cryptococcus neoformans

Summary

Summary: A species of the fungus Cryptococcus, which causes CRYPTOCOCCOSIS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000945. 2010
  2. pmc Cryptococcal cell morphology affects host cell interactions and pathogenicity
    Laura H Okagaki
    Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000953. 2010
  3. ncbi Deciphering the model pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans
    Alexander Idnurm
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:753-64. 2005
  4. pmc Systematic genetic analysis of virulence in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Oliver W Liu
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 600 16th St, GH N372C, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 135:174-88. 2008
  5. pmc Galleria mellonella as a model system to study Cryptococcus neoformans pathogenesis
    Eleftherios Mylonakis
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Gray Jackson 504, 55 Fruit St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Infect Immun 73:3842-50. 2005
  6. ncbi The effect of HIV infection on adult meningitis in Indonesia: a prospective cohort study
    A Rizal Ganiem
    Department of Neurology, Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Jalan Pasteur 38, Bandung 40161, Indonesia
    AIDS 23:2309-16. 2009
  7. pmc Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis
    G M Cox
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 68:443-8. 2000
  8. pmc Characterization of the PMT gene family in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Sven D Willger
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Molekulare Mykologie, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Dusseldorf, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e6321. 2009
  9. pmc Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells requires protein kinase C-alpha activation
    Ambrose Jong
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
    Cell Microbiol 10:1854-65. 2008
  10. pmc Cryptococcal urease promotes the accumulation of immature dendritic cells and a non-protective T2 immune response within the lung
    John J Osterholzer
    Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health System, Ann Arbor, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Am J Pathol 174:932-43. 2009

Detail Information

Publications334 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000945. 2010
    ..The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells...
  2. pmc Cryptococcal cell morphology affects host cell interactions and pathogenicity
    Laura H Okagaki
    Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000953. 2010
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm...
  3. ncbi Deciphering the model pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans
    Alexander Idnurm
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:753-64. 2005
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete fungal pathogen of humans that has diverged considerably from other model fungi such as Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the common human fungal pathogen ..
  4. pmc Systematic genetic analysis of virulence in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Oliver W Liu
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 600 16th St, GH N372C, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 135:174-88. 2008
    The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among HIV-infected individuals...
  5. pmc Galleria mellonella as a model system to study Cryptococcus neoformans pathogenesis
    Eleftherios Mylonakis
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Gray Jackson 504, 55 Fruit St, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Infect Immun 73:3842-50. 2005
    Evaluation of Cryptococcus neoformans virulence in a number of nonmammalian hosts suggests that C. neoformans is a nonspecific pathogen. We used the killing of Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth) caterpillar by C...
  6. ncbi The effect of HIV infection on adult meningitis in Indonesia: a prospective cohort study
    A Rizal Ganiem
    Department of Neurology, Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Jalan Pasteur 38, Bandung 40161, Indonesia
    AIDS 23:2309-16. 2009
    ..Indonesia has a concentrated but rapidly growing HIV epidemic. We examined the effect of HIV on causative organisms, clinical features and prognosis of adult meningitis...
  7. pmc Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis
    G M Cox
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 68:443-8. 2000
    ..b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant human pathogenic fungus that produces large amounts of urease; thus we wanted to ..
  8. pmc Characterization of the PMT gene family in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Sven D Willger
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Molekulare Mykologie, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Dusseldorf, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e6321. 2009
    ..Protein-O-mannosyltransferases (Pmt's) catalyze the initial step of protein-O-glycosylation, the addition of mannose residues to serine or threonine residues of target proteins...
  9. pmc Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells requires protein kinase C-alpha activation
    Ambrose Jong
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
    Cell Microbiol 10:1854-65. 2008
    Pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a predilection for the central nervous system causing devastating meningoencephalitis. Traversal of C...
  10. pmc Cryptococcal urease promotes the accumulation of immature dendritic cells and a non-protective T2 immune response within the lung
    John J Osterholzer
    Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health System, Ann Arbor, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Am J Pathol 174:932-43. 2009
    Urease, a major virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans, promotes lethal meningitis/encephalitis in mice. The effect of urease within the lung, the primary site of most invasive fungal infections, is unknown...
  11. pmc Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells is mediated through the lipid rafts-endocytic pathway via the dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 3 (DYRK3)
    Sheng He Huang
    Department of Pediatrics, Saban Research Institute, Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:34761-9. 2011
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a neurotropic fungal pathogen, which provokes the onset of devastating meningoencephalitis. We used human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) as the in vitro model to investigate how C...
  12. pmc HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Won Hee Jung
    Department of Biotechnology, Chung Ang University, Gyeonggi Do, Republic of Korea
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001209. 2010
    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients...
  13. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide and exopolysaccharide fractions manifest physical, chemical, and antigenic differences
    Susana Frases
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 7:319-27. 2008
    The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a large polysaccharide (PS) capsule and releases copious amounts of PS into cultures and infected tissues...
  14. pmc Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii
    Wieland Meyer
    Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney Western Clinical School at Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia
    Med Mycol 47:561-70. 2009
    ..the consensus multi-locus typing scheme established by the Cryptococcal Working Group I (Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans and C...
  15. pmc Cryptococcal yeast cells invade the central nervous system via transcellular penetration of the blood-brain barrier
    Yun C Chang
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 72:4985-95. 2004
    Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous dissemination of inhaled Cryptococcus neoformans from the lung to the brain. The mechanism(s) by which C...
  16. pmc Urease expression by Cryptococcus neoformans promotes microvascular sequestration, thereby enhancing central nervous system invasion
    Michal A Olszewski
    Veteran s Administration Medical Center Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Am J Pathol 164:1761-71. 2004
    ..neoformans...
  17. pmc Real-time imaging of trapping and urease-dependent transmigration of Cryptococcus neoformans in mouse brain
    Meiqing Shi
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Clin Invest 120:1683-93. 2010
    ..Here, using intravital microscopy, we have shown that Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis, stops suddenly in mouse brain capillaries of a similar ..
  18. pmc Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis
    Eleftherios Mylonakis
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:15675-80. 2002
    ..laurentii) or longer than (C. kuetzingii) those fed on E. coli. However, the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans killed C. elegans, and the C. neoformans polysaccharide capsule as well as several C...
  19. ncbi Cryptococcal infection in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults
    Neil French
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    AIDS 16:1031-8. 2002
    Despite the recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans as a major cause of meningitis in HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the relative importance of this potentially preventable infection as a cause of ..
  20. ncbi Methods for using Galleria mellonella as a model host to study fungal pathogenesis
    Beth Burgwyn Fuchs
    Division of Infectious, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Virulence 1:475-82. 2010
    ..virulence, filamentation and fungal cell associates with insect hemocytes using Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans to illustrate the use of this model...
  21. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans overcomes stress of azole drugs by formation of disomy in specific multiple chromosomes
    Edward Sionov
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000848. 2010
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a haploid environmental organism and the major cause of fungal meningoencephalitis in AIDS patients. Fluconazole (FLC), a triazole, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcosis...
  22. ncbi Expulsion of live pathogenic yeast by macrophages
    Hansong Ma
    Molecular Pathobiology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 16:2156-60. 2006
    ..However, we now demonstrate that the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is able to escape from within macrophages without killing the host cell by a novel expulsive mechanism...
  23. ncbi Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in the era of effective azole therapy
    P G Pappas
    University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 0006, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:690-9. 2001
    ..Overall mortality was 30%, and mortality attributable to cryptococcosis was 12%. Cryptococcosis continues to be an important infection in HIV-negative patients and is associated with substantial overall and cause-specific mortality...
  24. pmc Immortalized human brain endothelial cell line HCMEC/D3 as a model of the blood-brain barrier facilitates in vitro studies of central nervous system infection by Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kiem Vu
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, Davis, CA, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 8:1803-7. 2009
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans cells must cross the blood-brain barrier prior to invading the central nervous system...
  25. ncbi A PCR-based strategy to generate integrative targeting alleles with large regions of homology
    Robert C Davidson
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Microbiology 148:2607-15. 2002
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen with a defined sexual cycle for which genetic and molecular techniques are well developed. The entire genome sequence of one C. neoformans strain is nearing completion...
  26. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans requires a functional glycolytic pathway for disease but not persistence in the host
    Michael S Price
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    MBio 2:e00103-11. 2011
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an important fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals, with a close relative, Cryptococcus gattii, emerging as a serious threat for the immunocompetent. During initial infection, C...
  27. pmc Vesicular polysaccharide export in Cryptococcus neoformans is a eukaryotic solution to the problem of fungal trans-cell wall transport
    Marcio L Rodrigues
    Laboratorio de Estudos Integrados em Bioquimica Microbiana, Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941590, Brazil
    Eukaryot Cell 6:48-59. 2007
    ..A central question in the biology of Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative agent of cryptococcosis, is the mechanism by which capsular polysaccharide synthesized ..
  28. pmc Spores as infectious propagules of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Rajesh Velagapudi
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 77:4345-55. 2009
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic fungi that cause pneumonia and meningitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts and are a significant global infectious disease risk...
  29. pmc Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase controls virulence of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    J A Alspaugh
    Departments of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 21:3179-91. 2001
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects the human central nervous system...
  30. pmc Survival defects of Cryptococcus neoformans mutants exposed to human cerebrospinal fluid result in attenuated virulence in an experimental model of meningitis
    Anthony Lee
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 78:4213-25. 2010
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that encounters various microenvironments during growth in the mammalian host, including intracellular vacuoles, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
  31. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans strains and infection in apparently immunocompetent patients, China
    Jianghan Chen
    Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:755-62. 2008
    ..determine the population structure of the cryptococcosis agents in China, we analyzed the genotype of 120 Cryptococcus neoformans and 9 Cryptococcus gattii strains isolated from 1980 through 2006 from cryptococcosis patients residing ..
  32. ncbi Involvement of human CD44 during Cryptococcus neoformans infection of brain microvascular endothelial cells
    Ambrose Jong
    Division of Hematology Oncology, The Saban Research Institute, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
    Cell Microbiol 10:1313-26. 2008
    Pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes devastating cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Our previous studies demonstrated that C...
  33. pmc Superoxide dismutase influences the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans by affecting growth within macrophages
    Gary M Cox
    Department of Medicine and Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Infect Immun 71:173-80. 2003
    ..of fungal infections, we cloned the Cu,Zn SOD-encoding gene (SOD1) from the human-pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans and made mutants via targeted disruption...
  34. pmc Loss of cell wall alpha(1-3) glucan affects Cryptococcus neoformans from ultrastructure to virulence
    Amy J Reese
    Department of Biological Sciences, Cedar Crest College, Allentown, PA 18104 6196, USA
    Mol Microbiol 63:1385-98. 2007
    ..The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans additionally anchors its polysaccharide capsule to the cell surface via alpha(1-3) glucan in the wall...
  35. ncbi Phagosome extrusion and host-cell survival after Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by macrophages
    Mauricio Alvarez
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, 10461, USA
    Curr Biol 16:2161-5. 2006
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) is an encapsulated yeast that is a facultative intracellular pathogen and a frequent cause of human disease...
  36. pmc A link between virulence and homeostatic responses to hypoxia during infection by the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Cheryl D Chun
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e22. 2007
    ..mutants defective in growth under hypoxic conditions, but normal for growth in normoxic conditions, in Cryptococcus neoformans, the most common cause of fungal meningitis...
  37. pmc Molecular typing of IberoAmerican Cryptococcus neoformans isolates
    Wieland Meyer
    University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:189-95. 2003
    A network was established to acquire basic knowledge of Cryptococcus neoformans in IberoAmerican countries...
  38. pmc Adjunctive interferon-γ immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 26:1105-13. 2012
    Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is of key importance in the immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans. Mortality related to cryptococcal meningitis remains high, and novel treatment strategies are needed...
  39. pmc Melanin biosynthesis in Cryptococcus neoformans
    P R Williamson
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, 60612, USA
    J Bacteriol 180:1570-2. 1998
    Pigment production by Cryptococcus neoformans is virulence associated...
  40. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans in organ transplant recipients: impact of calcineurin-inhibitor agents on mortality
    Nina Singh
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15240, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:756-64. 2007
    Variables influencing the risk of dissemination and outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection were assessed in 111 organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis in a prospective, multicenter, international study...
  41. pmc Nitrogen metabolite repression of metabolism and virulence in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    I Russel Lee
    Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    Genetics 188:309-23. 2011
    ..genetic, transcriptional, and phenotypic evidence of nitrogen metabolite repression in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition to loss of transcriptional activation of catabolic enzyme-encoding genes of the uric acid ..
  42. pmc Robust Th1 and Th17 immunity supports pulmonary clearance but cannot prevent systemic dissemination of highly virulent Cryptococcus neoformans H99
    Yanmei Zhang
    VA Ann Arbor Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Am J Pathol 175:2489-500. 2009
    The present study dissected the role of a Th2 bias in pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans H99 infection by comparing inhalational H99 infections in wild-type BALB/c and IL-4/IL-13 double knockout mice...
  43. pmc Two major inositol transporters and their role in cryptococcal virulence
    Yina Wang
    Public Health Research Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, ICPH Building, Room W250H, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:618-28. 2011
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an AIDS-associated human fungal pathogen and the most common cause of fungal meningitis, with a mortality rate over 40% in AIDS patients...
  44. pmc Low diversity Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii multilocus sequence types from Thailand are consistent with an ancestral African origin
    Sitali P Simwami
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001343. 2011
    ..b>Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (Cng, serotype A) constitutes the most ubiquitous cause of cryptococcal meningitis ..
  45. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans mates on pigeon guano: implications for the realized ecological niche and globalization
    Kirsten Nielsen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Research Drive, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 6:949-59. 2007
    ..The growth and development of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii on pigeon guano were examined to determine whether these two species occupy the ..
  46. pmc A prospective descriptive study of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in Vietnam - high prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii in the absence of underlying disease
    Tran Th Chau
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Quan, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    BMC Infect Dis 10:199. 2010
    ..We describe a cohort of HIV uninfected Vietnamese patients with cryptococcal meningitis in whom underlying disease is uncommon, and relate presenting features of patients and the characteristics of the infecting species to outcome...
  47. ncbi The GATA-type transcriptional activator Gat1 regulates nitrogen uptake and metabolism in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Lívia Kmetzsch
    Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av Bento Goncalves 9500, 43421, Caixa Postal 15005, Porto Alegre, RS 91501 970, Brazil
    Fungal Genet Biol 48:192-9. 2011
    ..b>Cryptococcus neoformans GAT1 is an ortholog to the Aspergillus nidulans AreA and Candida albicans GAT1 genes...
  48. ncbi Cell wall alpha-1,3-glucan is required to anchor the Cryptococcus neoformans capsule
    Amy J Reese
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8230, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
    Mol Microbiol 50:1401-9. 2003
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for serious disease in humans. Critical for virulence of this fungus is an elaborate polysaccharide capsule, which impedes the host immune response...
  49. ncbi Cryptococcus neoformans galactoxylomannan is a potent negative immunomodulator, inspiring new approaches in anti-inflammatory immunotherapy
    Anna Vecchiarelli
    Microbiology Section, Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06126 Perugia, Italy
    Immunotherapy 3:997-1005. 2011
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and occasionally in those with no known immune impairment...
  50. pmc Th2 but not Th1 immune bias results in altered lung functions in a murine model of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection
    Aditya V Jain
    Department of Veteran s Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Infect Immun 77:5389-99. 2009
    ..However, it is not known if Cryptococcus neoformans-induced changes in lung functions are related to the immunophenotype that develops in response to ..
  51. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement and cellular gigantism during Galleria mellonella infection
    Rocío García-Rodas
    Mycology Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS ONE 6:e24485. 2011
    We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C...
  52. pmc Challenge of Drosophila melanogaster with Cryptococcus neoformans and role of the innate immune response
    Yiorgos Apidianakis
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Shriner s Burns Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 3:413-9. 2004
    We found that the ingestion of Cryptococcus neoformans by Drosophila melanogaster resulted in the death of the fly but that the ingestion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the nonpathogenic Cryptococcus kuetzingii or Cryptococcus laurentii ..
  53. ncbi Molecular typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul
    Agnes Kiesling Casali
    Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, P O Box 15005, 91501 970 RS, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    FEMS Yeast Res 3:405-15. 2003
    In Brazil, 4.5% of the AIDS-related opportunistic infections are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. This pathogen is a ubiquitous environmental basidiomycetous encapsulated yeast, commonly found in soil and avian excreta...
  54. ncbi Fungi pathogenic to humans: molecular bases of virulence of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus
    Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta
    Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 56:211-24. 2009
    ..factors of the most common fungal pathogens of humans: Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. The adherence to host cells and tissues, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phenotypic switching and ..
  55. pmc Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms
    James A Fraser
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:e384. 2004
    ..These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms...
  56. ncbi Characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii SOD2 reveals distinct roles of the two superoxide dismutases in fungal biology and virulence
    Srinivas D Narasipura
    Mycology Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208 2002, USA
    Mol Microbiol 55:1782-800. 2005
    We studied superoxide dismutases (SODs) in the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) variety gattii to analyse the role of mitochondrial MnSOD (SOD2) in fungal biology and virulence...
  57. ncbi Iron and fungal pathogenesis: a case study with Cryptococcus neoformans
    Won Hee Jung
    The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cell Microbiol 10:277-84. 2008
    ..of two major virulence factors, the polysaccharide capsule and melanin, in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. This pathogen, which causes meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised people, acquires iron through the ..
  58. ncbi Role of laccase in the biology and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Xudong Zhu
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Chicago Medical Center, University of Illinois, 808 S Wood St, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    FEMS Yeast Res 5:1-10. 2004
    Laccase is an important virulence factor for the human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. In this review, we examine the structural, biological and genetic features of the enzyme and its role in the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis...
  59. ncbi The physical properties of the capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans suggest features for capsule construction
    Diane C McFadden
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:1868-75. 2006
    ..The average mass of Cryptococcus neoformans GXM from four antigenically different strains ranged from 1...
  60. pmc Transcription factors Mat2 and Znf2 operate cellular circuits orchestrating opposite- and same-sex mating in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Xiaorong Lin
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000953. 2010
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to multicellular hyphae during opposite sex (mating) and unisexual reproduction (same-sex mating)...
  61. pmc Heteroresistance of Cryptococcus gattii to fluconazole
    A Varma
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2303-11. 2010
    ..A considerably higher proportion of the C. gattii strains (86%) than Cryptococcus neoformans strains (46%) exhibited LHFs that were > or =16 microg/ml...
  62. pmc Interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans Rim101 and protein kinase A regulates capsule
    Teresa R O'Meara
    Departments of Medicine and Molecular Genetics Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000776. 2010
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a prevalent human fungal pathogen that must survive within various tissues in order to establish a human infection. We have identified the C...
  63. pmc Phospholipids trigger Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement during interactions with amoebae and macrophages
    Cara J Chrisman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002047. 2011
    A remarkable aspect of the interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with mammalian hosts is a consistent increase in capsule volume. Given that many aspects of the interaction of C...
  64. pmc Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the British Columbia cryptococcosis outbreak induce less protective inflammation in a murine model of infection than Cryptococcus neoformans
    Po Yan Cheng
    The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Infect Immun 77:4284-94. 2009
    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes approximately one million cases of cryptococcosis per year in people with AIDS. In contrast, the related species C...
  65. ncbi Diversity of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex
    Marjan Bovers
    Yeast Research Group, CBS Fungal Diversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Rev Iberoam Micol 25:S4-12. 2008
    More than 110 years of study of the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex has resulted in an enormous accumulation of fundamental and applied biological and clinical knowledge...
  66. pmc A eukaryotic capsular polysaccharide is synthesized intracellularly and secreted via exocytosis
    Aki Yoneda
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 17:5131-40. 2006
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes fatal infection in immunocompromised individuals, has an elaborate polysaccharide capsule surrounding its cell wall...
  67. ncbi High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:123-30. 2008
    ..A dosage range for AmB of 0.7-1 mg/kg per day is noted in current guidelines, but there are no data comparing 0.7 mg/kg per day with 1 mg/kg per day...
  68. pmc Capsule structure changes associated with Cryptococcus neoformans crossing of the blood-brain barrier
    Caroline Charlier
    Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, CNRS FRE2948, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Am J Pathol 166:421-32. 2005
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast responsible for disseminated meningoencephalitis in patients with cellular immune defects. The major virulence factor is the polysaccharide capsule...
  69. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans virulence gene discovery through insertional mutagenesis
    Alexander Idnurm
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 3:420-9. 2004
    Insertional mutagenesis was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans to identify genes associated with virulence attributes...
  70. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4 mediates intracellular signaling without TNF-alpha release in response to Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule
    S Shoham
    The Evans Memorial Department of Clinical Research and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Immunol 166:4620-6. 2001
    ..We investigated whether TLRs participate in the host response to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular polysaccharide of this fungus...
  71. pmc Remodeling of global transcription patterns of Cryptococcus neoformans genes mediated by the stress-activated HOG signaling pathways
    Young Joon Ko
    Department of Bioinformatics and Life Science, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea
    Eukaryot Cell 8:1197-217. 2009
    ..and adapt to a hostile host environment is a crucial element for virulence of pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans. These cellular responses are evoked by diverse signaling cascades, including the stress-activated HOG ..
  72. pmc The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Crta Majadahonda Pozuelo, Km2, Majadahonda 28220, Madrid, Spain
    Adv Appl Microbiol 68:133-216. 2009
    The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been studied extensively in recent decades and a large body of information is now available to the scientific community...
  73. ncbi IL-13 induces disease-promoting type 2 cytokines, alternatively activated macrophages and allergic inflammation during pulmonary infection of mice with Cryptococcus neoformans
    Uwe Muller
    Institute of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    J Immunol 179:5367-77. 2007
    In the murine model of Cryptococcus neoformans infection Th1 (IL-12/IFN-gamma) and Th17 (IL-23/IL-17) responses are associated with protection, whereas an IL-4-dependent Th2 response exacerbates disease...
  74. pmc Sexual cycle of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and virulence of congenic a and alpha isolates
    Kirsten Nielsen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 71:4831-41. 2003
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a human-pathogenic fungus that has evolved into three distinct varieties that infect most prominently the central nervous system...
  75. pmc Projecting global occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii
    Deborah J Springer
    New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:14-20. 2010
    ..gattii especially from decayed hollows suggesting a possible ecologic niche. This pathogen merits more attention so its environmental occurrence and role in cryptococcosis can be accurately determined...
  76. ncbi Cryptococcus neoformans: morphogenesis, infection, and evolution
    Xiaorong Lin
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 3258, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 9:401-16. 2009
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is the major causative agent of fungal meningoencephalitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals...
  77. ncbi Limited contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 to the host response to a fungal infectious pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kiwamu Nakamura
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 47:148-54. 2006
    ..study was designed to elucidate the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host response to Cryptococcus neoformans. Both TLR2 knockout (KO) and TLR4KO mice produced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-12p40 and tumor ..
  78. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen in murine pulmonary infection
    M Feldmesser
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Infect Immun 68:4225-37. 2000
    ..Infection with the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is typically chronic. To understand the mechanism by which C...
  79. pmc Sex-induced silencing defends the genome of Cryptococcus neoformans via RNAi
    Xuying Wang
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 24:2566-82. 2010
    ..SIS), which is triggered by tandem integration of a transgene array in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. A SXI2a-URA5 transgene array was found to be post-transcriptionally silenced during sexual reproduction...
  80. pmc Prevalence of the VNIc genotype of Cryptococcus neoformans in non-HIV-associated cryptococcosis in the Republic of Korea
    Young Hwa Choi
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    FEMS Yeast Res 10:769-78. 2010
    ..fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing were applied to determine the major molecular types of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex in the Republic of Korea...
  81. ncbi Deoxynucleic acids from Cryptococcus neoformans activate myeloid dendritic cells via a TLR9-dependent pathway
    Kiwamu Nakamura
    Department of Infection Control and Laboratory Diagnostics, Internal Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
    J Immunol 180:4067-74. 2008
    The mechanism of host cell recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients, remains poorly understood...
  82. ncbi Pathogenesis of cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection after fungemia
    Fabrice Chretien
    Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Faculté de médecine Paris Ouest, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches, Paris, France
    J Infect Dis 186:522-30. 2002
    The pathogenesis of cerebral infection after Cryptococcus neoformans fungemia in outbred mice was investigated...
  83. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans resides in an acidic phagolysosome of human macrophages
    S M Levitz
    Evans Memorial Department of Clinical Research and Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
    Infect Immun 67:885-90. 1999
    ..or ammonium chloride had markedly increased antifungal activity against the AIDS-related pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Both of these agents raise the lysosomal pH, which suggested that the increased antifungal activity was ..
  84. pmc How sweet it is! Cell wall biogenesis and polysaccharide capsule formation in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Tamara Lea Doering
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 63:223-47. 2009
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus responsible for severe opportunistic infections. The most prominent feature of this yeast is its elaborate polysaccharide capsule, a complex structure that is required for virulence...
  85. pmc The relative susceptibility of mouse strains to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleiotropic differences in the immune response
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Infect Immun 75:2729-39. 2007
    CBA/J mice were highly susceptible to intratracheal (i.t.) Cryptococcus neoformans infection relative to BALB/c mice, while both strains were equally susceptible to intravenous (i.v.) infection. Increased susceptibility in i.t...
  86. pmc Binding of the wheat germ lectin to Cryptococcus neoformans suggests an association of chitinlike structures with yeast budding and capsular glucuronoxylomannan
    Marcio L Rodrigues
    Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941590, RJ, Brazil
    Eukaryot Cell 7:602-9. 2008
    The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is a complex structure whose assembly requires intermolecular interactions to connect its components into an organized structure...
  87. pmc A yeast under cover: the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Indrani Bose
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 2:655-63. 2003
  88. ncbi The molecular basis for the immunogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans mannoproteins
    Stuart M Levitz
    Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    FEMS Yeast Res 6:513-24. 2006
    T-cell-mediated immunity is necessary for effective host defenses against infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Clinical and experimental studies have identified a heterogeneous family of mannoproteins as critical cryptococcal ..
  89. pmc Transcriptional network of multiple capsule and melanin genes governed by the Cryptococcus neoformans cyclic AMP cascade
    Read Pukkila-Worley
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:190-201. 2005
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that elaborates several virulence attributes, including a polysaccharide capsule and melanin pigments...
  90. pmc Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the United States: 1992 to 1994 and 1996 to 1998
    M E Brandt
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:3065-9. 2001
    The antifungal drug susceptibilities of two collections of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates obtained through active laboratory-based surveillance from 1992 to 1994 (368 isolates) and 1996 to 1998 (364 isolates) were determined...
  91. pmc Prostaglandin E2 suppresses antifungal immunity by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 4 function and interleukin-17 expression in T cells
    Patricia A Valdez
    Bacterial Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 36:668-79. 2012
    ..The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans produces PGE2, and we found that it uses PGE2- and IRF4-dependent mechanisms to specifically inhibit ..
  92. ncbi The impact of the host on fungal infections
    John R Perfect
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Am J Med 125:S39-51. 2012
    ....
  93. pmc Characterizing the role of RNA silencing components in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Guilhem Janbon
    Unite des Aspergillus, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Fungal Genet Biol 47:1070-80. 2010
    ..To elucidate the physiological functions of the RNAi pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans that causes fungal meningitis, here we performed genetic analyses for genes encoding Argonaute (AGO1 and ..
  94. pmc Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to short-term exposure to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A
    Ada Rita Florio
    Istituto di Microbiologia, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
    BMC Microbiol 11:97. 2011
    ..In this study, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of the C. neoformans reference strain H99 (serotype A) following FLC treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress...
  95. pmc Extracellular vesicles produced by Cryptococcus neoformans contain protein components associated with virulence
    Marcio L Rodrigues
    Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941590 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Eukaryot Cell 7:58-67. 2008
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans produces vesicles containing its major virulence factor, the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM)...
  96. pmc Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing
    Lisa McTaggart
    Medical Mycology, Ontario Public Health Laboratories, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Department ofLaboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2522-7. 2011
    Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var...
  97. pmc Contributions of the MyD88-dependent receptors IL-18R, IL-1R, and TLR9 to host defenses following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans
    Jennifer P Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e26232. 2011
    Signaling via the adapter protein, MyD88, is important in the host defense against Cryptococcus neoformans infection...
  98. pmc Blood-brain barrier invasion by Cryptococcus neoformans is enhanced by functional interactions with plasmin
    Jamal Stie
    Research Institute for Children, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Microbiology 158:240-58. 2012
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans can invade the central nervous system through diverse mechanisms. We examined a possible role for host plasma proteases in the neurotropic behaviour of this blood-borne fungal pathogen...
  99. pmc Evaluation of Cryptococcus neoformans galactoxylomannan-protein conjugate as vaccine candidate against murine cryptococcosis
    Siu Kei Chow
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Vaccine 29:1891-8. 2011
    Galactoxylomannan (GalXM) is a complex polysaccharide produced by the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans that mediates profound immunological derangements in murine models...
  100. pmc Hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 deficiency is associated with decreased Cryptococcus neoformans brain infection
    Ambrose Jong
    Division of Hematology Oncology, The Saban Research Institute, Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:15298-306. 2012
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that can invade the brain and cause meningoencephalitis. Our previous in vitro studies suggested that the interaction between C...
  101. pmc Galactoxylomannans from Cryptococcus neoformans varieties neoformans and grubii are structurally and antigenically variable
    Magdia De Jesus
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 9:1018-28. 2010
    Prior studies have established that the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide component galactoxylomannan (GalXM) manifests serotype-related structural differences that translate into antigenic differences...

Research Grants77

  1. Genetics of Cryptococcus sexual reproduction
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii frequently infect humans to cause life-threatening pneumonia and meningitis resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality in both immunocompromised ..
  2. Identification of new compounds against fungal microbes
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently, we reported that the fungal GlcCer is required for the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) to cause a lethal meningo-encephalitis1, 2...
  3. Antibody cytokine fusion proteins against Cryptococcus neoformans
    DAVID OWEN BEENHOUWER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Treatment with cytokines is moderately effective against mouse and human infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. However, systemic delivery of cytokines can be problematic for several reasons...
  4. Pathobiology of C. neoformans in the Central Nervous System
    John R Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common life-threatening central nervous system infections in humans and despite present treatments, morbidity and mortality still remain high...
  5. Targeting copper homeostasis in the fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans
    RICHARD FESTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that can progress to systemic infection in both immunocompromised and healthy individuals, leading to lethal cryptococcal meningitis...
  6. Novel Antifungal Therapeutic Approaches
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..pathogen that remains a major mucosal pathogen in AIDS patients who fail or do not receive HAART, and Cryptococcus neoformans, the leading cause of fungal meningitis in the world due to the AIDS epidemic...
  7. Oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..essential for resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stress, and iii) is important for the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. There are three interrelated, yet independent, specific aims in this application that will further ..
  8. Novel antifungals for Immunocompromised/HIV patients.
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..ATCC 90028) and resistant Candida strains ATCC 90030, 96901, 6852) and Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. The active compounds in LifePharms'are separated by a single HPLC step and screened for antifungal ..
  9. Identification of broad-spectrum antifungal efflux pump inhibitors
    Richard Cannon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..from the following clinically relevant fungi: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. The yeast cell-based multiplex approach developed involves the use of three 'sentinel'strains ..
  10. Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus Spores
    Christina M Hull; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Our goal is to define the molecular mechanisms that control interactions between Cryptococcus neoformans and the mammalian immune system in an effort to ultimately prevent and treat fungal disease...
  11. Chemical-genetic functional annotation of the genome of a meningitis pathogen
    Hiten D Madhani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the three most important human fungal pathogens in humans...
  12. Cryptococcus neoformans Gene Knockout Resource
    Hiten D Madhani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated budding yeast that is the most common cause of fungal meningitis...
  13. IMMUNE RESPONSE TO CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
    STUART MICHAEL LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with T cell dysfunction, particularly AIDS. Mannoproteins (MP) are the primary component recognized by the anticryptococcal T cell-mediated immune response...
  14. Invasion of C. neoformans into brain endothelial cells
    Ambrose Y Jong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans can disseminate through the blood stream and cause devastating meningitis...
  15. Discovery and evaluation of fungicidal anti-cryptococcal molecules
    Damian J Krysan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes pulmonary and central nervous system infections in immunocompromised and, less commonly, immunocompetent patients...
  16. Regulation of Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Hiten D Madhani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We seek to exploit tools we have developed in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans to approach this question. C...
  17. Molecular Characterization of C. neoformans Antibodies
    Arturo Casadevall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a major fungal pathogen for individuals with impaired immunity, including those with advanced HIV infection, organ transplants, and on immunosuppressive regimens...
  18. Mechanisms of Host Adaptation for Candida albicans
    PETER JOHN ESPENSHADE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, the membrane-bound sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is a key ..
  19. Synergy of Host Defense Mechanisms in the Lung
    Arturo Casadevall; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Host defense against the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans depends on both innate and acquired humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. Cryptococcal infection is acquired by inhalation...
  20. Discovering a Combination Therapeutic Approach to Use in the Treatment of Cryptoc
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Cryptococcosis is a devastating opportunistic infection caused primarily by Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcosis most often spreads to the brain, causing cryptococcal meningitis (CM), and is fatal if ..
  21. Pulmonary Surfactant and Lung Homeostasis
    John R Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to investigate the role of SP-D in the host response to fungal infections using the model organism Cryptococcus neoformans, an environmental yeast-like pathogen that infects the lung and then disseminates to other organs where ..
  22. Evolution of Cryptococcus neoformans strains from patients with HIV/AIDS
    John R Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The vast majority of these infections are caused by strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, which have been recognized by possessing capsular serotype A...
  23. Structure, function, and evolution of the Cryptococcus MAT locus
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that infects the human brain. The organism has a defined sexual cycle involving haploid and a strains, and the mating-type is linked to virulence and differentiation...
  24. Host sphingolipids and fungal infection
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..by which host sphingolipids are involved in controlling the infection caused by the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn)...
  25. Genome-wide investigations in fungal pathogens utilizing an invertebrate model ho
    Eleftherios Mylonakis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There are two Aims in this proposal: 1. Develop a large collection of random Cryptococcus neoformans mutants and implement C. elegans assays to identify virulence associated genes, and, 2...
  26. Signal transduction in C. neoformans
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..because the cell wall is an essential organelle that is not present in the human host, and this project will delineate signal transduction that determines the biosynthesis of the cell wall of a fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans.
  27. CAPSULE REGULATION AND VIRULENCE IN CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS
    Tamara L Doering; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is responsible for life-threatening disease, particularly in the context of compromised immunity, and current therapy is not adequate...
  28. HOST FACTORS IN CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTION
    DEEPA LATHA SRIKANTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes serious disease in immunocompromised patients and results in an annual death toll of over 600,000...
  29. Outcomes of Cryptococcal Meningitis in Uganda
    Paul R Bohjanen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IRIS causes clinical worsening in these patients due to exaggerated inflammatory responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. In patients with CM, IRIS manifestations include relapsing meningitis, increased intracranial pressure, ..
  30. Investigate the multifunctional adhesins in Cryptococcus
    Xiaorong Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For instance, Cryptococcus neoformans poses a serious threat to public health and is responsible for the death of more than half a million ..
  31. Comparative and functional genomics of C. neoformans
    James W Kronstad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes a high incidence of life-threatening infections in AIDS patients and this fungus therefore poses a major threat to the >40 million people ..
  32. Antifungal drug target prioritization using Cryptococcus neoformans
    Alexander Idnurm; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of this proposal is to identify suitable targets for drug development in fungi, using a model organism Cryptococcus neoformans (in phylum Basidiomycota)...
  33. A NOVEL SCREEN FOR ANTIFUNGALS THAT TARGET CHITOSAN BIOSYNTHESIS
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that is found world-wide and causes meningioencephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals...
  34. The link between dimorphism and virulence in Cryptococcus
    Xiaorong Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This proposal is to identify and characterize factors in the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans that can be used as targets to compromise its pathogenicity...
  35. HOST FACTORS IN CRYPTOCOCCAL PATHOGENESIS
    Tamara L Doering; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Host factors in cryptococcal pathogenesis PROJECT SUMMARY Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for life-threatening disease in patients with AIDS or otherwise compromised ..
  36. B cell subsets and immunity to cryptococcosis
    Liise Anne Pirofski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, IgM memory B cells could protect against Cryptococcus neoformans (CN)...
  37. STUDIES OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS ASSOCIATED WITH AIDS
    Thomas G Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous encapsulated pathogenic yeast and a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with AIDS and other immunocompromising conditions. The natural reservoir of C...
  38. Host Response to Phenotypic Switch Variants of C. Neoformans
    Bettina Fries; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The system under study is based on Cryptococcus neoformans, a human pathogenic fungus that is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients...
  39. Chitosan in Cryptococcus
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..that is not present in the human host, and this project will delineate the biosynthesis of the cell wall of a fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, and determine if one of its components, chitosan, is a potential antifungal target.
  40. Mechanisms of anti-fungal immunity mediated by SCARF1 and CD36
    Terry K Means; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of SCARF1 or CD36 with TLR2/6 in HEK293 cells results in enhanced NF:B activation in response to Cryptococcus neoformans stimulation...
  41. Stress-Responsive RNA Regulons in Cryptococcus neoformans
    John C Panepinto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has emerged as the primary cause of community acquired meningitis in regions of the world plagued by HIV infection...
  42. Coordinated Regulation of Virulence Genes in C. neoformans
    J Andrew Alspaugh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Like many infectious agents, the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans uses the conserved signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) to regulate its response to external stresses...
  43. Sphingolipid-mediated fungal pathogenesis
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The long-term goal of this proposal is to study mechanism(s) of pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) focusing on how Cn sphingolipids regulate fungal virulence and counteract the host immune response...
  44. Pheromones and Titan Cell Production in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kirsten Nielsen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pheromones and pheromone receptors have long been known to affect virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, yet it is still entirely unclear how the biological ramifications of pheromone signaling affect ..
  45. The role of the brain endothelium in fungal infections of the CNS
    ANGELA GELLI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): There is a critical gap in our understanding of how a deadly fungal pathogen such as Cryptococcus neoformans invades the central nervous system (CNS)...
  46. Novel antifungal therapeutics
    WILLIAM CONSTANTINE GROUTAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..importance, our compounds are inhibitory to fluconazole- and micafungin-resistant Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. These new data strongly show that our compounds have a unique target(s)...
  47. Development of Chemical Tools to Manipulate Copper at the Host/Pathogen Interface
    Katherine J Franz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The hypothesis will be further tested in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans by addressing three specific aims: 1) Identify chelator/prochelator pairs that enhance Cu-stimulated ..
  48. Biology of Fungal Melanin
    Arturo Casadevall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the biology of fungal melanin by dissecting the process of melanization in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. This organism is a major pathogen for patients with AIDS and provides a unique system for the study of ..
  49. Influence of genetic variation on fungal MAPK signaling and virulence
    Sebastian Treusch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The virulence of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is governed by several complex traits...
  50. Coordinated Regulation of Virulence Genes in C. neoformans
    Andrew Alspaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Like many infectious agents, the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans uses the conserved signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) to regulate its response to external stresses...
  51. An evidence based algorithm for diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV patients
    Marc Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by using a battery of tests for other respiratory pathogens (including Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, typical and 'atypical'bacteria) we will investigate the contribution of these organisms to ..
  52. Role of phagocytosis in pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neorformans
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) controlling the phagocytic process of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) by host alveolar macrophages (AMs)...
  53. Molecular and chemical validation of the vacuole as a new antifungal agent
    Glen Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Vacuolar function is also essential for the distantly related human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, to survive within the mammalian host...
  54. Virulence Factor Trafficking in Cryptococcus
    Peter Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a major pathogen in AIDS patients causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis in a large number of HIV+ individuals...
  55. A New Class of Broad Spectrum Antifungal Agents
    Glen Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Similar studies have shown that the vacuole is essential for Cryptococcus neoformans to colonize and cause disease in a mouse model of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis...
  56. 8th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..b>Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental organism that has become a major threat to a growing number of immunocompromised ..
  57. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Cryptococcus neoformans (Cne) is an encapsulated yeast that causes often fatal cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) in 7-30% of ..
  58. A publicly-accessible Cryptococcus genome database: annotation of the Cryptococcu
    JASON ERIC STAJICH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a manual curation of the literature and gene function for the genomes of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii...
  59. CRYPTOCOCCAL INTERACTIONS WITH HOST CELLS
    Tamara L Doering; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for life-threatening disease in patients with AIDS or other conditions of immunocompromise;extrapulmonary cryptococcal ..
  60. Ras signaling in C. neoformans virulence and development
    Andrew Alspaugh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is an important model system for understanding basic issues in microbial pathogenesis...
  61. Induction of Protection Against Cryptococcus neoformans in Immune Deficient Hosts
    Floyd L Wormley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans infections are a leading mycological cause of morbidity and mortality among AIDS patients...
  62. Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Robert Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans rarely causes disease among those with an intact immune system but is a very common problem among those with impaired host immunity - particularly those with AIDS...
  63. Cell wall biogenesis in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Deborah Fox; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..However, they have very low potency against Cryptococcus neoformans, a medically significant fungal pathogen...
  64. Genetic analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans virulence
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The genome project for the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has provided the complete genome for the serotype D strain (JEC20), generated 10 to 12X assemblies for ..
  65. Role of Ipc1 in fungal pathogenesis
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..and functions of sphingolipids in cell regulation and pathogenesis, focusing on the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. This fungal pathogen mainly infects immunocompromised patients, and it is the most common cause of ..
  66. MATING TYPE AND VIRULENCE IN CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS
    Brian Wickes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous fungus which can cause life threatening infections...
  67. Genetics of mating and fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Our studies have defined signaling cascades regulating Cryptococcus neoformans differentiation and virulence...
  68. SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS
    Sudha Chaturvedi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION: Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn), a facultative intracellular yeast, is a serious cause of meningoencephalitis in normal and immunocompromised patients...
  69. LACCASE REGULATION AND VIRULENCE IN CRYPTOCOCCUS
    James Cook; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is a major pathogen in immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised patients including those with AIDS in both the developed as well as the developing world...
  70. A link between mating pheromone sensing and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kirsten Nielsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcus neoformans is a human pathogenic fungus that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. One important aspect of cryptococcosis is the ability of C...
  71. MECHANISM OF ANTIBODY PROTECTION AGAINST C. NEOFORMANS
    Sherie Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2007
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans causes a lethal meningoencephalitis in 8% of AIDS patients in the US...
  72. T CELLS AND IMMUNITY TO CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
    JUNEANN MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract): Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening disease caused by the ubiquitous, encapsulated fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. Although individuals with T cell deficiencies are the most susceptible group for this disease, normal ..
  73. Chromosome copy number variation and AIDS-associated cryptococcosis
    James W Kronstad; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes a high incidence of life-threatening infections leading to meningitis in AIDS patients, and this fungus is therefore a major threat to the >40 ..
  74. Sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans
    CHRISTINA HULL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..molecular mechanisms by which sexual development is controlled in the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Sexual development results in the production of spores that can be dispersed into the environment. C...
  75. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS--OXIDATIVE KILLING MECHANISMS
    Vishnu Chaturvedi; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract) Cryptococcus neoformans causes serious opportunistic disease in patients with AIDS and hematologic malignancies...
  76. PATHOGENESIS OF CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGOENCEPHALITIS
    Sunhee Lee; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract) Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated fungus which is ubiquitous in urban environments...
  77. AN AIDS-RELATED CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS GENOME CENTER
    Ronald Davis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    b>Cryptococcus neoformans is the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis, one of the most serious fungal diseases worldwide. Although C...