catha

Summary

Summary: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The effect of chewing Khat leaves on human mood
    Nageeb A Hassan
    Departments of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana a, PO Box 14315 MAAIN, Sana a, Republic of Yemen
    Saudi Med J 23:850-3. 2002
  2. ncbi Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen
    Ahmed Al-Motarreb
    Department of Pharmacology, Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cathays Park, Cardiff CF10 3XF, UK
    Phytother Res 16:403-13. 2002
  3. ncbi Khat habit and its health effect. A natural amphetamine
    Ishraq Dhaifalah
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetric, Al Thawra University Hospital, Sana a, Yemen Republic
    Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 148:11-5. 2004
  4. ncbi Khat (Catha edulis): health aspects of khat chewing
    N A G M Hassan
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Al Thawra Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana a, Sana a, Yemen
    East Mediterr Health J 13:706-18. 2007
  5. ncbi Toxicological evaluation of Catha edulis leaves: a long term feeding experiment in animals
    Molham Al-Habori
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, University of Sana a, PO Box 19065, Sana a, Yemen
    J Ethnopharmacol 83:209-17. 2002
  6. pmc Camptothecin and khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) induced distinct cell death phenotypes involving modulation of c-FLIPL, Mcl-1, procaspase-8 and mitochondrial function in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines
    Therese Bredholt
    The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Mol Cancer 8:101. 2009
  7. pmc Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia
    Wakgari Deressa
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
    BMC Public Health 11:660. 2011
  8. doi Khat alters the phenotype of in vitro-reconstructed human oral mucosa
    O M Lukandu
    Section for Pathology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway
    J Dent Res 89:270-5. 2010
  9. ncbi Khat chewing amongst UK resident male Yemeni adults: an exploratory study
    Saba Kassim
    Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, UK
    Int Dent J 56:97-101. 2006
  10. pmc The consumption of khat and other drugs in Somali combatants: a cross-sectional study
    Michael Odenwald
    PLoS Med 4:e341. 2007

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications141 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The effect of chewing Khat leaves on human mood
    Nageeb A Hassan
    Departments of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana a, PO Box 14315 MAAIN, Sana a, Republic of Yemen
    Saudi Med J 23:850-3. 2002
    Chewing fresh leaves of the Khat plant (Catha edulis), represents a widespread habit with a deep-rooted sociocultural tradition in Yemen...
  2. ncbi Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen
    Ahmed Al-Motarreb
    Department of Pharmacology, Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cathays Park, Cardiff CF10 3XF, UK
    Phytother Res 16:403-13. 2002
    Fresh leaves of the khat tree (Catha edulis Forsk.) are chewed for their euphoric properties in East Africa and parts of the Middle East, such as The Yemen...
  3. ncbi Khat habit and its health effect. A natural amphetamine
    Ishraq Dhaifalah
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetric, Al Thawra University Hospital, Sana a, Yemen Republic
    Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 148:11-5. 2004
    ..In recent years, several cases of intoxication have been observed outside the area of its use. In this view, the khat habit, its health effects and socioeconomic aspects are described with the political issue they imply...
  4. ncbi Khat (Catha edulis): health aspects of khat chewing
    N A G M Hassan
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Al Thawra Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana a, Sana a, Yemen
    East Mediterr Health J 13:706-18. 2007
    b>Catha edulis Forsk leaves (khat) are chewed daily by a high proportion of the adult population in Yemen for the mild stimulant effect...
  5. ncbi Toxicological evaluation of Catha edulis leaves: a long term feeding experiment in animals
    Molham Al-Habori
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, University of Sana a, PO Box 19065, Sana a, Yemen
    J Ethnopharmacol 83:209-17. 2002
    In this study the long term (6 months) toxicological effect of varying levels of Catha edulis leaves were examined on the plasma concentration of liver enzymes as well as the histopathology of tissue sections of the liver...
  6. pmc Camptothecin and khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) induced distinct cell death phenotypes involving modulation of c-FLIPL, Mcl-1, procaspase-8 and mitochondrial function in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines
    Therese Bredholt
    The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Mol Cancer 8:101. 2009
    An organic extract of the recreational herb khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) triggers cell death in various leukemia cell lines in vitro...
  7. pmc Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia
    Wakgari Deressa
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
    BMC Public Health 11:660. 2011
    ..This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substance use and identify factors that influenced the behavior among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia...
  8. doi Khat alters the phenotype of in vitro-reconstructed human oral mucosa
    O M Lukandu
    Section for Pathology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway
    J Dent Res 89:270-5. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi Khat chewing amongst UK resident male Yemeni adults: an exploratory study
    Saba Kassim
    Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, UK
    Int Dent J 56:97-101. 2006
    ..This cross sectional study recruited adult male Yemeni residents in Sheffield and Birmingham, UK, to assess their use of khat...
  10. pmc The consumption of khat and other drugs in Somali combatants: a cross-sectional study
    Michael Odenwald
    PLoS Med 4:e341. 2007
    ....
  11. ncbi Investigation into the toxicological effects of Catha edulis leaves: a short term study in animals
    M Al-Mamary
    Food Science Department and Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sana a, Sana a, Yemen
    Phytother Res 16:127-32. 2002
    In this study the short term (3 months) toxicological effects of varying levels of Catha edulis leaves were examined on the plasma concentration of liver enzymes and the histopathology of tissue sections of various organs including the ..
  12. pmc Khat use and neurobehavioral functions: suggestions for future studies
    Richard Hoffman
    Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth, 1035 University Avenue, Duluth, MN 55812 3031, USA
    J Ethnopharmacol 132:554-63. 2010
    ....
  13. doi Khat a drug of abuse: roles of free radicals and antioxidants
    Samir L Aleryani
    Vanderbilt University, The Vanderbilt Clinic, Nashville, TN 37232 5310, USA
    Drug Test Anal 3:548-51. 2011
    ....
  14. ncbi The effect of Khat (Catha edulis) as an appetite suppressant is independent of ghrelin and PYY secretion
    Charles D R Murray
    Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Appetite 51:747-50. 2008
    The leaves of the khat plant (Catha edulis) are chewed for their pleasurable effects. Chewing releases cathinone which may decrease appetite through an unknown mechanism...
  15. ncbi Experimental gingivitis in male khat (Catha edulis) chewers
    Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi
    University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Medical Sciences Dentistry, Sana a, Yemen
    J Int Acad Periodontol 12:56-62. 2010
    ..Whether or not khat chewing is detrimental to the periodontium remains uncertain. Findings from cross-sectional studies have been contradictory and, in most cases, uncontrolled for confounders...
  16. doi Khat induces G1-phase arrest and increased expression of stress-sensitive p53 and p16 proteins in normal human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts
    Ochiba M Lukandu
    Institute of Oral Sciences, Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, University of Bergen, and Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Eur J Oral Sci 116:23-30. 2008
    ..The results show that stress induced by khat modulates the cell cycle in oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts. It is further speculated whether khat could have similar effects in vivo, especially in keratinocytes...
  17. ncbi Khat chewing and arterial blood pressure. A randomized controlled clinical trial of alpha-1 and selective beta-1 adrenoceptor blockade
    Nageeb A Hassan
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana a, PO Box 14315 MAAIN, Yemen
    Saudi Med J 26:537-41. 2005
    ..The aim of this work was to study prospectively the effect of alpha-1 and selective beta-1 adrenoceptor blockade on cardiovascular effects of khat chewing in healthy volunteers...
  18. ncbi Constipating and spasmolytic effects of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) in experimental animals
    E Makonnen
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University
    Phytomedicine 7:309-12. 2000
    The constipating and spasmolytic effects of Catha edulis Forsk (Khat) were investigated in whole mice and on isolated guinea pig ileum. D-amphetamine was employed in both experiments for comparison...
  19. ncbi The health impacts of khat: a qualitative study among Somali-Australians
    Heather Douglas
    TC Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD
    Med J Aust 195:666-9. 2011
    ..To identify patterns of khat use among Somali-Australians in Australia and to explore their views about the links between khat use and personal health...
  20. ncbi Clozapine attenuates the locomotor sensitisation and the prepulse inhibition deficit induced by a repeated oral administration of Catha edulis extract and cathinone in rats
    Mehret Yerdaw Banjaw
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Zoological Institute, Faculty of Biology, University of Tuebingen, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 160:365-73. 2005
    ..inhibition deficit were induced under the same context by intermittent oral administration of S-(-)-cathinone or Catha edulis extract in rats...
  21. ncbi Khat use and mental illness: a critical review
    Nasir Warfa
    Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK
    Soc Sci Med 65:309-18. 2007
    ..There is a need for improved research on khat use and its possible association with psychiatric disorders...
  22. doi Subchronic administration of Catha edulis F. (khat) extract is marked by elevation of cardiac biomarkers and subendocardial necrosis besides blood pressure alteration in rats
    Endalkachew Admassie
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    J Ethnopharmacol 136:246-53. 2011
    ..This study attempted to evaluate cardiovascular substrates that predispose individuals to these episodes by using both biochemical and morphologic-pathologic studies...
  23. doi Khat (Catha edulis) alters the phenotype and anti-microbial activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    Craig Murdoch
    Academic Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Surgery, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    J Ethnopharmacol 138:780-7. 2011
    ..This study examined the biological effects of khat on the phenotype and function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
  24. doi Free radicals are present in human serum of Catha edulis Forsk (Khat) abusers
    Ahmed A Al-Akwa
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana a University, Yemen
    J Ethnopharmacol 125:471-3. 2009
    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a naturally occurring drug with an amphetamine-like structure and action. It has been postulated that amphetamine induces free radical formation...
  25. ncbi Determinants of CD4 counts among HIV-negative Ethiopians: role of body mass index, gender, cigarette smoking, khat (Catha Edulis) chewing, and possibly altitude?
    C Abuye
    Department of Nutrition, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    J Clin Immunol 25:127-33. 2005
    ..Low body mass index among Ethiopians may have contributed to their overall low CD4 counts. Other factors remain to be elucidated...
  26. pmc Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis) chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
    Ayalu A Reda
    Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
    PLoS ONE 7:e33946. 2012
    Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis) alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users...
  27. ncbi Oral manifestations of habitual khat chewing: a case-control study
    Noam Yarom
    Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 109:e60-6. 2010
    Khat, or qat (Catha edulis), is a shrub indigenous to Yemen and certain parts of eastern Africa...
  28. ncbi Khat (Catha edulis)-an updated review
    Nezar N Al-Hebshi
    Department of Oral Sciences Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Norway
    Addict Biol 10:299-307. 2005
    The habit of chewing fresh leaves and twigs of khat (Catha edulis) for their stimulating amphetamine-like effects is highly prevalent in East Africa and southwest on the Arabic peninsula...
  29. doi Khat - a controversial plant
    Erica E Balint
    Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 121:604-14. 2009
    Khat (Catha edulis) is a shrub or tree whose leaves have been chewed for centuries by people who live in the Eastern part of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula...
  30. ncbi Cigarette smoking and khat chewing among university instructors in Ethiopia
    Y Kebede
    Gondar College of Medical Sciences, P O Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
    East Afr Med J 79:274-8. 2002
    ..To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing...
  31. pmc Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among in-school and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia
    Derege Kebede
    Department of Community Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    BMC Public Health 5:109. 2005
    ..This study was conducted to describe the magnitude of risky sexual behaviour (unprotected sex and early initiation of sexual activity) and its association with Khat and alcohol consumption in Ethiopian youths...
  32. doi Is miraa a drug?: categorizing Kenyan khat
    Neil Carrier
    Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford, UK
    Subst Use Misuse 43:803-18. 2008
    ..War-on-drugs rhetoric is countered by those more enamored of the substance by discourse in which its use is labeled "traditional," "cool," and an "economic miracle."..
  33. ncbi Behavioural sensitisation following repeated intermittent oral administration of Catha edulis in rats
    Mehret Yerdaw Banjaw
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Zoological Institute, University of Tübingen Auf der Morgenstelle 28E, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 156:181-9. 2005
    ..A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of repeated oral administration of Catha edulis in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into five groups received: saline, S-(-)-cathinone (1...
  34. ncbi Histopathologic changes in oral mucosa of Yemenis addicted to water-pipe and cigarette smoking in addition to takhzeen al-qat
    Aiman A Ali
    Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences Unit of Oral Pathology and Medicine, King Faisal University College of Dentistry, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 103:e55-9. 2007
    ..Because the clinicopathologic effects of takhzeen al-qat are similar to those induced by smoking, the aim of this paper was to study the oral effect of 3 bad oral habits: takhzeen al-qat and cigarette and water-pipe smoking...
  35. pmc Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves
    Stefan W Toennes
    Institute of Forensic Toxicology, Centre of Legal Medicine, University of Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, D 60596 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 56:125-30. 2003
    ..The stimulating herbal drug khat is habitually used in East Africa and the Arabian peninsula but is also imported into other countries. The aim was to study the pharmacokinetics of its alkaloids cathinone, cathine and norephedrine...
  36. doi Cathinone preservation in khat evidence via drying
    John S Chappell
    Drug Enforcement Administration, Western Laboratory, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Forensic Sci Int 195:108-20. 2010
    A primary concern with the forensic analysis of the khat plant (Catha edulis) has been the need to preserve the principle psychoactive component, cathinone, which converts to the less-active substance, cathine, after harvesting...
  37. doi Intoxication with Qăat, Catha edulis L
    Robert Michael Bruce-Chwatt
    J Forensic Leg Med 17:232-5. 2010
    The increasing use of Qăat, Catha edulis L. in immigrants from the Horn of Africa to the UK is a matter of concern and may yet become a problem in the UK diaspora...
  38. ncbi Developmental patterns of phenylpropylamino alkaloids accumulation in khat (Catha edulis, Forsk.)
    Raz Krizevski
    Department of Aromatic, Medicinal and Spice Crops, Newe Ya ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, PO Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Israel
    J Ethnopharmacol 114:432-8. 2007
    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk., Celastraceae) is a perennial shrub that was introduced to Israel by Yemenite immigrants. Khat young leaves are chewed as a stimulant...
  39. ncbi Khat (Catha edulis) consumption causes genotoxic effects in humans
    F Kassie
    Institute of Cancer Research, Vienna, Austria
    Int J Cancer 92:329-32. 2001
    ....
  40. ncbi The potential adverse effects of habitual use of Catha edulis (khat)
    Molham Al-Habori
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana a, P O Box 19065, Sana a, Republic of Yemen
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 4:1145-54. 2005
    The habit of Catha edulis Forsk (khat) chewing has prevailed for centuries among populations in the horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula. Fresh leaves of Catha edulis are customarily chewed to attain a state of stimulation...
  41. doi Early loss of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential in khat-induced cell death of primary normal human oral cells
    Ochiba M Lukandu
    Section of Pathology, The Gade Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway
    Toxicology 263:108-16. 2009
    ..This study describes a novel mechanism of khat-induced cell death in primary normal oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts involving an early pivotal effect on mitochondrial function and integrity...
  42. pmc Khat chewing and acute myocardial infarction
    A Al-Motarreb
    Heart 87:279-80. 2002
  43. pmc Khat chewing is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study
    A Al-Motarreb
    Al Thawrah Teaching Hospital, Sana a, Yemen
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 59:574-81. 2005
    ..The aim was to examine the hypothesis that khat chewing is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using a hospital-based matched case-control study...
  44. doi Risk assessment of khat use in the Netherlands: a review based on adverse health effects, prevalence, criminal involvement and public order
    E J M Pennings
    Leiden University Medical Center, P O Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 52:199-207. 2008
    ..A similar conclusion may be drawn for countries with a comparable prevalence of khat use and khat related public order disturbance...
  45. doi Khat special edition introduction
    Susan Beckerleg
    School of Health and Social Studies, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    Subst Use Misuse 43:749-61. 2008
    Although khat (Catha edulis) is not widely known outside its countries of production in East Africa and Yemen, it evokes strong views among consumers, development workers, and government officials who often behave as self-styled experts ..
  46. ncbi Effect of khat, its constituents and restraint stress on free radical metabolism of rats
    Tariq M Al-Qirim
    Department of Biochemistry, F o Life Sciences, A M U, 202002 Aligarh, India
    J Ethnopharmacol 83:245-50. 2002
    The leaves of khat (Catha edulis) are found to have stimulating and pleasurable effect and are chewed habitually by people of East Africa and Arabian Peninsula...
  47. ncbi A review of the neuropharmacological properties of khat
    Anteneh M Feyissa
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1147-66. 2008
    The psychostimulant khat (Catha edulis Forsk), is a herbal drug cultivated and chewed as a recreational and socializing drug in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula for centuries...
  48. ncbi Exploration of adverse psychological symptoms in Yemeni khat users by the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90)
    Nabil Numan
    National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
    Addiction 99:61-5. 2004
    ..The present study was aimed at assessing associations between psychological symptoms and khat use in the Yemeni population...
  49. ncbi Driving under the influence of khat--alkaloid concentrations and observations in forensic cases
    Stefan W Toennes
    Institute of Forensic Toxicology, Center of Legal Medicine, University of Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, Frankfurt Main D 60596, Germany
    Forensic Sci Int 140:85-90. 2004
    The use of the herbal stimulant khat (Catha edulis FORSK) is maintained by immigrants from countries where it is part of their cultural life (Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa)...
  50. ncbi Khat (Catha edulis) chewing during pregnancy in Yemen: findings from a national population survey
    Marwan Khawaja
    Center for Research on Population and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Bliss Street, P O Box 11 0236, Beirut, Lebanon
    Matern Child Health J 12:308-12. 2008
    ..This study examines the prevalence of khat chewing among women during pregnancy and some of the risk factors for this habit in Yemen...
  51. pmc Association of smoking and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) use with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006
    Fikru Tesfaye
    School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 11490, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Prev Chronic Dis 5:A89. 2008
    ..We assessed the prevalence of substance use and its association with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
  52. ncbi Effect of Catha edulis on plasma glucose and C-peptide in both type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics
    R Saif-Ali
    Clinical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sana a, P O Box 19065, Sana a, Yemen
    J Ethnopharmacol 86:45-9. 2003
    ....
  53. ncbi Catha edulis (Khat) induces cell death by apoptosis in leukemia cell lines
    E Dimba
    Department of Odontology Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1010:384-8. 2003
    ....
  54. ncbi Use and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) among three occupational groups in south western Uganda
    A O Ihunwo
    Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
    East Afr Med J 81:468-73. 2004
    To examine the use of and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) in three towns in south-western Uganda.
  55. doi Khat (Catha edulis) induces reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in normal human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts
    Ochiba M Lukandu
    Section for Pathology, The Gade Institute, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Toxicol Sci 103:311-24. 2008
    ..In summary, khat induced apoptotic cell death in primary normal oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts by an early effect on mechanisms that regulate oxidative stress...
  56. pmc Khat (Catha edulis)-induced apoptosis is inhibited by antagonists of caspase-1 and -8 in human leukaemia cells
    E A O Dimba
    Department of Odontology Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, Faculty of Dentistry and Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Br J Cancer 91:1726-34. 2004
    ..It is concluded that khat induces a rather swift and sensitive cell death by apoptosis through mechanisms involving activation of caspase-1, -3 and -8...
  57. ncbi A study of 342 oral keratotic white lesions induced by qat chewing among 2500 Yemeni
    Aiman A Ali
    Department of Oral Pathology and Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sana a, Yemen
    J Oral Pathol Med 33:368-72. 2004
    ..Various studies demonstrated clear effects of this habit on the systemic organs of the human body. The lack of studies, however, on the effects of this habit on oral mucosa was the major motive of this study...
  58. pmc Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: a cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia
    Michael Odenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Fach D25, D 78476 Konstanz, Germany
    BMC Med 3:5. 2005
    ..We aimed to explore the prevalence of psychotic disorders among the general population and the association between khat use and psychotic symptoms...
  59. ncbi Histopathological changes in oral mucosa due to takhzeen al-qat: a study of 70 biopsies
    Aiman A Ali
    Department of Oral Pathology and Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sana a, Yemen
    J Oral Pathol Med 35:81-5. 2006
    ..At the oral mucosa, it causes clinical changes that appear as white lesions. The aim of this paper was to study the histopathological changes in the oral mucosa related to takhzeen al-qat...
  60. ncbi Effect of khat chewing on 14 selected periodontal bacteria in sub- and supragingival plaque of a young male population
    N N Al-Hebshi
    Department of Odontology Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Norway
    Oral Microbiol Immunol 20:141-6. 2005
    The habit of chewing khat (Catha edulis) for its amphetamine-like effects is highly prevalent in Yemen and east Africa, and has expanded to Western countries...
  61. ncbi Meet the khat-heads
    T Trent Gegax
    Newsweek 140:35. 2002
  62. ncbi Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing, sociodemographic description and its effect on academic performance, Jimma University students 2002
    Andualem Mossie Ayana
    Jimma University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, P O Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia
    Ethiop Med J 42:125-36. 2004
    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing habit is being a hot issue of discussion nation wide...
  63. ncbi [Khat-induced psychosis?]
    G Degraeve
    Tijdschr Psychiatr 49:763-7. 2007
    ..Two cases of suspected khat-induced psychosis are presented. Treatment of choice appears to be discontinuation of khat use, possibly combined with treatment with an antipsychotic...
  64. ncbi Effect of Catha edulis (khat) on behaviour and its potential to induce seizures in Sprague Dawley rats
    E Oyungu
    Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University, P O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya
    East Afr Med J 84:219-25. 2007
    ....
  65. ncbi [Khat--a new drug of abuse in Norway]
    Muhammad Al-Samarraie
    Divisjon for rettstoksikologi og rusmiddelforskning Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt Postboks 4404 Nydalen 0403 Oslo
    Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 127:574-6. 2007
    ..The stimulating drug, Khat, is a drug of abuse that has become known in Norway due to increased immigration from East-Africa, especially Somalia...
  66. doi Anger expression, negative life events and violent behaviour among male college students in Ethiopia
    Bizu Gelaye
    Department of Epidemiology, Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Scand J Public Health 36:538-45. 2008
    ..To assess the prevalence of violent behaviour and to identify risk factors associated with violent behaviour among male college students in Ethiopia...
  67. ncbi The perioperative implications of khat use
    O A Bamgbade
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 25:170-2. 2008
  68. ncbi [The house of shame and the boys in Akerselva]
    Willy Pedersen
    Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 127:563. 2007
  69. ncbi [Evaluation of compliance with antiretroviral treatment in a cohort of 200 patients in Djibouti, 2005]
    A A Ahmed
    Ministere de la Sante, Djibouti
    East Mediterr Health J 13:1286-97. 2007
    ..In multivariate analysis, community support and level of education protected against non-compliance. Patients having already missed a dose and those dissatisfied with confidentiality had a 4 times greater risk of non-compliance...
  70. ncbi Determination of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine in hair of Yemenite khat chewers
    Frank Sporkert
    Institute of Legal Medicine, University Rostock, St Georg Street 108, 18055 Rostock, Germany
    Forensic Sci Int 133:39-46. 2003
    ..7ng/mg for CTN. A highly significant correlation was found between the self-reported data about the khat consumption habits of the volunteers (4-56h chewing per week) and the concentrations of norephedrine and norpseudoephedrine in hair...
  71. ncbi Qat chewing and pesticides: a study of adverse health effects in people of the mountainous areas of Yemen
    Junko Date
    Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Japan
    Int J Environ Health Res 14:405-14. 2004
    ..It is concluded that chewing qat grown with chemical pesticides causes considerable adverse health effects in human beings...
  72. ncbi Use of doubly protonated molecules in the analysis of cathedulins in crude extracts of khat (Catha edulis) by liquid chromatography/serial mass spectrometry
    Geoffrey C Kite
    Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:1553-64. 2003
    Analysis of crude methanolic extracts of fresh khat (Catha edulis) by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) revealed the presence of 62 cathedulin alkaloids (compared with 15 published structures)...
  73. ncbi Effects of khat (Catha edulis) consumption on reproductive functions: a review
    J M Mwenda
    Institute of Primate Research, P O Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya
    East Afr Med J 80:318-23. 2003
    To review research findings on the effects of khat (Catha edulis) chewing on reproductive functions.
  74. ncbi Common drugs of abuse--Part II
    Mary Linda Stotter Cuddy
    J Pract Nurs 54:5-8, 25-31; quiz 17-9. 2004
    ..Drug abuse affects a significant number of individuals of all ages. Health care practitioners must be knowledgeable about both the physiological effects of such drugs and the impact of drug-seeking behavior on their patients...
  75. ncbi Catha edulis: a new differential in the diagnosis of pregnancy induced hypertension
    K M Kuczkowski
    J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 33:535. 2004
  76. ncbi Coronary and aortic vasoconstriction by cathinone, the active constituent of khat
    A L Al-Motarreb
    Division of Pharmacology, Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, King Edward VII Avenue, Cathays Park, Cardiff CF10 3XF, UK
    Auton Autacoid Pharmacol 23:319-26. 2003
    ..The precise mechanism for this vasoconstriction remains to be determined. The coronary vasoconstriction may explain the increased incidence of myocardial infarction in khat chewers, which may arise from coronary vasospasm...
  77. ncbi Repeated Catha edulis oral administration enhances the baseline aggressive behavior in isolated rats
    M Y Banjaw
    Department of Neuropharmacology, Zoological Institute, Faculty of Biology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    J Neural Transm 113:543-56. 2006
    The effects of repeated oral administration of the psychostimulant plant, Catha edulis and its active principle, cathinone on rats were studied using isolation induced aggression paradigm...
  78. ncbi Khat chewing: an emerging drug concern in Australia?
    Johana Stefan
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry 39:842-3. 2005
  79. ncbi In vitro effects of crude khat extracts on the growth, colonization, and glucosyltransferases of Streptococcus mutans
    Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi
    Department of Oral Sciences Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Norway
    Acta Odontol Scand 63:136-42. 2005
    ..It is shown that khat leaves contain water-soluble constituents that inhibit some cariogenic properties of S. mutans in vitro...
  80. ncbi In vitro antimicrobial and resistance-modifying activities of aqueous crude khat extracts against oral microorganisms
    Nezar Al-hebshi
    Laboratory of Oral Microbiology, Department of Oral Sciences Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Armauer Hansens Hus, N 5021 Bergen, Norway
    Arch Oral Biol 51:183-8. 2006
    To assess antimicrobial activities of aqueous crude khat (Catha edulis) extracts against a panel of oral microorganisms and to test their ability to modify bacterial resistance to tetracycline and penicillin in vitro.
  81. ncbi Khat (Catha edulis) up-regulates testosterone and decreases prolactin and cortisol levels in the baboon
    Jason M Mwenda
    Institute of Primate Research, P O Box 24481, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Ethnopharmacol 103:379-84. 2006
    The potential effect of Khat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) on fertility in humans has not been elucidated...
  82. doi Khat (Catha edulis) lowers plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretion, but increases cortisol levels in male rabbits
    A W Nyongesa
    Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, University of Nairobi, P O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Ethnopharmacol 116:245-50. 2008
    ..This study investigated the effects of fresh khat extract on specific circulating hormones in male rabbits...
  83. ncbi Antifungal efficacy of ten selected South African plant species against Cryptococcus neoformans
    T A Mokoka
    Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
    Pharm Biol 48:397-404. 2010
    ..Harv. (Rutaceae), Morusmesozygia Stapf (Moraceae), Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb. (Rutaceae), Catha transvaalensis Codd (Celastraceae), Cussonia zuluensis Strey (Araliaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp...
  84. ncbi Plants and the central nervous system
    E A Carlini
    Department of Psychobiology, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Rua Botucatu, 862 Ed Ciências Biomédicas, 1o andar, CEP 04023 062, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75:501-12. 2003
    ..Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized...
  85. ncbi Detection and validated quantification of nine herbal phenalkylamines and methcathinone in human blood plasma by LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization
    Jochen Beyer
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Saarland University, D 66421 Homburg Saar, Germany
    J Mass Spectrom 42:150-60. 2007
    The herbal stimulants Ephedra species, Catha edulis (khat), and Lophophora williamsii (peyote) have been abused for a long time. In recent years, the herbal drug market has grown owing to publicity on the Internet...
  86. ncbi Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with dyspepsia in South-Western Saudi Arabia
    Ayobanji E Ayoola
    Division of Gastroenterology, King Fahd Central Hospital, Gizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    Saudi Med J 25:1433-8. 2004
    ..Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major cause of various upper gastrointestinal (UGI) disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori among patients with dyspepsia...
  87. ncbi Cathine, an amphetamine-related compound, acts on mammalian spermatozoa via beta1- and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors in a capacitation state-dependent manner
    S A Adeoya-Osiguwa
    Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, King s College London, London, UK
    Hum Reprod 22:756-65. 2007
    ..Cathine, an amphetamine-related metabolite of a compound found in Catha edulis leaves, accelerates capacitation and inhibits spontaneous acrosome loss by regulating cAMP production...
  88. pmc Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia
    Mengistu Legesse
    Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    BMC Public Health 10:187. 2010
    ..In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in pastoral communities of Afar...
  89. pmc Regulation of phagocytosis in macrophages by neuraminidase 1
    Volkan Seyrantepe
    Sainte Justine University Hospital Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, QuebecH3T 1C5, Canada
    J Biol Chem 285:206-15. 2010
    ..and dendritic cells is accompanied by induction of cell-surface neuraminidase 1 (Neu1) and cathepsin A (CathA), the latter forming a complex with and activating Neu1...
  90. doi Expression and molecular dynamics studies on effect of amino acid substitutions at Arg344 in human cathepsin A on the protein local conformation
    Tatsusada Yoshida
    Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 1 78 Shomachi, Tokushima 770 8505, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1794:1693-9. 2009
    Human lysosomal protective protein/cathepsin A (CathA) is a multifunctional protein that exhibits not only protective functions as to lysosomal glycosidases, i.e...
  91. doi Khat chewing, cardiovascular diseases and other internal medical problems: the current situation and directions for future research
    A Al-Motarreb
    Cardiac Centre, Internal Medicine Department, Sana a University, Sana a, Yemen
    J Ethnopharmacol 132:540-8. 2010
    The leaves of khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) are chewed as a social habit for the central stimulant action of their cathinone content...
  92. pmc A pilot study on the effect of catha edulis frosk., (celastraceae) on metabolic syndrome in wokw rats
    Samira Abdulla Mahmood
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Aden University, Aden, Yemen
    Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 5:271-7. 2008
    This study investigated the effect of Catha edulis (khat) on some important parameters of the metabolic syndrome in Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (WOKW ) rat...
  93. doi Serine carboxypeptidases in regulation of vasoconstriction and elastogenesis
    Alexey V Pshezhetsky
    Department of Medical Genetics, CHU Sainte Justine Research Center, Departments of Pediatrics and Biochemistry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3T1C5, Canada
    Trends Cardiovasc Med 19:11-7. 2009
    ..The major lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase A (cathepsin A [CathA]), also known as protective protein, activates and stabilizes two other lysosomal enzymes, beta-galactosidase and ..
  94. ncbi Khat chewing and bladder neck dysfunction. A randomized controlled trial of alpha 1-adrenergic blockade
    A A Nasher
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sana a, Republic of Yemen
    Br J Urol 75:597-8. 1995
    To assess whether the effect of chewing khat leaves (Catha edulis) on the urodynamics of healthy males is altered by the selective alpha 1-adrenergic blocking agent indoramin in a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial.
  95. ncbi Introduction to the special issue: The changing use and misuse of khat (Catha edulis)-Tradition, trade and tragedy
    Michael Odenwald
    University of Konstanz, Fachbereich Psychologie, P O BOX 5560 25, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    J Ethnopharmacol 132:537-9. 2010
    ..This special issue of the Journal of Ethnopharmacology contains articles written by different conference speakers that present the current state of knowledge and the challenges for future research and politics...
  96. doi Enzymatic activity of lysosomal carboxypeptidase (cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1
    Volkan Seyrantepe
    Department of Medical Genetics, CHU Sainte Justine Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Circulation 117:1973-81. 2008
    Lysosomal carboxypeptidase, cathepsin A (protective protein, CathA), is a component of the lysosomal multienzyme complex along with beta-galactosidase (GAL) and sialidase Neu1, where it activates Neu1 and protects GAL and Neu1 against ..
  97. doi Concentration levels of essential and non-essential metals in Ethiopian khat (Catha edulis Forsk)
    Minaleshewa Atlabachew
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Biol Trace Elem Res 138:316-25. 2010
    ..Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu, and Co) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metal in six different varieties of Ethiopian khat (Catha edulis Forsk, an evergreen stimulant plant) commonly consumed in the country and exported to the neighboring ..
  98. ncbi Stabilizing effect of lysosomal beta-galactosidase on the catalytic activity of protective protein/cathepsin A secreted by human platelets
    K Itoh
    Department of Clinical Genetics, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 253:228-34. 1998
    The 32/20-kDa two-chain form of protective protein/cathepsin A (CathA) secreted by human platelets was thermostable in the aggregation supernatant at acidic pH, but was denatured at neutral pH...
  99. doi Drug use in a rural secondary school in Kenya
    David M Ndetei
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    Subst Abus 31:170-3. 2010
    ..Alcohol, tobacco, khat (catha edulis) and bhang (cannabis) were the most commonly reported substance of use, with user prevalence rates of 5...
  100. pmc Regular Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: a comparative study
    Workineh Getahun
    School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    BMC Public Health 10:390. 2010
    Fresh leaves and buds of the Khat plant (Catha edulis) contain Cathinone, an amphetamine like alkaloid responsible for its pharmacological action...
  101. ncbi Prevalence and risk factors of gender-based violence committed by male college students in Awassa, Ethiopia
    Marc Philpart
    University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Violence Vict 24:122-36. 2009
    ..Alcohol consumption, khat use (Catha edulis, a natural stimulant), combined use of alcohol and khat, and witnessing parental violence were risk factors ..

Research Grants8

  1. Khat Chewing: Its Association with HIV Status and CD4 T Cells
    Della Berhanu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..5%. There has been recent evidence that khat (Catha edulis), a locally grown and widely used drug, is associated with sexual activity and unprotected sex...
  2. SYNTHESIS OF CELASTRACEAE ALKALOIDS OF KHAT
    John Huffman; Fiscal Year: 1980
    The leaves and twigs of the shrub Catha edulis (Khat) are used quite widely in East Africa and the Middle East as a stimulant-narcotic and anti-depressant...
  3. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Stress & Smoking Relapse
    MUSTAFA AL ABSI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Reducing relapse rates will contribute significantly towards decreasing tobacco use and its devastating effects. ..
  4. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Stress & Smoking Relapse
    MUSTAFA AL ABSI; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Reducing relapse rates will contribute significantly towards decreasing tobacco use and its devastating effects. ..
  5. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Stress & Smoking Relapse
    MUSTAFA AL ABSI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Reducing relapse rates will contribute significantly towards decreasing tobacco use and its devastating effects. ..
  6. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Stress & Smoking Relapse
    MUSTAFA AL ABSI; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Reducing relapse rates will contribute significantly towards decreasing tobacco use and its devastating effects. ..
  7. Stress Response and Opioid Dysfunction in Nicotine Dependence
    MUSTAFA N AL apos ABSI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This will set the stage for research to determine relapse vulnerability markers. In turn, this will provide unique opportunities for prediction and development of targeted interventions. ..
  8. Stress, Appetite, and Smoking Relapse
    MUSTAFA N AL apos ABSI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Reducing smoking relapse will have a direct public health impact in reducing the burden of smoking-related diseases. ..