mycobacterium scrofulaceum

Summary

Summary: A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in acid, brown-water swamps of the southeastern United States and their association with environmental variables
    R A Kirschner
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Balcksburg 24061
    Am Rev Respir Dis 145:271-5. 1992
  2. ncbi Mycobacterium nebraskense sp. nov., a novel slowly growing scotochromogenic species
    Amr M Mohamed
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 6495, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:2057-60. 2004
  3. pmc Acute bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: immune reconstitution disease in a patient with AIDS
    S D Lawn
    Sex Transm Infect 81:517-8. 2005
  4. ncbi Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria IX. Evidence for two DNA homology groups among small plasmids in Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
    M T Jucker
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061
    Am Rev Respir Dis 142:858-62. 1990
  5. pmc Use of the INNO-LiPA-MYCOBACTERIA assay (version 2) for identification of Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum complex isolates
    Lea Lebrun
    Service de Microbiologie, Hopital Saint Louis, 1 avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2567-74. 2005
  6. pmc Factors influencing the chlorine susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
    Joseph O Falkinham
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5685-9. 2003
  7. ncbi Serovar determination and molecular taxonomic correlation in Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: a cooperative study of the International Working Group on Mycobacterial Taxonomy
    L G Wayne
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Long Beach, California 90822
    Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:482-9. 1993
  8. pmc Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth
    E D Strahl
    Department of Biology, Fralin Biotechnology Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 0346, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4432-9. 2001
  9. ncbi Identification and characterization of an immunogenic 22 kDa exported protein of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
    Chris Dupont
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, Private Bag 11 222, New Zealand
    J Med Microbiol 54:1083-92. 2005
  10. ncbi [Pulmonary mycobacterioses--frequency of occurrence, clinical spectrum and predisposing factors]
    Małgorzata Czajkowska
    III Kliniki Gruźlicy i Chorób Płuc, Warszawie
    Pneumonol Alergol Pol 70:550-60. 2002

Research Grants

  1. SURFACE ANTIGENS OF M LEPRAE AND OTHER MYCOBACTERIA
    Patrick Brennan; Fiscal Year: 1993
  2. MYCOBACTERIAL CELL WALL AND DRUG DISCOVERY
    Patrick Brennan; Fiscal Year: 2007

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications95

  1. ncbi Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in acid, brown-water swamps of the southeastern United States and their association with environmental variables
    R A Kirschner
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Balcksburg 24061
    Am Rev Respir Dis 145:271-5. 1992
    Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) organisms were isolated and identified from waters, soils, aerosols, and droplets ejected from water collected from four geographically separate ..
  2. ncbi Mycobacterium nebraskense sp. nov., a novel slowly growing scotochromogenic species
    Amr M Mohamed
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 6495, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:2057-60. 2004
    ..group in close proximity to Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. These data support the conclusion that the related five described organisms represent a novel ..
  3. pmc Acute bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: immune reconstitution disease in a patient with AIDS
    S D Lawn
    Sex Transm Infect 81:517-8. 2005
  4. ncbi Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria IX. Evidence for two DNA homology groups among small plasmids in Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
    M T Jucker
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061
    Am Rev Respir Dis 142:858-62. 1990
    ..3 to 25 kb from environmental and clinical (AIDS and non-AIDS) isolates. There was no hybridization between pVT2 and pLR7. Thus, these two probes define two different groups of small mycobacterial plasmids...
  5. pmc Use of the INNO-LiPA-MYCOBACTERIA assay (version 2) for identification of Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum complex isolates
    Lea Lebrun
    Service de Microbiologie, Hopital Saint Louis, 1 avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2567-74. 2005
    ..bioMérieux) techniques, 35 Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAC/MAIS) complex strains were identified between January 2000 and December 2002...
  6. pmc Factors influencing the chlorine susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
    Joseph O Falkinham
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5685-9. 2003
    The susceptibility of representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (the MAIS group) to chlorine was studied to identify factors related to culture conditions and growth phase ..
  7. ncbi Serovar determination and molecular taxonomic correlation in Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: a cooperative study of the International Working Group on Mycobacterial Taxonomy
    L G Wayne
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Long Beach, California 90822
    Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:482-9. 1993
    ..the agglutination serovar designations of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strains with the species ascriptions of these organisms according to molecular criteria and cultural ..
  8. pmc Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth
    E D Strahl
    Department of Biology, Fralin Biotechnology Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 0346, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4432-9. 2001
    ..FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis...
  9. ncbi Identification and characterization of an immunogenic 22 kDa exported protein of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
    Chris Dupont
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, Private Bag 11 222, New Zealand
    J Med Microbiol 54:1083-92. 2005
    ..avium and similar genes existed in Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Database searches showed that P22 belonged to the LppX/LprAFG family of mycobacterial lipoproteins also ..
  10. ncbi [Pulmonary mycobacterioses--frequency of occurrence, clinical spectrum and predisposing factors]
    Małgorzata Czajkowska
    III Kliniki Gruźlicy i Chorób Płuc, Warszawie
    Pneumonol Alergol Pol 70:550-60. 2002
    ..In 4 cases disseminated bronchiectases with small nodules were the main radiologic feature. Mycobacteriosis was caused by M. kansasii in 11 cases, by M. intracellularae in 6, by M. xenopi in 5 and by M. scrofulaceum in 1 case...
  11. ncbi Discordant molecular characterization results in a Mycobacterium avium complex strain isolated from an AIDS patient
    Tsi Shu Huang
    Section of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, 386 Ta Chung 1st Rd, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Med Microbiol 54:681-3. 2005
    ..Its PCR restriction-enzyme analysis pattern was compatible with an allelic variant of M. avium. It was scotochromogenic, slow-growing and phenotypically identified as Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Its clinical significance is not certain.
  12. ncbi [Lymphadenitis colli due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM): a case-series and review of the literature]
    M Knuf
    Pädiatrische Immunologie und Infektiologie, Kinderklinik der Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz
    Klin Padiatr 215:9-15. 2003
    ..For Germany there is a lack of data concerning the incidence, the epidemiology, the diversity and frequency of the different bacteria, the diagnosis, the clinical manifestation and the medical treatment...
  13. ncbi Successful treatment of localized cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum with clarithromycin
    Ho Sun Jang
    Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Seo Gu, Busan, Korea
    Pediatr Dermatol 22:476-9. 2005
    Cutaneous infection arising from Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, a nontuberculous mycobacteria, has rarely been reported, and most of the reported infections were disseminated forms in patients with AIDS or other immunocompromising illness...
  14. ncbi Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in children: a 2-year prospective surveillance study in the Netherlands
    Margje H Haverkamp
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 39:450-6. 2004
    ..Thirty children underwent surgery, and chemotherapy was the single treatment in 24 (39%) of the cases. The treatment of localized NTM infection in immunocompetent children by antimycobacterial drugs should be evaluated further...
  15. ncbi [Nontuberculous bacterial infection in immunocompetent children]
    F De Juan Martín
    Servicios de Pediatría, Sección de Infecciosos, Hospital Infantil Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain
    An Esp Pediatr 56:357-9. 2002
    ..We describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, therapeutic management and complications of nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children...
  16. ncbi [Disseminated infection by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in an infected HIV patient]
    M J Núñez Fernández
    An Med Interna 19:381-2. 2002
  17. ncbi Identification of members of Mycobacterium avium species by Accu-Probes, serotyping, and single IS900, IS901, IS1245 and IS901-flanking region PCR with internal standards
    Milan Bartos
    Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno, Czech Republic
    J Microbiol Methods 64:333-45. 2006
    ..n=60) and atypical mycobacteria (n=256) including Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium gastri and other species of conditionally pathogenic mycobacteria were analysed...
  18. pmc Performance assessment of new multiplex probe assay for identification of mycobacteria
    E Tortoli
    Centro Regionale di Riferimento per la Diagnostica delle Micobatteriosi, Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia, Ospedale di Careggi, Piastra del servizi, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134 Florence, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 39:1079-84. 2001
    ..Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium gordonae, the species of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium chelonae was evaluated on a panel of 238 strains including, besides representatives ..
  19. ncbi Host range of 14 mycobacteriophages in Mycobacterium ulcerans and seven other mycobacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis--application for identification and susceptibility testing
    Jan Rybniker
    Department of Microbiology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Str 74, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
    J Med Microbiol 55:37-42. 2006
    ..Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae. Here, a set of virulent phages for M...
  20. ncbi [Detection and identification of mycobacteria by PCR-RFLP method]
    E Hidaka
    Central Clinical Laboratories, Shinshu University Hospital, Matsumoto
    Rinsho Byori 43:155-61. 1995
    ..tuberculosis, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae) ..
  21. doi Revival and emended description of 'Mycobacterium paraffinicum' Davis, Chase and Raymond 1956 as Mycobacterium paraffinicum sp. nov., nom. rev
    Nadege Toney
    Mycobacteriology Branch, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:2307-13. 2010
    ..Approved Lists of Bacterial Names was due to phenotypic confusion surrounding a close relationship with Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Correspondingly, 'M...
  22. ncbi Evaluation of a commercial line probe assay for identification of mycobacterium species from liquid and solid culture
    W Mijs
    Innogenetics NV, Industriepark 7, Box 4, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21:794-802. 2002
    ..Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium chelonae - Mycobacterium abscessus complex...
  23. ncbi Contribution of environmental mycobacteria to false-positive serum ELISA results for paratuberculosis
    Jason B Osterstock
    Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:896-901. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effect of exposure to environmental mycobacteria on results of 2 commercial ELISAs for paratuberculosis in cattle...
  24. ncbi Gas-chromatographic lipid profiles in identification of currently known slowly growing environmental mycobacteria
    Pirjo Torkko
    Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, PO Box 95, FIN 70701 Kuopio, Finland
    J Med Microbiol 52:315-23. 2003
    ..Mycobacterium heidelbergense, Mycobacterium hiberniae, Mycobacterium kubicae, Mycobacterium lentiflavum, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium triplex and Mycobacterium tusciae...
  25. pmc Commercial DNA probes for mycobacteria incorrectly identify a number of less frequently encountered species
    Enrico Tortoli
    Regional Reference Center for Mycobacteria, Piastra dei Servizi, A O U Careggi, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134 Florence, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 48:307-10. 2010
    ..the probes specific for Mycobacterium fortuitum and the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum group. GenoType misidentified 28 taxa, most of which cross-reacted with M. intracellulare and M...
  26. ncbi Association of tuberculin sensitivity in Dutch adults with history of travel to areas of with a high incidence of tuberculosis
    F G Cobelens
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine, and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 33:300-4. 2001
    ..unit (TU) purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 1-TU sensitin of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Tuberculin sensitivity was defined as a reaction to PPD of > or =10 mm that was > or =3 mm larger ..
  27. pmc Purification, characterization, gene sequence, and significance of a bacterioferritin from Mycobacterium leprae
    M C Pessolani
    Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523
    J Exp Med 180:319-27. 1994
    ..sequences in Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. The role of this iron-rich protein in the virulence of M. leprae is discussed.
  28. pmc Use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification of the IS900 sequence for rapid detection of cultured Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
    M Enosawa
    Hokkaido Animal Research Center, Shintoku Eiken Chemical Co, Ltd, Ohtawara, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4359-65. 2003
    ..LAMP with P-1 was specific. Although only 2 Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strains out of 43 non-MAP mycobacterial strains were amplified, the amplification reaction for these ..
  29. doi Isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium avium from porcine lymph nodes
    Jakko van Ingen
    National Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Vet Microbiol 144:250-3. 2010
    ..1Mycobacterium bohemicum, 1Mycobacterium heckeshornense and a possibly novel species related to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and 1 grew a possibly novel species related to M. palustre). Several NTM species other than M...
  30. ncbi Chinese patients with defective IL-12/23-interferon-gamma circuit in Taiwan: partial dominant interferon-gamma receptor 1 mutation presenting as cutaneous granuloma and IL-12 receptor beta1 mutation as pneumatocele
    Wen I Lee
    Primary Immunodeficiency Care and Research PICAR Institute, Chang Gung Memory and Children s Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
    J Clin Immunol 29:238-45. 2009
    ..However, patients with defective IL-12/23-interferon-gamma circuit rather than CGD are not recognized in Taiwan, endemic for tuberculosis and salmonella...
  31. ncbi Identification of acid-fast bacilli using pyrosequencing analysis
    Jian R Bao
    Department of Microbiology, Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, Chantilly, VA 20151, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67:234-8. 2010
    ..Only Mycobacterium simiae and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum were not identifiable by the pyrosequence method...
  32. doi Evaluating the non-tuberculous mycobacteria effect in the tuberculosis infection diagnosis
    I Latorre
    Servei de Microbiologia, Fundació Institut d Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Carretera del Canyet s n, 08916 Badalona Barcelona Spain
    Eur Respir J 35:338-42. 2010
    ..with Mycobacterium avium sensitin (having cross-reaction with Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum) and the presence of reactive T-cells was determined by an ex vivo ELISPOT...
  33. doi Mycobacterium paraseoulense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species related genetically to Mycobacterium seoulense
    Hyung Ki Lee
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cancer Research Institute and Liver Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:439-43. 2010
    ..hsp65 sequence-based reidentification of Korean clinical isolates that had been previously identified as Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by conventional biochemical tests...
  34. ncbi Mycobacterium seoulense sp. nov., a slowly growing scotochromogenic species
    Ho Suk Mun
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cancer Research Institute and Liver Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 799, Korea
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:594-9. 2007
    ..Phenetic characteristics of this strain were generally similar to those of Mycobacterium nebraskense and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. However, some phenetic characteristics differentiated it from these two species...
  35. pmc Characterization of "Mycobacterium paraffinicum" associated with a pseudo-outbreak
    Shu Hua Wang
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:1850-3. 2008
    ..10 patients were initially identified by biochemical tests and high-performance liquid chromatography as Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. However, further testing by molecular analysis revealed "M. paraffinicum...
  36. ncbi Leprosy as a challenge to science on the ability to decode its enigma. A hypothesis on how to respond
    Eiichi Matsuo
    Matsuo Medical Laboratory, Yokohama 227 0046, Japan
    Jpn J Infect Dis 58:59-64. 2005
    ..and has been rejected as it contained Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, without attention to the coexistent M. leprae at that time...
  37. pmc Immune reconstitution syndrome from nontuberculous mycobacterial infection after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection
    Thanyawee Puthanakit
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:645-8. 2006
    ..The causative species were Mycobacterium avium (4), Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (3), Mycobacterium kansasii (1) and Mycobacterium simiae (1).
  38. pmc Novel allelic variants of Mycobacteria isolated in Brazil as determined by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65
    A da Silva Rocha
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Departmentand, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4191-6. 2002
    ..isolates so far were observed among 36 (10%) of 356 Brazilian strains, including a new pattern for Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, M. intracellulare, and M. flavescens, two new patterns for M. fortuitum, three new patterns each for M...
  39. ncbi Different molecular methods for the identification of rarely isolated non-tuberculous mycobacteria and description of new hsp65 restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns
    Bernhard Häfner
    Department of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Hygiene Institute, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell Probes 18:59-65. 2004
    ..type V), Mycobacterium gordonae (type VIII) and Mycobacterium paraffinicum (perhaps synonymous to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum) are described...
  40. ncbi Phenoxazine compounds produced by the reactions with bovine hemoglobin show antimicrobial activity against non-tuberculosis mycobacteria
    Shigetaka Shimizu
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Research Institute of Immunological Treatment, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160 0032, Japan
    Tohoku J Exp Med 203:47-52. 2004
    ..of mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium smegmatis and some bacteria such as ..
  41. doi Epithelioid histiocytic infiltrate caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection: a potential mimic of various neoplastic entities
    Jonathan Lai
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Dermatopathol 35:266-9. 2013
    b>Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is a slow-growing atypical mycobacterium that is ubiquitous within our environment found in the water and soil. Most commonly, it manifests as the organism responsible for lymphadenitis in children...
  42. ncbi Mycobacterium mantenii sp. nov., a pathogenic, slowly growing, scotochromogenic species
    Jakko van Ingen
    Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:2782-7. 2009
    ..based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that these micro-organisms are most closely related to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum ATCC 19981(T) (8 differences; 0.6 % divergence)...
  43. doi Infections due to various atypical mycobacteria in a Norwegian multiplex family with dominant interferon-gamma receptor deficiency
    Heidi Glosli
    Department of Pediatrics, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    Clin Infect Dis 46:e23-7. 2008
    ..Atypical mycobacteria can cause systemic infections in patients with certain types of immunodeficiency...
  44. ncbi Non tuberculous mycobacteria infection of the parotid region: two familiar cases
    Davide Padovani
    ENT Department, University of Ferrara, St Anna Hospital Ferrara, Italy
    Auris Nasus Larynx 34:577-9. 2007
    ..The parotid region represents a peculiar location for the disease and it is exceptional to discover cases in members of the same family...
  45. ncbi [15 cases of pulmonary Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection]
    Mikiko Emori
    Department of Medicine, Kawasaki Hospital, 538 Tsue, Yame shi, Fukuoka 834 0024, Japan
    Kekkaku 82:173-8. 2007
    ..We described clinical features of pulmonary Mycobacterium scofulaceum disease...
  46. ncbi Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. VIII. Absence of mycobacteria in chicken litter
    J O Falkinham
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061
    Am Rev Respir Dis 139:1347-9. 1989
    ..Further, litter appears bactericidal to these organisms in that less than 1% of cells inoculated survived more than 6 wk, probably because of the high pH of litters...
  47. ncbi Flexor tenosynovitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: case report
    Timothy I Carter
    The Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Hand Surg Am 31:1292-5. 2006
    Atypical hand infections with Mycobacterium species are uncommon, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infections are rare. We present a case of flexor tenosynovitis caused by M scrofulaceum in a 66-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes.
  48. pmc Genetic analysis of Mycobacterium avium complex strains used for producing purified protein derivatives
    Makeda Semret
    McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:991-6. 2006
    ..avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum organisms. For M...
  49. ncbi Speciation of organisms within the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) complex based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms
    R N Picken
    Enzo Biochem, Inc, New York, NY 10013
    Mol Cell Probes 2:289-304. 1988
    ..Bam Hl digests of chromosomal DNA from members of the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum complex...
  50. ncbi Three cases of mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis
    M T Dabrowski
    Department of Otolaryngology, Victoria Hospital, Blackpool
    J Laryngol Otol 108:514-5. 1994
    ..With an increasing number of tuberculosis cases reported in the UK, the need for awareness of this re-emerging condition to ENT surgeons and paediatricians is stressed...
  51. ncbi Cloning, sequencing and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene for alpha antigen from Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
    M Takano
    Nagasaki University School of Dentistry, Japan
    Scand J Immunol 40:165-70. 1994
    The gene for the extracellular alpha antigen of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (S-alpha) was cloned by using the alpha antigen gene fragments of Mycobacterium bovis BCG as probes. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined...
  52. ncbi Comparative skin testing with PPD tuberculin, Mycobacterium avium and M. scrofulaceum sensitin in schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia
    A A Osman
    King Fahd Central Hospital, Jizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    Tuber Lung Dis 75:38-43. 1994
    ..Jizan region, Saudi Arabia...
  53. ncbi Lymphocyte production of gamma-interferon as a test for non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood
    P M Davidson
    Department of Surgery, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Eur J Pediatr 152:31-5. 1993
    ..The level of IFN-gamma produced by peripheral blood lymphocytes from children in the MAIS group was significantly greater when compared with children having operations for neck lesions that were not due to MAIS organisms (P < 0.001)...
  54. ncbi Brain tumours in childhood in Bombay: I: Histopathology showing changing patterns; II: Tissue culture with light and electronmicroscopy, stressing ingestion & degradation of bacteria by glial cells in vitro
    D K Dastur
    Department of Neuropathology and Applied Biology, Medical Research Centre, Bombay Hospital, India
    J Neurooncol 7:153-64. 1989
    ..Cells of both tumours showed copious autophagic activity and cytoskeletal features of developing microtubules and filaments...
  55. ncbi Analysis of cellular fatty acids and proteins by capillary gas chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to differentiate Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) complex s
    J Fourche
    Laboratoire de Biochimie Medicale, Universite de Bordeaux II, France
    J Chromatogr 532:209-16. 1990
    ..Species of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum are among the most common non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from patients with AIDS or ..
  56. doi Serodiagnosis of environmental mycobacterial infections
    Henriette Stavri
    Cantacuzino Institute, Mycobacterial Antigens Department, Bucharest, Romania
    J Microbiol Methods 86:283-90. 2011
    ..antigens selective for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum and Mycobacterium gordonae...
  57. doi Nerve dysfunction following surgical treatment of cervical non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children
    Gösta Claesson
    Astrid Lindgren Children s Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Paediatr 100:299-302. 2011
    ..To present our experience of nerve dysfunction following surgical treatment among 126 children with microbiologically verified non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lymphadenitis...
  58. ncbi Sensitivity to PPD tuberculin and M. scrofulaceum sensitin in schoolchildren BCG vaccinated at birth
    M Tala-Heikkila
    Department of Diseases of the Chest, University of Turku, Finland
    Tuber Lung Dis 73:87-93. 1992
    ..To determine the degree of and variation in sensitivity to PPD RT 23 tuberculin and M. scrofulaceum sensitin RS 95 at school age in children BCG vaccinated at birth...
  59. ncbi Oxazolidinones, a new class of synthetic antituberculosis agent. In vitro and in vivo activities of DuP-721 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    D R Ashtekar
    Hindustan CIBA GEIGY Infectious Diseases Programme, Pharma Research Center, Goregaon Bombay, India
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 14:465-71. 1991
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  60. ncbi [Mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Report of 1 case]
    L C Núñez González
    Centro Municipal de Higiene y Epidemiologia de Artemisa
    Rev Cubana Med Trop 43:124-7. 1991
    ..Direct microscopy was negative in 4 sputum samples and finally, on five occasions, the culture gave rise to a strain biochemically labeled as Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. The case corresponded to a mycobacteriosis.
  61. ncbi Current treatment of atypical mycobacteriosis
    Jaime Esteban
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Av Reyes Catolicos 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 10:2787-99. 2009
    ..This rising rate of infection is due mainly to the increase in the number of susceptible (and especially immunosuppressed) patients...
  62. pmc Immunophenotypic analysis of histiocytes involved in AIDS-associated Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection: similarities with lepromatous lepra
    J Delabie
    Laboratory of Histo and Cytochemistry, K U Leuven, Belgium
    Clin Exp Immunol 85:214-8. 1991
    ....
  63. ncbi Sensitivity to sensitins and tuberculin in Swedish children. I. A study of schoolchildren in an urban area
    A Lind
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Goteborg, Sweden
    Tubercle 72:29-36. 1991
    ..1 microgram Mycobacterium avium sensitin RS10 or 0.1 microgram Mycobacterium scrofulaceum sensitin RS95. None of the 2819 analysed children had any known exposure to tuberculosis. A total of 3...
  64. ncbi [A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection and review of the tendency towards recent acid-fast bacilli infection]
    Takashi Ishiguro
    Saitama Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center
    Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 47:731-6. 2009
    ..Results of the culture and identification test showed the causative bacillus to be Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (M. scrofulaceum)...
  65. ncbi Sensitivity to sensitins and tuberculin in Swedish children. II. A study of preschool children
    L O Larsson
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Goteborg, Sweden
    Tubercle 72:37-42. 1991
    ..1 microgram Mycobacterium avium sensitin RS10 or 0.1 microgram Mycobacterium scrofulaceum sensitin RS95. None of the 762 children had any known exposure to tuberculosis. A total of 8...
  66. ncbi Identification of cytoplasmic membrane protein antigens of Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum
    K L George
    Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg 24061
    Can J Microbiol 35:529-34. 1989
    ..Western blot analysis revealed that the MCMP and several other membrane proteins reacted with serum samples from patients infected with M. avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, or other mycobacteria...
  67. ncbi The effects of LMWOAs on biodegradation of multi-component PAHs in aqueous solution using dual-wavelength fluorimetry
    Xing Yuan Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, PR China
    Environ Pollut 157:3150-7. 2009
    ..a mixture of the three, by two bacterial strains, MEBIC 5140 (Mycobacterium flavescens) and MEBIC 5141 (Mycobacterium scrofulaceum), as well as the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), e.g...
  68. ncbi [A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection presented as pleurisy]
    Hisae Fusegawa
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, National Hospital Organization Kanagawa National Hospital, Hadano shi, Japan
    Kekkaku 80:469-73. 2005
    ..for acid fast bacilli were obtained from both sputum and pleural fluid, and they were identified as Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. He was treated successfully with the combination of INH, RFP, EB plus SM and CAM...
  69. pmc Comparison of PCR-generated fragments of the mce gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum
    S L Parker
    Environmental Sciences Laboratory, County Sanitation Districts of Orange County, Fountain Valley, California 92728 8127, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2:770-5. 1995
    ..avium and M. intracellulare sequences into single-species clusters. It is concluded that at least one open reading frame of the mce gene is found, although it is discernibly different, in pathogenic mycobacteria other than the MTC...
  70. pmc Decolorization of malachite green and crystal violet by waterborne pathogenic mycobacteria
    Jefferson J Jones
    Department of Biology, Virginia Union University, Richmond, Virginia 23220, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2323-6. 2003
    Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium chelonae tolerate high concentrations of the dyes malachite green and crystal violet...
  71. ncbi [Specificity of the Mantoux-reaction to the new tuberculin RT23 in relation to that of previously used PPD-RIVM; a comparative study in hospital staff]
    F G Cobelens
    afd Interne Geneeskunde, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 143:855-8. 1999
    ..This investigation was carried out to assess the specificity of RT23 compared with PPD-RIVM...
  72. ncbi Mycobacteria distenct from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from the faeces of ruminants possess IS900-like sequences detectable IS900 polymerase chain reaction: implications for diagnosis
    D V Cousins
    Animal Health Laboratories, Agriculture Western Australia, Locked Bag No 4, Bentley Delivery Service, Bentley, WA Australia
    Mol Cell Probes 13:431-42. 1999
    ..paratuberculosis in the region of IS 900 amplified, were most closely related to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and confirmed the usefulness of restriction enzyme analysis of amplified product to identify the false ..
  73. ncbi Development of tuberculin reactivity and sensitization to M. scrofulaceum and M. fortuitum in children BCG-vaccinated at birth
    L Kroger
    Dept of Paediatrics, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland
    Eur Respir J 15:382-7. 2000
    ..4-12.4 yrs (n=201) were tested with tuberculin purified protein derivative RT23, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum RS95 and M. fortuitum RS20 sensitins...
  74. pmc Evaluation of the LiPA MYCOBACTERIA assay for identification of mycobacterial species from BACTEC 12B bottles
    N Miller
    Department of Pathology, Jackson Memorial Medical Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1915-9. 2000
    ..szulgai). The LiPA MYCOBACTERIA assay was easy to perform, and the interpretation of the positive bands was clear-cut. Following PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis, the LiPA assay was completed within 3 h...
  75. pmc Distinct differences in repertoires of low-molecular-mass secreted antigens of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    I Olsen
    National Veterinary Institute, Institute of Immunology IGRI, Oslo, Norway
    J Clin Microbiol 38:4453-8. 2000
    ..avium subsp. avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum but was not detected in M. tuberculosis...
  76. ncbi Red nodule on the finger of an immunosuppressed woman
    Roshini Kandyil
    Baylor College of Medicine, University of Texas, Houston, Medical School, Houston, TX, USA
    Arch Dermatol 138:689-94. 2002
  77. pmc Evidence of the presence of IS1245 and IS1311 or closely related insertion elements in nontuberculous mycobacteria outside of the Mycobacterium avium complex
    Andreas P Keller
    Department of General Pediatrics, Children s Hospital, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1869-72. 2002
    ..Specific PCR products were observed in Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, indicating that IS1245 and IS1311 are not limited to the ..
  78. ncbi A case of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum osteomyelitis of the right wrist
    L L Phoa
    Department of Medicine, Alexandra Hospital, 378 Alexandra Road, Singapore 159964
    Ann Acad Med Singapore 29:678-81. 2000
    ..The objective of the case report is to highlight the possibility of osteomyelitis caused by atypical mycobacteria. Such an infection may simulate tuberculous bone infection and yet fail to respond to standard anti-tuberculous drug therapy...
  79. pmc Failure of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine: some species of environmental mycobacteria block multiplication of BCG and induction of protective immunity to tuberculosis
    Lise Brandt
    Department of TB Immunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Infect Immun 70:672-8. 2002
    ....
  80. ncbi Pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum linked to cross-contamination with a laboratory reference strain
    G V Oda
    Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, California 94304, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 22:649-51. 2001
    b>Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was isolated from three clinical specimens over a period of 2 months. In the preceding 10 years, the institution had not reported any cases of this unusual mycobacterium...
  81. ncbi Skin indurations in response to tuberculin testing in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis
    Y Haimi-Cohen
    Pediatric Day Care Unit, Schneider Children s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva, Israel
    Clin Infect Dis 33:1786-8. 2001
    ..14 patients [48%]), Mycobacterium haemophilum (from 12 [41%]), Mycobacterium simiae (from 2 [7%]), and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (from 1 [3%]); the median indurations for each species were 15.5 mm, 14...
  82. ncbi TB infection: an exploratory study of BCG protective properties and the possible role of environmental mycobacteria
    V N Chihota
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe Medical School, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Cent Afr J Med 44:145-8. 1998
    ..To evaluate the presence of environmental mycobacterial strains and explore the implications for BCG vaccination against TB...
  83. ncbi Tuberculin skin test reactions by time of reading among Dutch travellers
    F Cobelens
    Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association KNCV, The Hague, The Netherlands
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 7:758-63. 2003
    ..Five travel and TB control clinics in The Netherlands...
  84. ncbi Investigation into typical and atypical tuberculin sensitivity in the Royal Netherlands Army, resulting in a more rational indication for isoniazid prophylaxis
    J Bruins
    Department of Military Health Care, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Tuber Lung Dis 76:540-4. 1995
    ..The Department of Military Health Services (DMGZ) vaccination clinic, Utrecht, The Netherlands...
  85. ncbi Non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis
    J E Wright
    Department of Paediatric Surgery, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
    Aust N Z J Surg 66:225-8. 1996
    ..The condition is familiar to paediatricians and paediatric surgeons but it often is not recognized in its early stages. A paediatric surgeon's experience of the condition in Newcastle over 30 years is reviewed...
  86. pmc Identification and subspecific differentiation of Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by automated sequencing of a region of the gene (hsp65) encoding a 65-kilodalton heat shock protein
    D S Swanson
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 34:3151-9. 1996
    b>Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is most commonly recovered from children with cervical lymphadenitis, although it also accounts for approximately 2% of the mycobacterial infections in AIDS patients. Species assignment of M...
  87. ncbi Multicenter evaluation of mycobacteria identification by PCR restriction enzyme analysis in laboratories from Latin America and the Caribbean
    Sylvia Cardoso Leao
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo Escola Paulista de Medicina, Rua Botucatu, 862 3 degrees andar, São Paulo 04023 062, Brazil
    J Microbiol Methods 61:193-9. 2005
    ..Belgium), representing duplicates of nine laboratory strains: Mycobacterium terrae CIPT 140320001, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum CIPT 140220031, Mycobacterium flavescens ATCC 14474, Mycobacterium triviale ATCC 23292, Mycobacterium ..
  88. ncbi [Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum]
    R Rodríguez Barrientos
    An Med Interna 21:515-6. 2004
  89. ncbi Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum sp. nov., novel slowly growing, scotochromogenic clinical isolates related to Mycobacterium simiae
    C Y Turenne
    National Reference Centre for Mycobacteriology, National Microbiology Laboratory, Health Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1543-51. 2004
    ..However, it presents with a similar phenotypic profile to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Several reference strains obtained from ATCC and TMC culture collections, previously identified as M...
  90. ncbi Nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis
    A Oliver
    Microbiology Department, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1298-303. 2001
    ..Screening for nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis will contribute to understanding the relevance of these pathogens with regard to deterioration of pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis...
  91. ncbi [An experimental nerve lesion simulating leprous neuropathy produced in the nude mice by the inoculation of a leproma-derived and cultivable mycobacterium HI-75]
    H Sidik
    1st Department of Pathology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi 65:174-9. 1996
    ....
  92. pmc Isolation by genetic labeling of a new mycobacterial plasmid, pJAZ38, from Mycobacterium fortuitum
    J A Gavigan
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain
    J Bacteriol 179:4115-22. 1997
    ..This region showed homology with the Mycobacterium avium plasmid pLR7 and the Mycobacterium scrofulaceum plasmid pMSC262, a family of plasmids which have been found to be widespread throughout the mycobacteria...
  93. ncbi Cross-reactive immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis BCG in mice infected with non-tuberculous mycobacteria belonging to the MAIS-Group
    E Lozes
    Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Brussels, Belgium
    Scand J Immunol 46:16-26. 1997
    ..The data suggest that the presence of M. scrofulaceum in the environment may possibly interfere in genetically predisposed subjects with BCG vaccine and its protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis...
  94. ncbi A genomic study on the cultivable and nerve invading Mycobacterium HI-75 after the recovery 3 months of the inoculation to nude mice
    T Sakai
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi 66:223-6. 1997
    ..HI-75 would be a variant of M. scrofulaceum possessing an ability to invade into peripheral nerve. The results suggest that the HI-75 strain claims a nature as a pathogen to develop a leproma-like lesion...
  95. ncbi Diptera as vectors of mycobacterial infections in cattle and pigs
    O Fischer
    Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic
    Med Vet Entomol 15:208-11. 2001
    ..and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) captured in the same herd. Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was isolated from S. calcitrans from the farm with both cattle and pigs. Mycobacterium avium ssp...

Research Grants5

  1. SURFACE ANTIGENS OF M LEPRAE AND OTHER MYCOBACTERIA
    Patrick Brennan; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..C-mycoside" glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens of the Mycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare/Mycobacterium scrofulaceum complex will continue in concert with a probing of their biosynthesis, based on observations that they ..
  2. MYCOBACTERIAL CELL WALL AND DRUG DISCOVERY
    Patrick Brennan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..glycopeptidolipid (GPL) antigens of the[unreadable] Mycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare/Mycobacterium scrofulaceum[unreadable] complex will continue in concert with a probing of their biosynthesis,[unreadable] based on ..