biology
    Department of Biology, University of Texas, Arlington, Texas 76016, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 13:283-96. 2012
    ..Surprisingly, it appears that not just retroviruses but almost all types of viruses can become endogenous...
  17. ncbi Activation of host pattern recognition receptors by viruses
    Kiva Brennan
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:503-7. 2010
    ..Another novel mechanism of viral DNA recognition unveiled, leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, involves the PYHIN family member AIM2...
  18. pmc Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1842-7. 2005
    ..However, although zoonotic pathogens do represent the most likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious disease, only a small minority have proved capable of causing major epidemics in the human population...
  19. ncbi Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures
    Richard E Randall
    School of Biology, University of St Andrews, The North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:1-47. 2008
    ..However, viruses can still replicate and cause disease in vivo, because they have some strategy for at least partially ..
  20. ncbi How viruses hijack cell regulation
    Norman E Davey
    Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Trends Biochem Sci 36:159-69. 2011
    b>Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, are the pathogens that have the most intimate relationship with their host, and as such, their genomes have been shaped directly by interactions with the host proteome...
  21. pmc Viruses, microRNAs, and host interactions
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:123-41. 2010
    ..Several viruses, especially herpesviruses, also encode miRNAs, and over 200 viral miRNAs have now been identified...
  22. ncbi The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Department of Tumor Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 3 18 22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nat Immunol 5:730-7. 2004
    Intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a chief sign of replication for many viruses. Host mechanisms detect the dsRNA and initiate antiviral responses...
  23. pmc The fecal viral flora of wild rodents
    Tung G Phan
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002218. 2011
    ..We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, ..
  24. ncbi Immunity to respiratory viruses
    Jacob E Kohlmeier
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 27:61-82. 2009
    ..The investigation of pulmonary immunity to respiratory viruses during a primary infection has demonstrated that multiple innate and adaptive immune mechanisms are necessary for ..
  25. ncbi Viral and microbial community dynamics in four aquatic environments
    Beltran Rodriguez-Brito
    Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 1245, USA
    ISME J 4:739-51. 2010
    ..Microbial taxa, viral taxa, and metabolic function persist over time in stable ecosystems and both communities fluctuate in a Kill-the-Winner manner at the level of viral genotypes and microbial strains...
  26. ncbi Recognition of viral nucleic acids in innate immunity
    Mitsutoshi Yoneyama
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, and Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Rev Med Virol 20:4-22. 2010 infected cells but also regulating the induction of adaptive immunity, leading to the swift eradication of viruses. Recent advances in the identification of pathogen receptors in the innate immune system have revealed that ..
  27. ncbi Metagenomics for the discovery of novel human viruses
    Patrick Tang
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, 655 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada
    Future Microbiol 5:177-89. 2010
    Modern laboratory techniques for the detection of novel human viruses are greatly needed as physicians and epidemiologists increasingly deal with infectious diseases caused by new or previously unrecognized pathogens...
  28. pmc Unbiased reconstruction of a mammalian transcriptional network mediating pathogen responses
    Ido Amit
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 326:257-63. 2009
    ..This study establishes a broadly applicable, comprehensive, and unbiased approach to reveal the wiring and functions of a regulatory network controlling a major transcriptional response in primary mammalian cells...
  29. pmc Immunity and immunopathology to viruses: what decides the outcome?
    Barry T Rouse
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 0845, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:514-26. 2010
    Many viruses infect humans and most are controlled satisfactorily by the immune system with limited damage to host tissues...
  30. pmc New dimensions of the virus world discovered through metagenomics
    David M Kristensen
    Stowers Institute of Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Trends Microbiol 18:11-9. 2010
    Metagenomic analysis of viruses suggests novel patterns of evolution, changes the existing ideas of the composition of the virus world and reveals novel groups of viruses and virus-like agents...
  31. ncbi Viruses manipulate the marine environment
    Forest Rohwer
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA
    Nature 459:207-12. 2009
    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web...
  32. pmc Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses
    Linlin Li
    Blood Systems Research Institute 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Virol 84:6955-65. 2010
    Bats are hosts to a variety of viruses capable of zoonotic transmissions...
  33. pmc The fecal virome of pigs on a high-density farm
    Tongling Shan
    BSRI, 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Virol 85:11697-708. 2011
    ..An average of 4.2 different mammalian viruses were shed by healthy piglets, reflecting a high level of asymptomatic infections...
  34. pmc Phylodynamics of infectious disease epidemics
    Erik M Volz
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Genetics 183:1421-30. 2009
    ..We account for phylogenetic patterns of viruses in susceptible-infected (SI), susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS), and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) ..
  35. pmc Critical role for the chemokine receptor CXCR6 in NK cell-mediated antigen-specific memory of haptens and viruses
    Silke Paust
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:1127-35. 2010
    ..NK cell memory of haptens and viruses depended on CXCR6, a chemokine receptor on hepatic NK cells that was required for the persistence of memory NK ..
  36. pmc Metagenomic characterization of Chesapeake Bay virioplankton
    Shellie R Bench
    College of Marine and Earth Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:7629-41. 2007
    b>Viruses are ubiquitous and abundant throughout the biosphere. In marine systems, virus-mediated processes can have significant impacts on microbial diversity and on global biogeocehmical cycling...
  37. ncbi Metavir: a web server dedicated to virome analysis
    Simon Roux
    Laboratoire Microorganismes Génome et Environnement, Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, BP 10448, F 63000 Clermont Ferrand, France
    Bioinformatics 27:3074-5. 2011
    ..Metavir is thus unique as a platform that allows a comprehensive virome analysis...
  38. pmc Near-atomic resolution reconstructions of icosahedral viruses from electron cryo-microscopy
    Nikolaus Grigorieff
    Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02154, USA
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 21:265-73. 2011
    Nine different near-atomic resolution structures of icosahedral viruses, determined by electron cryo-microscopy and published between early 2008 and late 2010, fulfil predictions made 15 years ago that single-particle cryo-EM techniques ..
  39. pmc Evolutionary conflicts between viruses and restriction factors shape immunity
    Nisha K Duggal
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 12:687-95. 2012
    ..However, viruses have evolved mechanisms that antagonize restriction factors...
  40. ncbi Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses
    Quentin Sattentau
    The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:815-26. 2008
    ..Although this route of infection is undoubtedly important, many viruses that are pathogenic for humans, including HIV-1, herpes simplex virus and measles, can also move between cells ..
  41. ncbi Innate host defense mechanisms of fish against viruses and bacteria
    A E Ellis
    FRS Marine Laboratory, PO Box 101, Victoria Road, Aberdeen AB11 9DB, Scotland, UK
    Dev Comp Immunol 25:827-39. 2001
    ..tract is a hostile environment of acids, bile salts and enzymes able to inactivate and digest many viruses and bacteria...
  42. pmc Two-stepping through time: mammals and viruses
    Nicholas R Meyerson
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:286-94. 2011
    ..Long-term interactions between viruses and their hosts often develop into genetic arms races where both parties continually jockey for evolutionary ..
  43. pmc Cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell immunity between the pandemic H1N1-2009 and H1N1-1918 influenza A viruses
    Stephanie Gras
    Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12599-604. 2010
    ..evolution of immunization protocols that provide a measure of protection against unpredicted pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, it is worth exploring the potential of vaccines that incorporate peptide variants with a proven potential ..
  44. pmc The airway epithelium: soldier in the fight against respiratory viruses
    Marjolaine Vareille
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University Children s Hospital of Bern, Inselpital, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 24:210-29. 2011
    The airway epithelium acts as a frontline defense against respiratory viruses, not only as a physical barrier and through the mucociliary apparatus but also through its immunological functions...
  45. pmc Viral infections of the lower respiratory tract: old viruses, new viruses, and the role of diagnosis
    Andrew T Pavia
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 52:S284-9. 2011
    ..of the lower respiratory tract cause an enormous disease burden in children, and the role of respiratory viruses in serious lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in older adults is increasingly appreciated...
  46. ncbi Mechanisms of action of ribavirin against distinct viruses
    Jason D Graci
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA
    Rev Med Virol 16:37-48. 2006
    The nucleoside analogue ribavirin has antiviral activity against many distinct viruses both in vitro and in vivo. Five distinct mechanisms have been proposed to explain the antiviral properties of ribavirin...
  47. pmc Reprogrammed viruses as cancer therapeutics: targeted, armed and shielded
    Roberto Cattaneo
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Rochester, MayoClinic, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:529-40. 2008
    ..b>Viruses can be reprogrammed into oncolytic vectors by combining three types of modification: targeting, arming and ..
  48. pmc Selective autophagy and viruses
    Rhea Sumpter
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX USA
    Autophagy 7:260-5. 2011
    ..However, until recently, there have been virtually no studies on the selective autophagy of viruses, although they are perhaps one of the most ubiquitous unwanted constituents in human cells...
  49. ncbi Viruses and endosome membrane dynamics
    Jean Gruenberg
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 21:582-8. 2009
    ..It seems that viruses can enter and infect cells through most of, if not all, endocytic routes, having evolved different, sometimes ..
  50. ncbi Viral disorder or disordered viruses: do viral proteins possess unique features?
    Bin Xue
    Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Protein Pept Lett 17:932-51. 2010
    ..b>Viruses, these "organisms at the edge of life", have uniquely evolved to be highly adaptive for fast change in their ..
  51. pmc Paleovirology - ghosts and gifts of viruses past
    Maulik R Patel
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle WA USA
    Curr Opin Virol 1:304-9. 2011
    The emerging field of paleovirology aims to study the evolutionary age and impact of ancient viruses (paleoviruses) on host biology...
  52. pmc New genotype of dengue type 3 virus circulating in Brazil and Colombia showed a close relationship to old Asian viruses
    Victor Hugo Aquino
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brasil
    PLoS ONE 4:e7299. 2009
    Dengue type 3 genotype V viruses have been recently detected in Brazil and Colombia. In this study, we described another Brazilian isolate belonging to this genotype...
  53. pmc Virome analysis for identification of novel mammalian viruses in bat species from Chinese provinces
    Zhiqiang Wu
    MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    J Virol 86:10999-1012. 2012
    Bats are natural hosts for a large variety of zoonotic viruses. This study aimed to describe the range of bat viromes, including viruses from mammals, insects, fungi, plants, and phages, in 11 insectivorous bat species (216 bats in total)..
  54. pmc Single-particle tracking as a quantitative microscopy-based approach to unravel cell entry mechanisms of viruses and pharmaceutical nanoparticles
    Nadia Ruthardt
    Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Mol Ther 19:1199-211. 2011
    ..Such an analysis provides important information regarding the uptake pathway and location of viruses and nanoparticles...
  55. ncbi Nanobodies®: new ammunition to battle viruses
    Peter Vanlandschoot
    Ablynx NV, Ghent, Belgium
    Antiviral Res 92:389-407. 2011 described in the context of different experimental therapeutic applications of Nanobodies against different viruses: HIV, Hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, Respiratory Syncytial virus, Rabies virus, FMDV, Poliovirus, Rotavirus, ..
  56. pmc Frequent detection of respiratory viruses without symptoms: toward defining clinically relevant cutoff values
    Rogier R Jansen
    Department of Medical Microbiology1 and Department of Pediatrics, 2 Academical Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2631-6. 2011
    Highly sensitive techniques, such as PCR, have greatly improved the detection of respiratory viruses. However, the sensitivity of PCR tests also complicates clinical interpretation, as the presence of small amounts of viral targets may ..
  57. pmc Viruses and autophagy
    Sagar B Kudchodkar
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX, USA
    Rev Med Virol 19:359-78. 2009
    ..As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process...
  58. ncbi To kill or be killed: how viruses interact with the cell death machinery
    V Kaminskyy
    Division of Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Intern Med 267:473-82. 2010
    ..b>Viruses are found wherever there is life and have probably existed since living cells first evolved...
  59. ncbi Comparison of nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and aspirates for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viruses in children
    K H Chan
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong and Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China
    J Clin Virol 42:65-9. 2008
    ..The quality of clinical specimens is a crucial determinant for virological diagnosis...
  60. pmc The evolution of RNAi as a defence against viruses and transposable elements
    Darren J Obbard
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:99-115. 2009
    RNA interference (RNAi) is an important defence against viruses and transposable elements (TEs)...
  61. pmc Heterologous immunity between viruses
    Raymond M Welsh
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Immunol Rev 235:244-66. 2010
    ..Here, we discuss the nature of T-cell cross-reactivity and describe matrices of epitopes from different viruses eliciting cross-reactive CD8(+) T-cell responses...
  62. ncbi Ten reasons to exclude viruses from the tree of life
    David Moreira
    Unité d Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR CNRS 8, 079, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 360, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:306-11. 2009
    When viruses were discovered, they were accepted as missing links between the inert world and living organisms. However, this idea was soon abandoned as information about their molecular parasitic nature accumulated...
  63. pmc Transneuronal circuit tracing with neurotropic viruses
    Edward M Callaway
    The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:617-23. 2008
    Because neurotropic viruses naturally traverse neural pathways, they are extremely valuable for elucidating neural circuits. Naturally occurring herpes and rabies viruses have been used for transneuronal circuit tracing for decades...
  64. ncbi Viruses as vaccine vectors for infectious diseases and cancer
    Simon J Draper
    The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:62-73. 2010
    Recent developments in the use of viruses as vaccine vectors have been facilitated by a better understanding of viral biology. Advances occur as we gain greater insight into the interrelationship of viruses and the immune system...
  65. ncbi Prevalence of human respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing, 2005-2007
    L Ren
    Dr Christophe Mérieux Laboratory, IPB, CAMS Fondation Mérieux and State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Institute of Pathogen Biology IPB, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences CAMS, Beijing, China
    Clin Microbiol Infect 15:1146-53. 2009
    To determine the aetiological role and epidemiological profile of common respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs), a 2-year study was conducted in Beijing, China, from May 2005 to July 2007...
  66. ncbi Natural killer cells, viruses and cancer
    A Cerwenka
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Cancer Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, 94143-0414, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 1:41-9. 2001
    ..Here, we review the emerging evidence that natural killer cells have an important role in vivo in immune defence...
  67. ncbi Viruses and apoptosis
    A Roulston
    GeminX Biotechnologies Inc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Annu Rev Microbiol 53:577-628. 1999
    ..In addition to inducing immune and inflammatory responses, infection by most viruses triggers apoptosis or programmed cell death of the infected cell...
  68. ncbi Metagenomics and the molecular identification of novel viruses
    Nicholas Bexfield
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Vet J 190:191-8. 2011
    There have been rapid recent developments in establishing methods for identifying and characterising viruses associated with animal and human diseases...
  69. ncbi Rapid detection and identification of 12 respiratory viruses using a dual priming oligonucleotide system-based multiplex PCR assay
    Suk Ran Kim
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    J Virol Methods 156:111-6. 2009
    ..Seoul, Korea) for simultaneous detection and identification of 12 respiratory viruses using two primer mixes...
  70. ncbi Are viruses a source of new protein folds for organisms? - Virosphere structure space and evolution
    Aare Abroi
    Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia
    Bioessays 33:626-35. 2011
    ..the virosphere into the global picture of protein structure space reveals that 63 protein domain superfamilies in viruses do not have any structural and evolutionary relatives in modern cellular organisms...
  71. pmc A biophysical protein folding model accounts for most mutational fitness effects in viruses
    C Scott Wylie
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9916-21. 2011
    ..Compensatory mutations are common in small populations with high mutation rates. More broadly, we conclude that interplay between biophysical and population genetic forces shapes the DFE...
  72. ncbi Detection of new respiratory viruses in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis: a three-year prospective study
    C Calvo
    Pediatrics Department, Severo Ochoa Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    Acta Paediatr 99:883-7. 2010
    We have designed a study with the objective of describing the clinical impact of other viruses different from the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis.
  73. pmc Real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection and monitoring of pathogenic human viruses in immunosuppressed pediatric patients
    F Watzinger
    Division of Molecular Microbiology and Development of Genetic Diagnostics, Children s Cancer Research Institute, Vienna, Austria
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5189-98. 2004
    ..PCR assays based on TaqMan technology has been developed for the detection and monitoring of 16 different viruses and virus families including human polyomaviruses BK virus and JC virus, human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, human ..
  74. pmc High burden of non-influenza viruses in influenza-like illness in the early weeks of H1N1v epidemic in France
    Nathalie Schnepf
    Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Microbiology Department, Saint Louis Hospital, APHP, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e23514. 2011
    ..Clinical observations are of little help to recognise myxovirus infection and implement appropriate prevention measures. The limited use of molecular tools underestimates the role of other common pathogens...
  75. ncbi Marine viruses and global climate change
    Roberto Danovaro
    Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:993-1034. 2011
    ..Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine viruses, including cascading effects on biogeochemical cycles, food webs, and the metabolic balance of the ocean...
  76. pmc Detection of respiratory viruses by molecular methods
    James B Mahony
    Regional Virology Laboratory, St Joseph s Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:716-47. 2008
    ..With the discovery of six new respiratory viruses since 2000, laboratories are faced with the challenge of detecting up to 19 different viruses that cause acute ..
  77. ncbi VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling
    Liang Guo Xu
    Department of Immunology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    Mol Cell 19:727-40. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that VISA is critically involved in both virus-triggered TLR3-independent and TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN signaling...
  78. ncbi Type 1 interferons and the virus-host relationship: a lesson in détente
    Adolfo Garcia-Sastre
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Science 312:879-82. 2006's arsenal of antimicrobial factors, the type 1 interferons (IFNs) induce potent defense mechanisms against viruses and are key in the host-virus standoff...
  79. pmc Clinical and financial benefits of rapid detection of respiratory viruses: an outcomes study
    J Barenfanger
    Laboratory Medicine, Memorial Medical Center, Springfield, Illinois 62781, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:2824-8. 2000
    To assess the expected benefits of rapid reporting of respiratory viruses, we compared patients whose samples were processed using standard techniques such as enzyme immunoassays, shell vial assays, and culture tube assays (year 1) to ..
  80. pmc Association of bacteria and viruses with wheezy episodes in young children: prospective birth cohort study
    Hans Bisgaard
    The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, and The Danish Pediatric Asthma Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Ledreborg Alle 34, DK 2820 Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark
    BMJ 341:c4978. 2010
    ..To study the association between wheezy symptoms in young children and the presence of bacteria in the airways...
  81. pmc Nasal swab versus nasopharyngeal aspirate for isolation of respiratory viruses
    Terho Heikkinen
    Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital Department of Virology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4337-9. 2002
    To determine the usefulness of nasal swabs as a simple method for detection of respiratory viruses, we compared nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained at the same time from the opposite nostrils of 230 children with upper ..
  82. pmc Synthetic viruses: a new opportunity to understand and prevent viral disease
    Eckard Wimmer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 27:1163-72. 2009
    ..Although only a few applications of virus synthesis have been described as yet, key recent findings have been the resurrection of the 1918 influenza virus and the generation of codon- and codon pair-deoptimized polioviruses...
  83. ncbi Viruses and the autophagy machinery
    Marlene Dreux
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Cell Cycle 9:1295-1307. 2010
    ..Our understanding of the fascinating relationship between viruses and the autophagy machinery is still in its infancy but it is clear that autophagy is a newly recognized facet of ..
  84. ncbi Metagenomic analysis of viruses in reclaimed water
    Karyna Rosario
    College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St Petersburg, Florida, USA
    Environ Microbiol 11:2806-20. 2009
    ..This study characterized the viral community found in reclaimed water and compared it with viruses in potable water...
  85. pmc Modulation of natural killer cell activity by viruses
    Vanda Juranic Lisnic
    Department for Histology and Embryology and Center for Proteomics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, B Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
    Curr Opin Microbiol 13:530-9. 2010
    ..These mechanisms include not only virally encoded immunoevasion proteins but also viral miRNA. Moreover, the evidence has been accumulated supporting the role of viral immunoevasion of NK cells in viral pathogenesis in vivo...
  86. pmc Mechanisms for enveloped virus budding: can some viruses do without an ESCRT?
    Benjamin J Chen
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 3500, USA
    Virology 372:221-32. 2008
    Many enveloped viruses complete their replication cycle by forming vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane...
  87. pmc Optimization of procedures for counting viruses by flow cytometry
    Corina P D Brussaard
    Department of Biological Oceanography, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, NL 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:1506-13. 2004
    ..acid stains, in combination with flow cytometric techniques, has allowed the identification and enumeration of viruses in aquatic systems...
  88. ncbi Tentative characterization of new environmental giant viruses by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
    Bernard La Scola
    Pôle des Maladies Infectieuses, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille and URMITE UMR CNRS IRD 6236, IFR48, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, France
    Intervirology 53:344-53. 2010
    ..polyphaga Mimivirus relatives are common in the environment; however, only three Acanthamoeba-growing giant viruses have been isolated from hundreds of environmental samples...
  89. pmc Innate immune recognition of viruses and viral vectors
    Xiaopei Huang
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 20:293-301. 2009 immunology have suggested a crucial role for the innate immune system in the induction of immune responses to viruses. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the host's innate immune system recognizes viruses and ..
  90. pmc A sensitive assay for virus discovery in respiratory clinical samples
    Michel de Vries
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e16118. 2011
    ..Eighteen nasopharyngeal swabs were analysed, all containing known respiratory viruses. We could identify the proper virus in the majority of samples tested (11/18)...
  91. ncbi Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections with cough in infancy: a community-based birth cohort study
    Nicolas Regamey
    Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, University Children s Hospital of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:100-5. 2008 detail the viral aetiology of ARI with such symptoms in otherwise healthy infants, including rhinoviruses and recently discovered viruses such as human metapneumovirus (HMPV), coronavirus NL63 and HKU1, and human bocavirus (HBoV).
  92. pmc Eukaryotic viruses in wastewater samples from the United States
    Erin M Symonds
    College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St Petersburg, Florida 33701, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1402-9. 2009
    Human fecal matter contains a large number of viruses, and current bacterial indicators used for monitoring water quality do not correlate with the presence of pathogenic viruses...
  93. pmc Plant microRNAs and their role in defense against viruses: a bioinformatics approach
    Alvaro L Pérez-Quintero
    Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Departamento de Biologia, Bogota D C Colombia
    BMC Plant Biol 10:138. 2010
    ..In this work, a bioinformatics approach was taken to test whether plant miRNAs from six species could have antiviral activity by targeting the genomes of plant infecting viruses.
  94. pmc Comparison of automated microarray detection with real-time PCR assays for detection of respiratory viruses in specimens obtained from children
    Frederic Raymond
    Infectious Disease Research Center of the CHUQ CHUL and Laval University, Sainte Foy, Quebec, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 47:743-50. 2009
    ..We developed and compared two assays that allow the detection of up to 23 different respiratory viruses that frequently infect children...
  95. ncbi The source of self: genetic parasites and the origin of adaptive immunity
    Luis P Villarreal
    Center for Virus Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1178:194-232. 2009
    Stable colonization of the host by viruses (genetic parasites) can alter the systems of host identity and provide immunity against related viruses...
  96. pmc Evaluation of high-throughput sequencing for identifying known and unknown viruses in biological samples
    Justine Cheval
    Institut Pasteur, Genotyping of Pathogens and Public Health Platform, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, F 75015 Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 49:3268-75. 2011
    ..a large number of short sequence reads from uncloned DNA and has rapidly become a major tool for identifying viruses in biological samples, and in particular when the target sequence is undefined...
  97. pmc What have RNAi screens taught us about viral-host interactions?
    Sara Cherry
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 12:446-52. 2009
    ..This has led to the discovery of hundreds of new factors, and has increased our knowledge of the host factors that impact viral infection and highlighted the cellular pathways at play...
  98. pmc Atomic force microscopy in imaging of viruses and virus-infected cells
    Yurii G Kuznetsov
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 560 Steinhaus Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 3900, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:268-85. 2011
    ..Capsids of icosahedral viruses and the icosahedral capsids of enveloped viruses have been seen at high resolution, in some cases sufficiently ..
  99. pmc Viral and cellular microRNAs as determinants of viral pathogenesis and immunity
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:375-87. 2008
    ..Here, we discuss what is known about how viral and cellular miRNAs influence viral replication and pathogenic potential through their regulation of viral mRNAs or by reshaping cellular gene expression...
  100. ncbi Respiratory viruses in bronchoalveolar lavage: a hospital-based cohort study in adults
    J Garbino
    University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland
    Thorax 64:399-404. 2009
    The epidemiology of respiratory viruses and their potential clinical impact when recovered in lower respiratory specimens has not been established in the hospital setting...
  101. pmc Predominance and circulation of enteric viruses in the region of Greater Cairo, Egypt
    Aziza H Kamel
    Laboratory of Virology, National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses, Public Hospital of Dijon, Dijon, France
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1037-45. 2009
    The circulation of enteric viruses among the population of Cairo, Egypt, between March 2006 and February 2007 was studied. At least one virus was detected in 50% of fecal samples, 57...

Research Grants76

    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..VEE virus epitomizes the ability of RNA viruses to mutate and alter their host range and disease patterns, and represents ideal model systems for the study of ..
  2. Regulation of HSV-1 Gene Expression and Replication by Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    SHAOCHUNG VICTOR HSIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fourth, our publication indicated that the level of T3 controls viral replication and the release of infectious viruses in vitro...
  3. CFI Pathogen Inactivation Technology
    Trevor P Castor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There are also a number of emerging viruses such as West Nile and the breaking Mexican swine flu, and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as ..
    Thomas A Platts Mills; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided extensive evidence about effects of chronic exposure to indoor allergens, as well as the relevance of viruses to acute episodes in the hospital;the role of chronic sinus disease;and most recently the effects of pH changes ..
  5. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..responses with reduction of viremia and protection from disease progression in macaques infected with pathogenic viruses. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Studies of virus specific immune responses in HIV exposed and infected individuals as ..
  6. Natural History and Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among Alaska Natives
    BRIAN JAMES MCMAHON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for booster doses of either hepatitis A or hepatitis B vaccines can result in both safety from exposure to these viruses and healthcare cost savings...
  7. Regulation of B Cell Function by Membrane-Cytoskeletal Remodeling
    Neetu Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Public Health Relevance: B cells respond to environmental pathogens such as bacteria and viruses by secreting specific antibodies that clear infections...
  8. Integrated Microfluidic Platform for Point-of-Care Serodiagnostics
    Xiaowu Liang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tuberculosis, variola major related pox viruses, Dengue, and West Nile)...
  9. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..develop N-MCT as a therapeutic against the Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae genera of Class I dsDNA viruses, which include HSV-1, HSV-2, HSV-8, VZV, EBV, smallpox, Vaccinia, cowpox, and HPV...
  10. Induction and maintenance of regulatory T cells
    Mitchell Kronenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are altered by viral infections, and we will determine how the innate responses by antigen presenting cells to viruses mediate effects on Treg. In Project 4 led by Dr...
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanisms that govern viral dissemination and target cell selection are not well understood for most pathogenic viruses. This gap in knowledge has impeded the rational design of antiviral agents and vaccines that act at the earliest ..
  12. Pathobiology of Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes in a Ferret Model
    Zoe Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the molecular pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) and strategies to utilize recombinant adenovirus-associated viruses (rAAV) as gene therapy vectors. Dr...
  13. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young S Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. there were 4,180 clinical West Nile cases with 149 associated deaths in 2006. Other mosquito-borne viruses (e.g., eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, La Crosse, and St...
  14. Systematics of medically important Dermacentor tick vectors
    Dmitry A Apanaskevich; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These species also transmit several viruses that cause human diseases...
  15. Alternative Macrophage Activation Limits Immunopathology
    DEBROSKI R HERBERT; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Infection with diverse bacteria and viruses gives rise to classically activated macrophages (CAMF), which produce pro- inflammatory cytokines (e.g...
  16. TLR4 Inhibition to Reduce Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
    LORI ANN HOLLE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..evolved over 700 million years to protect uni- and multi- cellular organisms from infection with bacteria, fungi, viruses and other pathogens...
  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Parvovirus Gene Expression and Replication
    Jianming Qiu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Among DNA viruses, B19V has a unique feature in the processing of its precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) in that all the viral mRNAs are ..
  18. Novel DNA-Launched Attenuated Vaccine for VEE Virus
    PETER M PUSHKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The i-DNA clones will be transfected in CHO cells and live attenuated viruses will be harvested from culture media...
  19. Cellular Immunity to Category A-C Viruses in Humans
    ROBERT WILLIAM FINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Project 4 will analyze the mechanisms underlying the selection of immunodominant epitopes from large DMA viruses, including poxviruses and herpesviruses (HHV-6)...
  20. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A, B, or C emerging human pathogens such as Yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue (DEN1-4) viruses that cause serious illnesses with considerable morbidity and mortality...
  21. Hospital - Based Surveillance of Acute Febrile Illness in Western Ghat Region of
    ..Rickettsial group of organisms (Scrub typhus, Spotted fever group, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma etc.) and Viruses ( KFD, Dengue, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Virus, Chikungunya virus, Tick borne Encephalitis virus, Crimean ..
  22. Viral and Host Determinants of New World Alphaviral Entry
    ASIM AMINSHARIF AHMED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is one of the most highly pathogenic viruses in humans with 35-50% mortality and is an actively reemerging public health threat...
  23. A quantitative proteomics approach to understand viral immune evasion strategies
    Michele E Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Research into mechanisms utilized by viruses to evade cellular antiviral responses is receiving increased attention...
  24. Regulation of Type 1 Interferon Production by Autoimmunity-Associated PTPN22
    Yaya Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..I will determine the role of LypW in host immune responses to viruses. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Autoimmune diseases are complex polygenic diseases...
  25. C5a as an Anti-HIV Microbicidal Candidate
    PHILIPPE ANDRE GALLAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of human cells even when used at high doses and because it does not inhibit the infection of other enveloped viruses such as influenza and vesicular stomatitis viruses...
  26. Present Homologous and Heterologous Antigen with Hepatitis E Virus
    R Holland Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of VLP to antibody- induced neutralization by structural alteration at antibody-binding sites, a mechanism that viruses have evolved to mediate their escape from host immune surveillance...
  27. Human Beta-Defensin-1 in HSV-1 Innate Immunity
    LISA KATHLEEN RYAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..DC (PDC) is important in innate immune function through the production of interferon-? (IFN) induced by enveloped viruses like HSV-1...
  28. The Role of Interleukin-10 During Fatal Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis
    KIRSTEN KULCSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Encephalitic arthropod-borne viruses are emerging as a major cause of death and disease worldwide...
  29. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diseases associated with the Poxviridae (smallpox, vaccinia and cowpox viruses), and Herpesviridae (HSV-1, HSV-2, HSV-8, VZV, EBV) dsDNA viruses represent major worldwide public health problems...
    Rafi Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and to determine the extent to which such responses are unique to YFV-17D relative to other vaccines or viruses. This overall goal will be achieved in three Research Projects: 1. Immune Memory (Ahmed/Boss), 2...
  31. Signaling by Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinases in Leukocytes
    Clifford A Lowell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Immune cells sense pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses through a complex array of cellular receptors...
  32. Mechanisms of Neutralizing Antibody Resistance in Chronic HCV and HIV Infection
    JUSTIN RICHARD BAILEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and an expert in B cell biology and the molecular basis for the development of effective B cell responses to viruses in humans...
  33. Mechanisms of virus-induced injury in the brain and spinal cord
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viruses induce disease in the central nervous system (CNS) by either killing or disrupting essential functions of neurons within the brain and spinal cord...
  34. Non-coding RNA engineers antibody diversity
    Uttiya Basu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign antigens, such as bacteria and viruses. Newly generated B cells migrate from bone-marrow to secondary lymphoid organs where they encounter antigens, and ..
  35. Non-invasive zoonotic pathogen exposure and outcome biomarkers with follow-up in
    Christopher D Heaney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..production are major sources of novel antimicrobial drug-resistant bacterial pathogens which along with zoonotic viruses are among the most globally prevalent and emerging infectious diseases...
  36. In Vivo Function of TRAF6 As a Target of K63-Linked Polyubiquitination
    DEAN BALLARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of the TLR-dependent immune responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by bacteria and viruses. If left unchecked, these TRAF6-dependent responses can lead to excessive cytokine production, tissue injury, and ..
  37. Anti-Bacterial Innate Responses Enhance Paramyxovirus Replication
    Griffith D Parks; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2, we will extend these studies to determine if our preliminary results apply to other clinically-relevant RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus, and ..
  38. Durable Visible Light-activated Antivral Coatings for Fabrics Used for Personal P
    JOSEF STEPHAN SCHNEIDER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Significance: Influenza and other enveloped viruses are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year and cost the US economy over $70 billion ..
  39. Epidemiology and Etiology of Hospitalized Pneumonia in Children
    Krow Ampofo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Several respiratory viruses have been recognized in recent years, and there is increased recognition of the impact of influenza in causing ..
  40. SARS-CoV Pathogenic Mechanisms in Senescent Mice
    Ralph S Baric; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., civet, raccoon dog, human). In aged rodent models, two recombinant viruses (icGZ02-S-early human phase;icHC/SZ/61/03-S- civet) caused severe disease with diffuse alveolar damage, hyaline ..
    J Evan Sadler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mammalian cells;role of platelets and angiogenesis in metastasis;biology of human immunodeficiency and leukemia viruses;epithelial morphogenesis;pathogenesis of leukemia, MDS, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and congenital neutropenia;..
  42. Hepatitis B virus replication and DDB1
    Betty L Slagle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In summary, viruses are adept at targeting cellular pathways that benefit viral replication...
  43. Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association
    Joel Rovnak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..topics discussed include medical virology (vaccines, epidemiology, viral zoonoses), arthropod-borne diseases (RNA viruses and RNA metabolism, viral vectors and vector biology), host defenses (viral immunology and pathogenesis), ..
  44. Roles of RNA Polymerases IV and V in siRNA-mediated gene silencing
    CRAIG STUART PIKAARD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and dosage control, imprinting of genes expressed from only one parent, defense against retrotransposons and viruses, heterochromatin formation at centromeres and genome stability...
  45. Ibis T-6,000 Biosensor System
    CYNTHIA SEARS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..extensive genomic database to permit high throughput, rapid and sensitive identification of microbes (bacteria, viruses, fungi) in original, complex human or animal specimens including respiratory secretions and feces...
  46. Enhanced Membrane Systems for Supplying Quality Drinking Water
    Andrew Feiring; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Chlorine is also less effective at killing viruses. Innovation: While there is significant effort to move from chlorine t enhanced oxidation chemicals (EOC) for ..
  47. Structure and Function of the Hepatitis C Virus Genome
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2013 a novel, unprecedented mechanism of internal ribosome binding, and that a key defense protein against viruses, helicase RIG-I, interacts with the viral genome...
  48. CTL response to AAV Vector
    Richard J Samulski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many viruses (For example herpes, EB) evade host immune response by synthesizing small peptides called viral proteins ..
  49. Herpesvirus-induced telomerase dysregulation and tumor formation
    Keith William Jarosinski; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A number of viruses, including members of the Herpesviridae, can cause tumors in their hosts...
  50. Mechanisms and Enviromental Determinants of Rhinovirus Illness Severity
    James E Gern; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RELEVANCE: Rhinoviruses, originally known as "common cold viruses", also cause lower respiratory illnesses such as childhood wheezing, influenza-like illness, and exacerbations of ..
  51. Regulation of Human Papillomavirus Replication via Cell Signaling Pathways
    ANASTACIA GRIEGO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are highly species specific and possess a strict tropism for squamous epithelium...
  52. NOX1 and NOX2 as Therapeutic Targets in Influenza
    JOHN DAVID LAMBETH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. 1918 flu, bird flu) occasionally arise, causing morbidity/mortaliy through the propensity of these viruses to induce a "cytokine storm" that mediates lung cell dysfunction and damage (acute respiratory distress syndrome ..
  53. Mucosal Immunity and Influenza Vaccines: Phenotype and Role of Activated B Cells
    HARRY BERNARD GREENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Influenza viruses are respiratory tract pathogens that infect through the respiratory mucosa and cause significant morbidity and ..
  54. Virus-Host Interactions that Lead to Epilepsy
    Robert S Fujinami; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Different virus infections can cause encephalitis that result in seizures. These viruses include herpes viruses such as human herpes virus type-6, influenza viruses, rotaviruses, adenovirus, respiratory ..
  55. Immune Regulation of Viral Recrudescence
    Cornelia Bergmann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..CNS) is a major target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir of latent/persisting viruses. While effective immune control of persisting viruses in immunocompetent individuals is reflected by the absence ..
    RICHARD J BUCALA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..allow for the identification of patients at risk for lethal outcome from different pathogens, whether bacteria, viruses, or emerging infectious agents...
  57. Role of microRNA-122 in hepatocarcinogenesis using conditional knock out mice
    Kalpana Ghoshal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Its major risk factors are infection with hepatitis B and C viruses, and exposure to toxic chemicals, including alcohol, all of which cause chronic liver injury and inflammation...
  58. Effect of Neonatal Hyperoxia on Alveolar Development and Infection
    MICHAEL A O'REILLY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a novel subpopulation of alveolar epithelial Type II cells that selectively expresses genes that destroy RNA viruses and bacteria, and control asymmetric cell division of stem/progenitor cells...
  59. Varicella zoster virus: molecular controls of cell fusion-dependent pathogenesis
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our mutant viruses will be compared to wild type VZV for replication competencies in human skin and neuronal tissue using novel ..
  60. Development of a Recombinant Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Based on a Subunit Envelo
    Lynda G Tussey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An effective and safe vaccine requires a balanced immune response to all four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV-1 to -4) because sequential infection by different dengue virus serotypes can lead to life-threatening ..
  61. Innate Immune Mechanisms of Motor Neuron Injury
    Timothy Vartanian; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Selective degeneration of motor neurons occurs in the setting of diverse insults including RNA viruses such as HIV and West Nile, and in heritable mutations of ubiquitously expressed genes such as SOD1...
  62. Control of alphavirous replacation in the nervous system
    Diane E Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses, most importantly alphaviruses and flaviviruses, cause widespread epidemics of fever, encephalitis and arthritis and pose increasing threats to human populations ..
  63. Human cytomegalovirus entry into epithelial and endothelial cells
    David C Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Clinical strains of HCMV enter all these diverse cell types, apparently because these viruses express two entry glycoproteins: gH/gL/UL128-131, required for entry into epithelial and endothelial cells and gH/..
  64. CFI Inactivation of Human Plasma
    TREVOR CASTOR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..There are also a number of emerging viruses such as West Nile and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as smallpox that are of concern to the ..
  65. Functional role of a host metabolic enzyme in viral replication
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Plus-stranded (+)RNA viruses infect all kind of species and cause many serious diseases in humans, animals and plants, leading to major losses in food production and representing significant risk to ..
    Gregory Mertz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hantaviruses are NIH category A pathogens, including the viruses that cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in North, Central and South America...
  67. The role of the host Ca/Mn pump in emergence of novel viral RNA recombinants
    Peter Nagy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Emergence of new viruses is a continuing threat to our society...
  68. Development of an effective genital herpes vaccine
    William P Halford; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of non-replicating HSV-2 vaccine agents such as the glycoprotein D subunit or replication-defective HSV-2 viruses. Such approaches merit consideration...
    Erica Dawson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The advantages of the proposed approach over existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for influenza viruses stem from the use of a single gene segment for identification of both type and subtype...
  70. Determinants of RNA virus evolution
    ISABEL NOVELLA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): RNA viruses are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans...
  71. Simian Virus 40 (SV40) uncoating and penetration
    Daniel Hebert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The overall goal of the proposal is to elucidate the mechanism of viral uncoating for nonenveloped DNA viruses using Simian Virus 40 (SV40) as a model virus...
  72. Construct novel influenza A (H1N1) virus chimeric HA genes for development of bro
    VICTOR CHESTER HUBER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There are concerns that the virus may reassort with seasonal human influenza viruses giving rise to either increased transmissibility or pathogenicity...
    FREDRIC COHEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): All enveloped viruses initiate infection by fusing to cell membranes, creating a fusion pore, and depositing their genomes into cells after the pore enlarges...
    Joseph Glorioso; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This application describes the use of HSV mutants to investigate HSV gene expression during latency. Mutant viruses with as many as three IE genes have been deleted. These IE genes are ICPO, 4, 22, and 27...
  75. Gender Factors Influencing Susceptability to Influenza
    Sabra L Klein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): During a typical influenza season, influenza A viruses primarily cause mortality in the very young and old;conversely, pandemic influenza viruses, including the 1918 H1N1 subtype and avian H5N1 ..
  76. Nanoporous Gold: Extractive Substrate for High-Speed Ultrasensitive Bioassays
    Lorraine Siperko; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viruses claimed a significant component of the nearly 15 million lives lost to infectious diseases in 2002...