gram negative aerobic rods and cocci

Summary

Summary: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A new bacterial strain mediating As oxidation in the Fe-rich biofilm naturally growing in a groundwater Fe treatment pilot unit
    C Casiot
    Laboratoire Hydrosciences Montpellier, UMR 5569, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E Bataillon, CCMSE, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France
    Chemosphere 64:492-6. 2006
  2. ncbi Thermobacillus composti sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a composting reactor
    Keiko Watanabe
    Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1 236 Tangi cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 8577, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1473-7. 2007
  3. ncbi Classification of Alcaligenes faecalis-like isolates from the environment and human clinical samples as Ralstonia gilardii sp. nov
    T Coenye
    Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
    Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:405-13. 1999
  4. ncbi Taxonomic position of "Pseudomonas oxalaticus" strain ox14T (DSM 1105T) (Khambata and Bhat, 1953) and its description in the genus Ralstonia as Ralstonia oxalatica comb. nov
    N Sahin
    Celal Bayar Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Biyoloji Bolumu, Turkey
    Syst Appl Microbiol 23:206-9. 2000
  5. ncbi Propionivibrio limicola sp. nov., a fermentative bacterium specialized in the degradation of hydroaromatic compounds, reclassification of Propionibacter pelophilus as Propionivibrio pelophilus comb. nov. and amended description of the genus Propionivibrio
    Andreas Brune
    Lehrstuhl für Mikrobielle Ökologie, Fachbereich Biologie, Universitat Konstanz, Germany
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:441-4. 2002
  6. ncbi Barnesiella viscericola gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Porphyromonadaceae isolated from chicken caecum
    Mitsuo Sakamoto
    Microbe Division, Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:342-6. 2007
  7. ncbi PopP1, a new member of the YopJ/AvrRxv family of type III effector proteins, acts as a host-specificity factor and modulates aggressiveness of Ralstonia solanacearum
    Muriel Lavie
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire des relations Plantes Microorganismes, INRA CNRS, BP27, Castanet Tolosan, France
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 15:1058-68. 2002
  8. ncbi SHR5: a novel plant receptor kinase involved in plant-N2-fixing endophytic bacteria association
    F Vinagre
    Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    J Exp Bot 57:559-69. 2006
  9. ncbi Isolation and characterization of sulphur-oxidizing Thiomonas sp. and its potential application in biological deodorization
    X G Chen
    Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
    Lett Appl Microbiol 39:495-503. 2004
  10. ncbi Owenweeksia hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes'
    Ken W K Lau
    Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, S A R, P R China
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1051-7. 2005

Detail Information

Publications113 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A new bacterial strain mediating As oxidation in the Fe-rich biofilm naturally growing in a groundwater Fe treatment pilot unit
    C Casiot
    Laboratoire Hydrosciences Montpellier, UMR 5569, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E Bataillon, CCMSE, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France
    Chemosphere 64:492-6. 2006
    ..Therefore, it is probably one of the major contributors to arsenic removal in the treatment process...
  2. ncbi Thermobacillus composti sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a composting reactor
    Keiko Watanabe
    Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1 236 Tangi cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 8577, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1473-7. 2007
    ..xylanilyticus strain XE(T) was 66 %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic evidence, strain KWC4(T) (=DSM 18247(T)=JCM 13945(T)) is the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Thermobacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed...
  3. ncbi Classification of Alcaligenes faecalis-like isolates from the environment and human clinical samples as Ralstonia gilardii sp. nov
    T Coenye
    Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
    Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:405-13. 1999
    ..The six environmental and four human isolates belonged to the genus Ralstonia and were assigned to a new species for which the name Ralstonia gilardii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 5886T...
  4. ncbi Taxonomic position of "Pseudomonas oxalaticus" strain ox14T (DSM 1105T) (Khambata and Bhat, 1953) and its description in the genus Ralstonia as Ralstonia oxalatica comb. nov
    N Sahin
    Celal Bayar Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Biyoloji Bolumu, Turkey
    Syst Appl Microbiol 23:206-9. 2000
    ..The new name Ralstonia oxalatica comb. nov. is proposed to strain Ox1T, on the basis of these results and previously published data for the G+C content of the genomic DNA and the phenotypic characters...
  5. ncbi Propionivibrio limicola sp. nov., a fermentative bacterium specialized in the degradation of hydroaromatic compounds, reclassification of Propionibacter pelophilus as Propionivibrio pelophilus comb. nov. and amended description of the genus Propionivibrio
    Andreas Brune
    Lehrstuhl für Mikrobielle Ökologie, Fachbereich Biologie, Universitat Konstanz, Germany
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:441-4. 2002
    ..1999 as Propionivibrio pelophilus comb. nov. and (iii) designation of Propionivibrio limicola sp. nov., with the type strain GolChi1T (= DSM 6832T = ATCC BAA-290T)...
  6. ncbi Barnesiella viscericola gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Porphyromonadaceae isolated from chicken caecum
    Mitsuo Sakamoto
    Microbe Division, Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:342-6. 2007
    ..nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Barnesiella viscericola is C46T (=JCM 13660T=DSM 18177T)...
  7. ncbi PopP1, a new member of the YopJ/AvrRxv family of type III effector proteins, acts as a host-specificity factor and modulates aggressiveness of Ralstonia solanacearum
    Muriel Lavie
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire des relations Plantes Microorganismes, INRA CNRS, BP27, Castanet Tolosan, France
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 15:1058-68. 2002
    ..In contrast to the structural genes for other type III-secreted proteins identified in R. solanacearum, transcription of the popP1 gene is not coregulated with transcription of hrp genes but is constitutive...
  8. ncbi SHR5: a novel plant receptor kinase involved in plant-N2-fixing endophytic bacteria association
    F Vinagre
    Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    J Exp Bot 57:559-69. 2006
    ..In addition, more successful sugarcane-endophytic bacteria associations have a more pronounced decrease in SHR5 expression, suggesting that SHR5 mRNA levels in plant cells are inversely related to the efficiency of the association...
  9. ncbi Isolation and characterization of sulphur-oxidizing Thiomonas sp. and its potential application in biological deodorization
    X G Chen
    Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
    Lett Appl Microbiol 39:495-503. 2004
    ..To isolate and characterize a sulphur-oxidizing bacterial strain from activated sludge and to evaluate its potential application in biological deodorization...
  10. ncbi Owenweeksia hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes'
    Ken W K Lau
    Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, S A R, P R China
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1051-7. 2005
    ..The name Owenweeksia hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UST20020801(T) (=NRRL B-23963(T) = JCM 12287(T))...
  11. ncbi Structure and activity of the denitrifying community in a maize-cropped field fertilized with composted pig manure or ammonium nitrate
    Christophe Dambreville
    UMR INRA UB Microbiologie et Géochimie des Sols, Dijon, France
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 56:119-31. 2006
    ..These effects of the fertilization regime persisted for at least 14 months after the last application...
  12. ncbi Vaccination of ducks with recombinant outer membrane protein (OmpA) and a 41 kDa partial protein (P45N') of Riemerella anatipestifer
    Bin Huang
    Institute of Molecular Agrobiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Vet Microbiol 84:219-30. 2002
    ..All the five ducks immunized with formalinized R. anatipestifer strain 34/90 survived the challenge with the homologous strain whereas six out of seven ducks in the non-immunized control group died within a week following the challenge...
  13. ncbi Oceanobacillus iheyensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a deep-sea extremely halotolerant and alkaliphilic species isolated from a depth of 1050 m on the Iheya Ridge
    J Lu
    Microbial Genome Research Group, DEEPSTAR, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, 2-15 Natsushima, 237-0061, Yokosuka, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 205:291-7. 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi Arenibacter gen. nov., new genus of the family flavobacteriaceae and description of a new species, Arenibacter latericius sp. nov
    E P Ivanova
    Center of Marine Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1987-95. 2001
    ..nov., and species, Arenibacter latericius sp. nov. The type strain is KMM 426T (VKM B 2137DT = LMG 19694T = CIP 106861T)...
  15. ncbi Phenotypic and molecular characterization of isolates of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from Peru
    A L Hung
    Laboratory of Avian Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru
    Avian Dis 45:999-1005. 2001
    ..rhinotracheale DNA from all the isolates and tracheal swabs, producing amplicons of 784 bp, and distinguished O. rhinotracheale from bacterial agents causing similar clinical signs...
  16. ncbi Characterisation of bacterial cultures enriched on the chlorophenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) butyric acid
    C W Smejkal
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4PS, UK
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 30:561-7. 2003
    ..The isolation of mixed cultures capable of degrading 2,4-DB and MCPB will aid future investigations to determine both the metabolic route for dissimilation and the fate of these herbicides in natural environments...
  17. ncbi Classification of three airborne bacteria and proposal of Hymenobacter aerophilus sp. nov
    Sandra Buczolits
    Institut für Bakteriologie, Mykologie und Hygiene, Veterinarmedizinische Universitat, Wien, Austria
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:445-56. 2002
    ..Since the taxonomic status of strain I/74-Cor2 within the genus Hymenobacter was not determined unambiguously, it is designated Hymenobacter sp. I/74-Cor2 (= DSM 13611 = LMG 19659)...
  18. ncbi Marinithermus hydrothermalis gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly aerobic, thermophilic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney
    Yoshihiko Sako
    Laboratory of Marine Microbiology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:59-65. 2003
    ..The name Marinithermus gen. nov. is proposed, with Marinithermus hydrothermalis gen. nov., sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain of M. hydrothermalis gen. nov., sp. nov. is strain T1T (=JCM 11576T =DSM 14884T)...
  19. ncbi Marine acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium requiring salts for the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds
    Kazuo Kamimura
    Division of Science and Technology for Energy Conversion, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3 1 1 Tsushima naka, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    Extremophiles 7:95-9. 2003
    ..The oxidation of sulfite was inhibited by ionophores, carbonyl cyanide- m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and monensin, and respiratory inhibitors, KCN and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxode (HQNO)...
  20. ncbi RNA polymerase of Aquifex pyrophilus: implications for the evolution of the bacterial rpoBC operon and extremely thermophilic bacteria
    H P Klenk
    Georg August Universitat Gottingen, Institut fur Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Grisebachstrabetae 8, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Mol Evol 48:528-41. 1999
    ..This raised doubts not only about whether the original Bacteria were indeed like the hyperthermophiles, but also concerning the value of single-gene phylogenies for hypotheses about the evolution of organisms...
  21. ncbi Cetobacterium somerae sp. nov. from human feces and emended description of the genus Cetobacterium
    Sydney M Finegold
    Research Service, VA Medical Center West Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
    Syst Appl Microbiol 26:177-81. 2003
    ..nov. The proposed type strain of Cetobacterium somerae is WAL 14325(T) (ATCC BAA-474(T) = CCUG 46254T)...
  22. ncbi Classification of Ralstonia pickettii-like isolates from the environment and clinical samples as Ralstonia insidiosa sp. nov
    Tom Coenye
    Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, 1150 W Med Ctr Dr, MSRB III, Rm 8323, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0646, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1075-80. 2003
    ..Some outstanding issues in the taxonomy of the genus Ralstonia are also discussed...
  23. ncbi Vulcanithermus mediatlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermaceae from a deep-sea hot vent
    M L Miroshnichenko
    Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 60 Ietiya Oktyabrya 7 2, 117811 Moscow, Russia
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1143-8. 2003
    ..nov., sp. nov. The type strain is TR(T) (= DSM 14978T = VKM B-2292T = JCM 11956T)...
  24. ncbi Isolation of urease-positive Ochrobactrum intermedium in the stomach of a non-ulcer dyspeptic patient from north India
    Mahesh S Dharne
    Molecular Biology Unit, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune University Campus, Pune, Maharashtra, India
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 41:183-6. 2008
    ..intermedium LMG3301. Further investigation is required in order to evaluate the link between H. pylori and O. intermedium in the gastric niche...
  25. ncbi Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov
    Hui Zhang
    Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1155-63. 2003
    ..nov. Environmental sequence data indicate that this phylum is widespread in nature and has a phylogenetic breadth (19% 16S rDNA sequence divergence) that is greater than well-known phyla such as the Actinobacteria (18% divergence)...
  26. ncbi Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium that produces protease inhibitors
    Takeshi Kobayashi
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Fisheries, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8477, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1807-11. 2003
    ..Based on the above results, it is proposed that the novel marine bacterium should be classified as a new species, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis (type strain B-10-31(T)=JCM 11461(T)=DSM 14643(T)) is proposed...
  27. ncbi PrhA controls a novel regulatory pathway required for the specific induction of Ralstonia solanacearum hrp genes in the presence of plant cells
    M Marenda
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire des relations Plantes Microorganismes, INRA CNRS, Castanet Tolosan, France
    Mol Microbiol 27:437-53. 1998
    ..A model suggesting that PrhA is a receptor for plant specific signals at the top of a novel hrp regulatory pathway is discussed...
  28. ncbi In silico comparison of bacterial strains using mutual information
    D Swati
    Department of Physics, MMV, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    J Biosci 32:1169-84. 2007
    ..There have been several applications of using the Mutual Information function as a measure of correlations in genomics but this is the first whole genome analysis done to detect strain similarities and differences...
  29. ncbi Thermodesulfatator indicus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic chemolithoautotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the Central Indian Ridge
    H Moussard
    UMR 6539, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, 29280 Plouzane, France
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:227-33. 2004
    ..The type strain is CIR29812T (=DSM 15286T=JCM 11887T)...
  30. ncbi Characterization of a Ralstonia solanacearum operon required for polygalacturonate degradation and uptake of galacturonic acid
    Enid T González
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison 53706, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:536-44. 2003
    ..This exuT mutant had wild-type virulence on tomato, demonstrating that metabolism of galacturonic acid does not contribute significantly to bacterial success inside the plant...
  31. pmc A functional 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway gene cluster is linked to the initial dibenzo-p-dioxin pathway genes in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1
    J Armengaud
    Division of Microbiology, GBF National Research Centre for Biotechnology, D 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
    J Bacteriol 181:3452-61. 1999
    ..A route for the mineralization of the growth substrates 3-hydroxydibenzofuran and 2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 thus suggests itself...
  32. ncbi Chromosomal DNA from a variety of bacterial species is present in synovial tissue from patients with various forms of arthritis
    H C Gerard
    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 44:1689-97. 2001
    ....
  33. ncbi [Evolution and phylogeny of rhizobia]
    Lourdes Lloret
    Programa de Ecología Genómica, Centro de Ciencias Genomicas, UNAM
    Rev Latinoam Microbiol 47:43-60. 2005
    ....
  34. ncbi Diverse bacteria associated with root nodules of spontaneous legumes in Tunisia and first report for nifH-like gene within the genera Microbacterium and Starkeya
    Frédéric Zakhia
    Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes, Montpellier, France
    Microb Ecol 51:375-93. 2006
    ..However, nifH sequences, most similar to those of Sinorhizobium meliloti, were detected within strains related to the genera Microbacterium, Agromyces, Starkeya and Phyllobacterium...
  35. ncbi Characterization of Dialister species in infected root canals
    Isabela N Rôças
    Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Estacio de Sa University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    J Endod 32:1057-61. 2006
    ..clone IS013B24. Findings demonstrated that different Dialister species can take part in the microbiota associated with apical periodontitis lesions...
  36. ncbi [Methanotrophic bacteria of acid sphagnum bogs]
    S N Dedysh
    Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr 60 letiya Oktyabrya 7, k 2, Moscow, 117312 Russia
    Mikrobiologiia 71:741-54. 2002
    ..In addition to Methylocella and Methylocapsa populations, one more abundant population of methanotrophs was revealed (10(6) cells/g peat), which were phylogenetically close to the genus Methylocystis...
  37. ncbi Characterization of nonfermenters from clinical samples
    N V Kharangate
    Department of Microbiology, Goa Medical College, Bambolim
    J Assoc Physicians India 49:324-6. 2001
    ..Amongst them genus Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were more frequently encountered. Amikacin or ciprofloxacin (for nonfermenters other than Pseudomonas) appears to be the drug of choice for treatment of such infections...
  38. ncbi Ice-active characteristics of soil bacteria selected by ice-affinity
    Sandra L Wilson
    Department of Biology, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 3N6
    Environ Microbiol 8:1816-24. 2006
    ..These results indicate the significant potential of ice-affinity selection even with temperate climate soils, suggesting that sampling in more extreme and remote areas is not required for the isolation of ice-active bacteria...
  39. ncbi An RpoS (sigmaS) homologue regulates acylhomoserine lactone-dependent autoinduction in Ralstonia solanacearum
    A B Flavier
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
    Mol Microbiol 28:475-86. 1998
    ..Therefore, in R. solanacearum the acyl-HSL-dependent autoinduction system is controlled both by a second autoinduction system and by the RpoS(Rso) sigma factor...
  40. ncbi Isolation and characterization of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria induced following exposure of soil to hydrogen gas and their impact on plant growth
    Jiamila Maimaiti
    Department of Biology, St Mary s University, Halifax, NS, Canada, B3H 3C3
    Environ Microbiol 9:435-44. 2007
    ..The results are consistent with the hypothesis that H2-oxidizing bacteria in soils have plant growth promoting properties...
  41. ncbi Nitrate-dependent anaerobic carbon monoxide oxidation by aerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria
    G M King
    Darling Marine Center, University of Maine, Walpole, ME, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 56:1-7. 2006
    ..Chloroform inhibited anaerobic but not aerobic activity, which suggested that acetogenic bacteria may have played a significant role in forest soil anaerobic CO uptake...
  42. pmc Identification of bacteria in drinking and purified water during the monitoring of a typical water purification system
    Vessoni Thereza Christina Penna
    Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    BMC Public Health 2:13. 2002
    ....
  43. ncbi Bacterial lipases: an overview of production, purification and biochemical properties
    R Gupta
    Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, 110 021 New Delhi, India
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:763-81. 2004
    ..The latest trend in lipase research is the development of novel and improved lipases through molecular approaches such as directed evolution and exploring natural communities by the metagenomic approach...
  44. ncbi The microbial content of non-sterile pharmaceuticals distributed in Norway
    C Charnock
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College, 0167 Oslo, Norway
    J Hosp Infect 57:233-40. 2004
    ..A number of the isolates showed antibiotic resistances unusual for the species in question...
  45. pmc Analysis of fae and fhcD genes in Mono Lake, California
    Olivier Nercessian
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:8949-53. 2005
    ..Low diversity for fae and fhcD was noted, in contrast to the diversity previously detected in a freshwater lake, Lake Washington (Washington)...
  46. pmc Novel insertion sequence elements associated with genetic heterogeneity and phenotype conversion in Ralstonia solanacearum
    E L Jeong
    Department of Genetics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    J Bacteriol 182:4673-6. 2000
    ..During a spontaneous phenotype conversion event, the promoter of the phcA gene was interrupted by one of these IS elements...
  47. ncbi Megaplasmids in Gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria
    Montserrat Argandoña
    Departamento de Microbiologi a, Facultad de Farmacia, Campus Universitario de Cartuja s n, 18071, Granada, Spain
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 227:81-6. 2003
    ..The common presence of these megaplasmids may well be related to the survival strategies of the bacteria in their special surroundings...
  48. pmc Infection by Ralstonia species in cystic fibrosis patients: identification of R. pickettii and R. mannitolilytica by polymerase chain reaction
    Tom Coenye
    Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, 48109 0646, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:692-6. 2002
    ..To facilitate identification of R. mannitolilytica and R. pickettii, we developed 16S ribosomal DNA-based polymerase chain reaction assays that allow sensitive and specific identification of these species...
  49. ncbi Group-specific 16S rRNA targeted probes for the detection of type I and type II methanotrophs by fluorescence in situ hybridisation
    G Eller
    Max-Planck-Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 198:91-7. 2001
    ..With these probes, methanotrophs were detected in soil and root samples from rice microcosms, demonstrating their applicability even in a complex environmental matrix...
  50. ncbi Brain abscess caused by aerobic Gram-negative bacilli: clinical features and therapeutic outcomes
    Cheng Shyuan Rau
    Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan, ROC
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 105:60-5. 2002
    ..pneumoniae infection should be considered, with particular attention paid to detection of other metastatic septic abscesses. In light of the high mortality rate, early treatment is essential to maximize the chances of survival...
  51. ncbi Development, characterization, and preliminary evaluation of a temperature-sensitive mutant of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale for potential use as a live vaccine in turkeys
    V C Lopes
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul 55108, USA
    Avian Dis 46:162-8. 2002
    ..Humoral immune response was detected in Ts-vaccinated but not in control group birds after 3 wk postadministration. Results suggest that Ts strain of ORT has promising potential use as a live vaccine for ORT...
  52. ncbi Diversity of organophosphorus pesticide-degrading bacteria in a polluted soil and conservation of their organophosphorus hydrolase genes
    Ruifu Zhang
    Department of Microbiology, MOA Key Lab of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, People s Republic of China
    Can J Microbiol 51:337-43. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi Effect of xylitol on an in vitro model of oral biofilm
    Cécile Badet
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie, UFR d Odontologie, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 33082 Bordeaux Cedex, France
    Oral Health Prev Dent 6:337-41. 2008
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine whether xylitol, at different concentrations, inhibits the formation of an experimental model of oral biofilm...
  54. ncbi Cellulitis and bacteremia caused by Bergeyella zoohelcum
    Wei Ru Lin
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Formos Med Assoc 106:573-6. 2007
    ..B. zoohelcum is a zoonotic pathogen that may cause bacteremia in patients with underlying disease such as liver cirrhosis; it can be treated with a beta-lactam or quinolone...
  55. doi Rubritalea sabuli sp. nov., a carotenoid- and squalene-producing member of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae, isolated from marine sediment
    Jaewoo Yoon
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:992-7. 2008
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is YM29-052T (=MBIC08323T =KCTC 22127T)...
  56. doi The function and biological role of toll-like receptors in infectious diseases: an update
    Mathias W Hornef
    Department of Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:304-12. 2008
    ..It intends to provide a rough survey on topics discussed by researchers in the field and to stimulate discussion on new aspects of the complex processes involved in innate host defence...
  57. ncbi [Quinolone resistance in Gram negative rods in Iceland and association with antibiotic use]
    Kristin Jonsdottir
    sýklafraedidelid Landspítala, Reykjavik, Island
    Laeknabladid 94:279-85. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency of fluoroquinolone resistance in the most prevalent Gram negative rods and look at the correlation with fluoroquinolone use over the last 8 years...
  58. ncbi [Assessment of the susceptibility of the gram-negative rods isolated from hospitalized patients to cefoperazone/sulbactam]
    Grazyna Młynarczyk
    Katedra i Zakład Mikrobiologii Lekarskiej Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu medycznego w Warszawie
    Med Dosw Mikrobiol 60:51-8. 2008
    ..These results highly correlated with results obtained by using analogous test with cefpirome and cefpirome/clavulanic acid (85.6% of concordance)...
  59. ncbi [Activities of antimicrobial agents against 8,474 clinical isolates obtained from 37 medical institutions during 2000 in Japan]
    Keizo Yamaguchi
    Department of Microbiology, Toho University School of Medicine
    Jpn J Antibiot 56:341-64. 2003
    ..aeruginosa isolated from UTI, although fluoroquinolones are still effective against other organisms and P. aeruginosa from RTI as has been demonstrated in previous studies...
  60. ncbi Microbial fouling of a reverse osmosis municipal water treatment system
    Steven J Wright
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2125, USA
    Water Environ Res 80:703-7. 2008
    ..Such treatments must be performed at appropriate intervals to prevent subsequent microbial growth in the prefilter unit...
  61. ncbi Agrichemical impact on growth and survival of non-target apple phyllosphere microorganisms
    Monika Walter
    Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd, Lincoln
    Can J Microbiol 53:45-55. 2007
    ..Agrichemicals clearly affected non-target, culturable surface microorganisms. The importance of diversity and stability of microbial populations for disease control still needs to be established...
  62. ncbi [Impact of so-called injectable third generation cephems]
    Nagao Shinagawa
    Nihon Rinsho 65:549-53. 2007
  63. ncbi Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis for genetic fingerprinting of pathogenic bacteria
    Bjørn Arne Lindstedt
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division for Infectious Diseases Control, Oslo, Norway
    Electrophoresis 26:2567-82. 2005
    ....
  64. ncbi Structural elucidation of phosphoglycolipids from strains of the bacterial thermophiles Thermus and Meiothermus
    Yu Liang Yang
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
    J Lipid Res 47:1823-32. 2006
    ..thermophilus NTU-077, M. ruber NTU-124, and M. taiwanensis NTU-220, but not for T. oshimai NTU-063. Accordingly, the ratios of iso- to anteiso-branched fatty acids increase when grown at the higher temperature...
  65. ncbi Metabolic engineering of rice with soybean isoflavone synthase for promoting nodulation gene expression in rhizobia
    V S Sreevidya
    International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines
    J Exp Bot 57:1957-69. 2006
    ..Studies with rhizobia demonstrated that the expression of isoflavone synthase confers rice plants with the ability to produce flavonoids that are able to induce nod gene expression, albeit to varied degrees, in different rhizobia...
  66. ncbi Diet-dependent shifts in ruminal butyrate-producing bacteria
    J Mrazek
    Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czechia
    Folia Microbiol (Praha) 51:294-8. 2006
    ..The Pseudobutyrivibrio concentration also changed during the experiment but without any significant relation to the host's diet...
  67. ncbi Desulfomicrobium thermophilum sp. nov., a novel thermophilic sulphate-reducing bacterium isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in Colombia
    France Thevenieau
    IRD, UMR 180 Microbiologie et Biotechnologie des Environnements Chauds, IFR BAIM, ESIL, Universités de Provence et de la Méditerranée, Case 925, 13288, Marseille, France
    Extremophiles 11:295-303. 2007
    ..On the basis of this evidence, we propose to assign strain P6-2(T) as new species of the genus Desulfomicrobium, D. thermophilum sp. nov., with strain P6-2(T) as the type strain (= DSM 16697(T) = CCUG 49732(T))...
  68. ncbi Follow-up study on contamination rate of expressed breast milk samples and necrotizing enterocolitis in Chinese mothers
    R S Lee
    J Hosp Infect 61:359-60. 2005
  69. pmc Isolation and characterization of soil bacteria that define Terriglobus gen. nov., in the phylum Acidobacteria
    Stephanie A Eichorst
    Michigan State University, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 6180 Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building, East Lansing, MI 48824 4320, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:2708-17. 2007
    ..The physiological and nutritional characteristics of Terriglobus are consistent with its potential widespread distribution in soil...
  70. ncbi Changes in pools of autoantibodies and anti-bacterial antibodies in patients suffering from recurrent infections of the urinary tract and undergoing bacterial immunization treatment
    Marijana Stojanovic
    Institute of Immunology and Virology Torlak, Vojvode Stepe 458, 1152 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
    Immunol Lett 94:123-33. 2004
    ....
  71. ncbi Trichloroethylene degradation by toluene-oxidizing bacteria grown on non-aromatic substrates
    Chris M Yeager
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Corvallis, OR 97331 2902, USA
    Biodegradation 15:19-28. 2004
    ..These traits include oxygenase induction, effective TCE turnover, and some level of resistance to TCE mediated toxicity...
  72. ncbi Characteristics of granular sludge in a single upflow sludge blanket reactor treating high levels of nitrate and simple organic compounds
    C Y Lee
    Samsung Construction, 270 1 Seohyun dong, Bundang gu, Sungnam, Kyunggi Do 463 771, Republic of Korea
    Water Sci Technol 50:217-24. 2004
    ..Granules became fluffy and buoyant due to the growth of denitrifiers. Microscopic examination showed that granules exhibited layered structure and they were mainly composed of Methanosarcina sp., Pseudomonas sp., and rod-shaped bacteria...
  73. ncbi A regulatory locus, pehSR, controls polygalacturonase production and other virulence functions in Ralstonia solanacearum
    C Allen
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin Madison 53706, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:1054-64. 1997
    ..Reporter gene studies indicated that pehSR expression increased when bacteria grew in plant tissue, and that the pehSR locus was itself negatively regulated by the global virulence gene regulator PhcA...
  74. ncbi Heavy metal-resistant bacteria as extremophiles: molecular physiology and biotechnological use of Ralstonia sp. CH34
    D H Nies
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Martin Luther Universitat, Halle Wittenberg, Germany
    Extremophiles 4:77-82. 2000
    ..Thus, the cell can be enabled to mediate biochemical reactions such as precipitation of heavy metals with the carbon dioxide produced during growth or degradation of xenobiotics...
  75. pmc Temperature-dependent function of the glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase ammonia channel and coupling with glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase in a hyperthermophile
    A K Bera
    Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:3734-9. 2000
    ..The calculated PRA chemical half-life, however, decreased by a factor of 20 over this temperature range. These results provide evidence that coupling involves direct PRA transfer through GPAT-GARS interaction rather than free diffusion...
  76. ncbi Three-dimensional model of human TIP30, a coactivator for HIV-1 Tat-activated transcription, and CC3, a protein associated with metastasis suppression
    M E Baker
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0823, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 57:851-8. 2000
    ..Our structural model points to this alpha-helix and the SDR-like part of TIP30/CC3 for mutagenesis experiments to elucidate its role in HIV-1 Tat-activated transcription, metastasis suppression, and other cellular functions...
  77. ncbi Effect of associative bacteria on element composition of barley seedlings grown in solution culture at toxic cadmium concentrations
    A A Belimov
    All Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology ARRIAM, Saint Petersburg
    Microbiol Res 155:113-21. 2000
    ..The results showed that associative bacteria were capable of decreasing partially the toxicity of Cd for the barley plants through the improvement in uptake of nutrient elements...
  78. ncbi Rapid phenotypic change and diversification of a soil bacterium during 1000 generations of experimental evolution
    M S Riley
    Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Microbiology 147:995-1006. 2001
    ..This diversity may represent a set of equally probable adaptive solutions to the selective environment; it may also arise from the chance fixation of non-adaptive mutations that hitchhiked with a more limited set of beneficial mutations...
  79. ncbi Psychrobacter proteolyticus sp. nov., a psychrotrophic, halotolerant bacterium isolated from the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba Dana, excreting a cold-adapted metalloprotease
    E B Denner
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Universitat Wien, Vienna Biocenter, Wien, Austria
    Syst Appl Microbiol 24:44-53. 2001
    ..Strain 116 has been deposited in the Collection de l'Institut Pasteur, France, as CIP106830T and in the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen and Zellkulturen, as DSM13887...
  80. ncbi Identification of a novel pathogen-responsive element in the promoter of the tobacco gene HSR203J, a molecular marker of the hypersensitive response
    D Pontier
    , UMR INRA/CNRS 215, BP 27, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France
    Plant J 26:495-507. 2001
    ..Since this DNA region did not show any homology with known regulatory sequences, this 12 bp motif corresponds to a novel cis-regulatory element...
  81. ncbi In vivo detection of the cyclic osmoregulated periplasmic glucan of Ralstonia solanacearum by high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR
    J M Wieruszeski
    CNRS UMR 8525, Institut de Biologie de Lille/Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, Lille Cedex, 59021, France
    J Magn Reson 151:118-23. 2001
    ..HR MAS NMR spectroscopy leads to more reproducible results and allows the in vivo detection and characterization of the complex molecule...
  82. ncbi A polyphasic taxonomic study of Chryseobacterium strains isolated from dairy sources
    C J Hugo
    Department of Food Science, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
    Syst Appl Microbiol 22:586-95. 1999
    ..Another large part of strains have a separate or uncertain position in Chryseobacterium and remained classified as Chryseobacterium species CDC group IIb...
  83. ncbi Functional and biochemical characterization of a recombinant 3-Deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus
    H S Duewel
    Interdepartmental Program in Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109 1065, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 263:346-51. 1999
    ..5 h (90 degrees C), 8.1 h (80 degrees C), and 30.3 h (70 degrees C). KdsA appeared to follow Michaelis-Menton kinetics with K(A5-P)(m) = 8 - 74 microM, K(PEP)(m) = 43-28 microM, and k(cat) = 0.4-2.0 s(-1) between 60 and 90 degrees C...
  84. ncbi Molecular characterization of Gluconobacter oxydans recA gene and its inhibitory effect on the function of the host wild-type recA gene
    Y T Liu
    Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Can J Microbiol 44:149-56. 1998
    ....
  85. ncbi The control of Azorhizobium caulinodans nifA expression by oxygen, ammonia and by the HF-I-like protein, NrfA
    P A Kaminski
    Unité de Physiologie Cellulaire and URA 1300 CNRS, Departement des Biotechnologies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mol Microbiol 28:603-13. 1998
    ..NrfA also restores the defect in rpoS translation to an Escherichia coli hfq mutant, indicating that HF-I and NrfA have similar activities in both A. caulinodans and E. coli...
  86. pmc Aerobic mineralization of 2,6-dichlorophenol by Ralstonia sp. strain RK1
    P Steinle
    Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Pratteln, Switzerland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 64:2566-71. 1998
    ..A second fixed-bed reactor successfully removed low chlorophenol concentrations (20 to 26 microM) with hydraulic residence times of 8 to 30 min...
  87. pmc Structural determination of a 5-O-methyl-deaminated neuraminic acid (Kdn)-containing polysaccharide isolated from Sinorhizobium fredii
    A M Gil-Serrano
    Departamento de Qu approximately ímica Orgánica, Facultad de Qu approximately ímica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41071 Sevilla, Spain
    Biochem J 334:585-94. 1998
    ..We conclude that it is likely that the appearance of this new Kdn-containing polysaccharide is a consequence of the mutation...
  88. ncbi Construction of insertion and deletion mxa mutants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 by electroporation
    H Toyama
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Yamaguchi University, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 166:1-7. 1998
    ..These mutants were unable to grow on methanol except the mutant of mxaD, which showed reduced growth on methanol...
  89. pmc Bacterial filament formation, a defense mechanism against flagellate grazing, is growth rate controlled in bacteria of different phyla
    M W Hahn
    GBF National Research Center of Biotechnology, AG Microbial Ecology, D 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 65:25-35. 1999
    ..acidovorans PX54 (i.e., in bacteria belonging to divergent evolutionary phyla) may indicate that this mechanism is a phylogenetically widely distributed defense strategy against grazing...
  90. ncbi A common ancestor for a subunit in the mitochondrial proton-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases
    M E Baker
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego 92093 0823, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 55:450-5. 1999
    ....
  91. ncbi Structures of a histone deacetylase homologue bound to the TSA and SAHA inhibitors
    M S Finnin
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 401:188-93. 1999
    ..These structures also suggest a mechanism for the deacetylation reaction and provide a framework for the further development of HDAC inhibitors as antitumour agents...
  92. pmc Differential effects of replacing Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L27 with its homologue from Aquifex aeolicus
    B A Maguire
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:6565-72. 2001
    ..coli homologue functionally in completed ribosomes, it does not assist in the assembly of E. coli ribosomes that otherwise lack L27. Possible explanations for this paradoxical behavior are discussed...
  93. ncbi Production of catechol from benzoate by the wild strain Ralstonia species Ba-0323 and characterization of its catechol 1,2-dioxygenase
    C L Wang
    Division of Science of Biological Resources, The Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, Rokko, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:1957-64. 2001
    ..In addition, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was less similar to the other catechol 1,2-dioxygenases than they are to each other...
  94. ncbi Aequorivita gen. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from terrestrial and marine Antarctic habitats
    John P Bowman
    School of Agricultural Science, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1533-41. 2002
    ..nov. (type strain Y10-2T = ACAM 641T = DSM 14236T), Aequorivita crocea sp. nov. (type strain Y12-2T = ACAM 642T = DSM 14239T) and Aequorivita sublithincola sp. nov. (type strain 9-3T= ACAM 643T = DSM 14238T)...
  95. ncbi Why are rod-shaped bacteria rod shaped?
    Arthur L Koch
    Biology Dept, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 6801, USA
    Trends Microbiol 10:452-5. 2002
    ..Here, I discuss two hypothetical mechanisms, one for Gram-positive rods and the other for Gram-negative rods. These mechanisms are consistent with what is known, but make some unproven assumptions...
  96. ncbi A [2Fe-2S] protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus
    C Chatelet
    Departement de Biologie Moleculaire et Structurale, CEA Grenoble, Grenoble, 38054, France
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 261:885-9. 1999
    ..The A. aeolicus [2Fe-2S] protein is thus representative of a presumably novel protein fold involved in a variety of functions in very diverse cellular backgrounds...
  97. ncbi Cloning, sequencing, and overexpression in Escherichia coli of a phenylserine dehydratase gene from Ralstonia pickettii PS22
    Heiwa Okuda
    Department of Bioresources Science, Kochi University, Nankoku, Kochi 783 8502, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:2755-8. 2002
    ..coli and serine dehydratase from human liver. Transformed E. coli cells overproduced phenylserine dehydratase, and the recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a high yield and characterized...
  98. ncbi [Species identification and molecular epidemiology of bacteria belonging to Ochrobactrum genus]
    C Teyssier
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, 15, Avenue Charles Flahault, 34093 Cedex 5, Montpellier, France
    Pathol Biol (Paris) 51:5-12. 2003
    ..Thus, this method could be a useful tool for molecular epidemiology of Ochrobactrum infections...
  99. ncbi [Characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Ralstonia solanacearum]
    L D Varbanets
    Zabolotnyi Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul Zabolotnogo 154, Kiev, 252143 Ukraine
    Mikrobiologiia 72:19-25. 2003
    ..Three types of the O-PS structure were established, which differed in their configuration (alpha or beta), as well as in the type of the bond between glucosamine and rhamnose residues (1-->2 or 1-->3)...
  100. ncbi Croceibacter atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium in the family Flavobacteriaceae
    Jang Cheon Cho
    Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331, USA
    Syst Appl Microbiol 26:76-83. 2003
    ..Therefore, it is proposed from the polyphasic studies that strain HTCC2559T (=ATCC BAA-628T = KCTC 12090T) belongs to a new genus and species named Croceibacter atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov...
  101. ncbi Spatial stochastic simulation offers potential as a quantitative method for pest risk analysis
    Trond Rafoss
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway
    Risk Anal 23:651-61. 2003
    ..Issues related to integrating spatial variables into risk analysis models are further discussed in this article...