protozoa

Summary

Summary: A subkingdom consisting of unicellular organisms that are the simplest in the animal kingdom. Most are free living. They range in size from submicroscopic to macroscopic. Protozoa are divided into seven phyla: SARCOMASTIGOPHORA; Labyrinthomorpha, APICOMPLEXA; MICROSPORA; Ascetospora, Myxozoa, and CILIOPHORA.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Evasion of innate immunity by parasitic protozoa
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:1041-7. 2002
  2. ncbi The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists
    Sina M Adl
    Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:399-451. 2005
  3. ncbi The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa
    T Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:297-354. 2002
  4. ncbi Update on human infections caused by intestinal protozoa
    Kristen K Pierce
    Department of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:12-7. 2009
  5. pmc The PmrA/PmrB two-component system of Legionella pneumophila is a global regulator required for intracellular replication within macrophages and protozoa
    Souhaila Al-Khodor
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Louisville, Room 412, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Infect Immun 77:374-86. 2009
  6. ncbi A Legionella effector acquired from protozoa is involved in sphingolipids metabolism and is targeted to the host cell mitochondria
    Elena Degtyar
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Cell Microbiol 11:1219-35. 2009
  7. pmc Ubiquitin-like modifiers and their deconjugating enzymes in medically important parasitic protozoa
    Elizabeth L Ponder
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr Edwards R343, Stanford, CA 94305 5324, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 6:1943-52. 2007
  8. ncbi Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa)
    Thomas Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Protist 154:341-58. 2003
  9. ncbi Gastrointestinal protozoa in non-human primates of four zoological gardens in Belgium
    Bruno Levecke
    Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 148:236-46. 2007
  10. pmc Strategies for acquiring the phospholipid metabolite inositol in pathogenic bacteria, fungi and protozoa: making it and taking it
    Todd B Reynolds
    Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    Microbiology 155:1386-96. 2009

Detail Information

Publications244 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Evasion of innate immunity by parasitic protozoa
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:1041-7. 2002
    Parasitic protozoa are a major cause of global infectious disease. These eukaryotic pathogens have evolved with the vertebrate immune system and typically produce long-lasting chronic infections...
  2. ncbi The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists
    Sina M Adl
    Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:399-451. 2005
    This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists...
  3. ncbi The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa
    T Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:297-354. 2002
    ..here and revise higher protozoan classification by updating as subkingdoms Lankester's 1878 division of Protozoa into Corticata (Excavata, Alveolata; with prominent cortical microtubules and ancestrally localized cytostome--..
  4. ncbi Update on human infections caused by intestinal protozoa
    Kristen K Pierce
    Department of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:12-7. 2009
    To update the reader on the recent literature discussing human infections due to intestinal protozoa.
  5. pmc The PmrA/PmrB two-component system of Legionella pneumophila is a global regulator required for intracellular replication within macrophages and protozoa
    Souhaila Al-Khodor
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Louisville, Room 412, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Infect Immun 77:374-86. 2009
    ..pneumophila within human macrophages and protozoa. Differences in gene regulation and intracellular growth phenotypes between the pmrA and pmrB mutant suggests a ..
  6. ncbi A Legionella effector acquired from protozoa is involved in sphingolipids metabolism and is targeted to the host cell mitochondria
    Elena Degtyar
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Cell Microbiol 11:1219-35. 2009
    Legionella pneumophila infects alveolar macrophages and protozoa through establishment of an intracellular replication niche...
  7. pmc Ubiquitin-like modifiers and their deconjugating enzymes in medically important parasitic protozoa
    Elizabeth L Ponder
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr Edwards R343, Stanford, CA 94305 5324, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 6:1943-52. 2007
  8. ncbi Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa)
    Thomas Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Protist 154:341-58. 2003
    ..g. Massisteria, Gymnophrys, a Dimorpha-like protozoan). Cercozoa, now with nine classes and 17 orders (four new), will probably include many, possibly most, other filose and reticulose amoebae and zooflagellates not yet assigned to phyla...
  9. ncbi Gastrointestinal protozoa in non-human primates of four zoological gardens in Belgium
    Bruno Levecke
    Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 148:236-46. 2007
    ..p<0.001) and C. mesnili (p<0.05). Samples containing Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in OW monkeys (p<0.0083). Samples collected from OW monkeys contained the highest number of parasite species (p<0.0083)...
  10. pmc Strategies for acquiring the phospholipid metabolite inositol in pathogenic bacteria, fungi and protozoa: making it and taking it
    Todd B Reynolds
    Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    Microbiology 155:1386-96. 2009
    ..The specific strategies used by these pathogens to acquire inositol while in the host are discussed in relation to each pathogen's unique metabolic requirements...
  11. ncbi Targeting the cell cycle in the pursuit of novel chemotherapies against parasitic protozoa
    Karen M Grant
    Department of Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
    Curr Pharm Des 14:917-24. 2008
    ....
  12. ncbi Polymorphic insertions and deletions in parabasalian enolase genes
    Patrick J Keeling
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 3529 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    J Mol Evol 58:550-6. 2004
    ....
  13. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of protozoa in the rumen contents of cow based on the 18S rDNA sequences
    E C Shin
    Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju, South Korea
    J Appl Microbiol 97:378-83. 2004
    To examine the diversity of protozoa in the rumen contents of cow.
  14. ncbi Ecto-ATPases in protozoa parasites: looking for a function
    José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
    Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Bloco H 20 andar sala 13, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21541 590, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Parasitol Int 51:299-303. 2002
    ..involvement in signal transduction, and (v). involvement in cellular adhesion. In this review, the biochemical properties and possible functions of the ecto-ATPases of different protozoa are summarized.
  15. pmc Exposure to rumen protozoa leads to enhancement of pathogenicity of and invasion by multiple-antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica bearing SGI1
    Mark A Rasmussen
    USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Rd, Box 70, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Infect Immun 73:4668-75. 2005
    ..Since protozoa have been implicated in the alteration of virulence in Legionella and Mycobacterium spp...
  16. ncbi Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases of parasitic protozoa
    Mikhail A Kutuzov
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 909 S Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 161:81-90. 2008
    Protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism implicated in physiology of any organism, including parasitic protozoa. Enzymes that control protein phosphorylation (kinases and phosphatases) are considered promising targets for drug ..
  17. ncbi Polyamine biosynthetic enzymes as drug targets in parasitic protozoa
    O Heby
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, SE 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Biochem Soc Trans 31:415-9. 2003
    ..Therefore it is conceivable that exploitation of such differences can lead to the design of new inhibitors that will selectively kill the parasites while exerting minimal, or at least tolerable, effects on the parasite-infected patient...
  18. ncbi Rooting the eukaryote tree by using a derived gene fusion
    Alexandra Stechmann
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 297:89-91. 2002
    ..The root lies between bikonts and opisthokonts (animals, Fungi, Choanozoa). Amoebozoa either diverged even earlier or are sister of bikonts or (less likely) opisthokonts...
  19. ncbi Spermidine metabolism in parasitic protozoa--a comparison to the situation in prokaryotes, viruses, plants and fungi
    Annette E Kaiser
    Institut für Medizinische Parasitologie, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universitat Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Folia Parasitol (Praha) 50:3-18. 2003
    Targeting polyamines of parasitic protozoa in chemotherapy has attracted attention because polyamines might reveal novel drug targets for antiparasite therapies (Müller et al. 2001)...
  20. ncbi The effect of protozoa on the composition of rumen bacteria in cattle using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries
    Yuhei Ozutsumi
    United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69:499-506. 2005
    The effect of the presence of protozoa on the composition of rumen bacteria was investigated in cattle...
  21. ncbi Structure and seasonal dynamics of the protozoan community (heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, amoeboid protozoa) in the plankton of a large river (River Danube, Hungary)
    Aron Keve Kiss
    Institute of Ecology and Botany of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian Danube Research Station, Jávorka, Hungary
    Eur J Protistol 45:121-38. 2009
    ..In October and November a second high protozoan peak occurred, with flagellate dominance, and slightly different taxonomic composition...
  22. ncbi Taxonomic confusion blurs the debate on cosmopolitanism versus local endemism of free-living protists
    Edward A D Mitchell
    Protist 156:263-7. 2005
  23. pmc Diversity and habitat specificity of free-living protozoa in commercial poultry houses
    Julie Baré
    Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1417-26. 2009
    ..To date, however, virtually no information is available on the diversity and occurrence of free-living protozoa in these environments...
  24. ncbi Molecular and biochemical markers for monitoring dynamic shifts of cellulolytic protozoa in Reticulitermes flavipes
    Marsha M Wheeler
    Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 0620, USA
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 37:1366-74. 2007
    Lower termites rely on cellulolytic protozoa to aid in the digestion of their wood-based diet...
  25. ncbi Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases in amitochondriate protists constitute a single protein subfamily with eubacterial relationships
    Lidya Sánchez
    The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Gene 295:51-9. 2002
    ....
  26. ncbi [Hygienic aspects of the Tiber river: presence of pathogenic protozoa and correlation with microbiological and physico-chemical parameters]
    L Bonadonna
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma
    Ann Ig 16:273-80. 2004
    ..No correlation was found between the protozoa concentrations and that of the other microorganisms, whilst a significant correlation with redox potential and ..
  27. ncbi The closest unicellular relatives of animals
    B F Lang
    The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research Program in Evolutionary Biology, Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Quebec, Canada
    Curr Biol 12:1773-8. 2002
    ..Our findings provide insight into the nature of the animal ancestor and have broad implications for our understanding of the evolutionary transition from unicellular protists to multicellular animals...
  28. pmc DNA evidence for global dispersal and probable endemicity of protozoa
    David Bass
    Department of Zoology, The University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 7:162. 2007
    ..However, morphology and most previously used evolutionary markers evolve too slowly to test this important hypothesis adequately...
  29. ncbi Contribution of rumen protozoa to duodenal flow of nitrogen, conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in steers fed silages differing in their water-soluble carbohydrate content
    David R Yáñez-Ruiz
    Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3ED, UK
    Br J Nutr 96:861-9. 2006
    The present experiment was designed to estimate the quantitative contribution of rumen protozoa to the total N, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA; trans-11-18 : 1) flow to the duodenum of steers fed two silage diets: ..
  30. ncbi Anaerobic protozoa and their growth in biomethanation systems
    M Priya
    Process Engineering and Environmental Technology Division, Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Thiruvananthapuram, 695019, India
    Biodegradation 19:179-85. 2008
    This study was to investigate growth of protozoa and its influence on biodegradation in anaerobic treatment systems...
  31. ncbi Klebsiella to Salmonella gene transfer within rumen protozoa: implications for antibiotic resistance and rumen defaunation
    Z P McCuddin
    Pre harvest Food Safety and Enteric Disease Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Vet Microbiol 114:275-84. 2006
    The rumen has long been thought to be a site of gene transfer for microorganisms. Rumen protozoa (RPz) are active predators of bacteria that can harbor antibiotic resistance genes...
  32. ncbi Selective grazing of methanotrophs by protozoa in a rice field soil
    Jun Murase
    Graduate School of Bioagricultural Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 65:408-14. 2008
    ..The methanotrophic biomass may be grazed by protozoa, thus linking the methane cycle to the soil microbial food web...
  33. ncbi [The significance of amoebae and other protozoa in water conduit systems in dental units]
    R Michel
    Ernst Rodenwaldt Institut, Koblenz
    Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg B 187:312-23. 1989
    ..as a complement to extended microbiological tests (4) for the occurrence of free-living amebae and other protozoa. In 96% of all water samples, one or several ameba species were detected...
  34. ncbi Rumen ciliate protozoa contain high concentrations of conjugated linoleic acids and vaccenic acid, yet do not hydrogenate linoleic acid or desaturate stearic acid
    Estelle Devillard
    Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
    Br J Nutr 96:697-704. 2006
    ..An investigation was undertaken to determine the role of ruminal ciliate protozoa v. bacteria in the formation of CLA and its precursor in animal tissues, vaccenic acid (trans-11-18 : 1 (VA))...
  35. ncbi Ultrastructure of cyst differentiation in parasitic protozoa
    Bibiana Chavez-Munguia
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Av IPN 2508, Zacatenco, 07360, Mexico City, Mexico
    Parasitol Res 100:1169-75. 2007
    Cysts represent a phase in the life cycle of biphasic parasitic protozoa that allow them to survive under adverse environmental conditions...
  36. ncbi Macro, micro and nano domains in the membrane of parasitic protozoa
    Wanderley de Souza
    Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Parasitol Int 56:161-70. 2007
    ..The biochemical data available concerning the presence of microdomains in parasitic protozoa is reviewed and emphasis is given on the identification of special domains recognized by morphological approaches,..
  37. ncbi Intestinal parasites in Dakahlia governorate, with different techniques in diagnosing protozoa
    Atef M El Shazly
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36:1023-34. 2006
    ..1%), E. vermicularis (by smear; 1.1 %), T. trichura (0.7%) and lastly A. duodenale (0.1%). The intestinal protozoa in a descending order of abundance were Blastocystis hominis (22.4%), Giardia lamblia (19...
  38. ncbi New advances in molecular epizootiology of canine hematic protozoa from Venezuela, Thailand and Spain
    A Criado-Fornelio
    Departamento de Microbiologia y Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 144:261-9. 2007
    ..Two protozoa isolates showing 99.7-100% identity to H. canis Spain 2 were found. In Spain, 250 dogs were studied. B...
  39. ncbi Prevalence of intestinal protozoa in an aborigine community in Pahang, Malaysia
    M Y Noor Azian
    Parasitology Unit, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang 50588, Kuala Lumpur
    Trop Biomed 24:55-62. 2007
    The objective was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal protozoa among the aborigines and to determine the problems regarding the infection. The study was carried out in January 2006 in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia...
  40. ncbi Electron microscopy and cytochemistry analysis of the endocytic pathway of pathogenic protozoa
    Wanderley de Souza
    Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941 902, Brazil
    Prog Histochem Cytochem 44:67-124. 2009
    ..Among protozoa it is also important for evading from host immune defenses and to support intense proliferation characteristic of ..
  41. ncbi ABC transporters and drug resistance in parasitic protozoa
    Antonios Klokouzas
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 22:301-17. 2003
    Parasitic protozoa are responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases in humans and domestic animals. The main line of defence available against these organisms is chemotherapy...
  42. ncbi Distinct protistan assemblages characterize the euphotic zone and deep sea (2500 m) of the western North Atlantic (Sargasso Sea and Gulf Stream)
    Peter D Countway
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0371, USA
    Environ Microbiol 9:1219-32. 2007
    ..These data suggest that particular groups of protistan OTUs formed distinct 'shallow' and 'deep-sea' assemblages across widely spaced oceanic locales...
  43. ncbi Aurigamonas solis n. gen., n. sp., a soil-dwelling predator with unusual helioflagellate organisation and belonging to a novel clade within the Cercozoa
    Keith Vickerman
    Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Protist 156:335-54. 2005
    ..This conclusion is supported further by the presence of only a single amino acid insertion in the polyubiquitin sequence of Aurigamonas solis...
  44. pmc Molecular evidence links cryptic diversification in polar planktonic protists to Quaternary climate dynamics
    Kate F Darling
    School of GeoSciences and Institute of Cell, Animal, and Population Biology, King s Buildings, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7657-62. 2004
    ..The divergent evolutionary history of N. pachyderma sinistral genotypes implies that paleoceanographic proxies based on this taxon should be calibrated independently...
  45. ncbi Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of syntaxin genes from parasitic protozoa
    Joel B Dacks
    Program in Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 1X5
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 136:123-36. 2004
    ..Because of their integral role in membrane trafficking, the syntaxin genes represent a valuable potential molecular marker for the experimental study of the endomembrane system of disease-causing protists...
  46. ncbi Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota)
    Alastair G B Simpson
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1759-77. 2003
    ..A partial classification for excavates is presented, with phylogenetic diagnoses for Excavata and for two novel taxon names, Fornicata (Carpediemonas, retortamonads, diplomonads) and Preaxostyla (Trimastix, oxymonads)...
  47. ncbi Bacteria and protozoa as integral components of the forest ecosystem--their role in creating a naturally varied soil fertility
    Marianne Clarholm
    Swedish University ofAgricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:309-18. 2002
    The paper explores interactions between the two first organism groups to appear on earth, the bacteria and protozoa, and their interplay with the rest of the ecosystem focusing upon northern boreal forests...
  48. ncbi Targeting polyamines of parasitic protozoa in chemotherapy
    S Muller
    Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK
    Trends Parasitol 17:242-9. 2001
    All parasitic protozoa contain polyamines and in recent years they, and their associated enzymes, have attracted attention as drug targets because they might reveal novel antiparasite therapies...
  49. ncbi Differences in microscopic diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoa among diagnostic centres
    I I Bogoch
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A8, Canada
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25:344-7. 2006
  50. ncbi Evolutionary relationships of apusomonads inferred from taxon-rich analyses of 6 nuclear encoded genes
    Eunsoo Kim
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 23:2455-66. 2006
    ..Together with other information, our data suggest instead that unikonts (=Opisthokonta and Amoebozoa) are not strictly monophyletic and are descended from biflagellate ancestors...
  51. ncbi Biological roles of proteases in parasitic protozoa
    Michael Klemba
    Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 71:275-305. 2002
    ..The possibility of developing selective inhibitors of key proteases of pathogenic parasites into novel chemotherapeutic strategies is being vigorously explored...
  52. ncbi Comprehensive multigene phylogenies of excavate protists reveal the evolutionary positions of "primitive" eukaryotes
    Alastair G B Simpson
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 23:615-25. 2006
    ....
  53. ncbi Systematics of the parasitic Protozoa
    Frank E G Cox
    Trends Parasitol 18:108. 2002
  54. ncbi Unique phylogenetic relationships of glucokinase and glucosephosphate isomerase of the amitochondriate eukaryotes Giardia intestinalis, Spironucleus barkhanus and Trichomonas vaginalis
    K Henze
    The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Gene 281:123-31. 2001
    ..The intriguing relationships of these enzymes to cyanobacterial (and chloroplast) enzymes might reflect horizontal gene transfer between the common ancestor of the diplomonad and parabasalid lineages and the ancestor of cyanobacteria...
  55. ncbi Molecular screening of free-living microbial eukaryotes: diversity and distribution using a meta-analysis
    Thomas A Richards
    Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 8:240-52. 2005
    ....
  56. ncbi Amphibian antimicrobial peptides and Protozoa: lessons from parasites
    Luis Rivas
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1788:1570-81. 2009
    ..Compared to the other two groups, protozoa are fairly neglected targets in antimicrobial chemotherapy, despite their role as causative agents for scourges ..
  57. ncbi Rafts and sphingolipid biosynthesis in the kinetoplastid parasitic protozoa
    Paul W Denny
    Wellcome Trust Laboratories for Molecular Parasitology, Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK
    Mol Microbiol 53:725-33. 2004
    ....
  58. ncbi Clan CD cysteine peptidases of parasitic protozoa
    Jeremy C Mottram
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, The Anderson College, University of Glasgow, G11 6NU, Glasgow, UK
    Trends Parasitol 19:182-7. 2003
    Parasitic protozoa contain an abundance of cysteine peptidases that are crucial for a range of important biological processes...
  59. ncbi Strategies and results of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) in the study of parasitic protozoa
    Wanderley de Souza
    Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21949 900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Micron 39:77-87. 2008
    ..FE-SEM observation and various protocols of sample fixation to analyze the structural organization of parasitic protozoa and their interaction with host cells...
  60. ncbi Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel's Radiolaria
    Stephane Polet
    Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Sciences III, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Protist 155:53-63. 2004
    ..Our study also confirms the common origin of Acantharea and Polycystinea, which form a sister-group to the Cercozoa, and allows a phylogenetic reinterpretation of the morphological features of the three radiolarian groups...
  61. ncbi Bacterial-protozoa interactions; an update on the role these phenomena play towards human illness
    William J Snelling
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, CO, Londonderry, Northern Ireland BT52 1SA, UK
    Microbes Infect 8:578-87. 2006
    ..current thinking on the nature of the interaction between a range of human bacterial pathogens and waterborne protozoa. The importance of protozoa acting as protective environments for pathogenic bacteria from disinfection and of ..
  62. pmc Evolution of four gene families with patchy phylogenetic distributions: influx of genes into protist genomes
    Jan O Andersson
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center, Box 596, S 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
    BMC Evol Biol 6:27. 2006
    ....
  63. ncbi Polyubiquitin insertions and the phylogeny of Cercozoa and Rhizaria
    David Bass
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Protist 156:149-61. 2005
    ..e. that the second insertion took place earlier, in the ancestral filosan, and was followed by three independent reversions to a single amino acid in Chlorarachnea, Metopion and Cercobodo...
  64. ncbi Interactions between planktonic microalgae and protozoan grazers
    Urban Tillmann
    Alfred Wegener Institute, Am Handelshafen 12, D 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 51:156-68. 2004
    ....
  65. ncbi Archaea in protozoa and metazoa
    Marianne Lange
    BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, BioCentrum, Building 227, Lyngby, 2800, Denmark
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:465-74. 2005
    ..Methanogens are the dominating archaeal organisms found in most animals, from unicellular protozoa to humans...
  66. ncbi A molecular approach to identify active microbes in environmental eukaryote clone libraries
    Thorsten Stoeck
    School of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin Schroedinger Str 14, D 67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany
    Microb Ecol 53:328-39. 2007
    ....
  67. ncbi Mitochondria of protists
    Michael W Gray
    Robert Cedergren Center, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Canada
    Annu Rev Genet 38:477-524. 2004
    ..This comparative genomics approach has also revealed unique and fascinating aspects of mitochondrial gene expression, highlighting the mitochondrion as an evolutionary playground par excellence...
  68. ncbi Targeting DHFR in parasitic protozoa
    Amy C Anderson
    Department of Chemistry, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Drug Discov Today 10:121-8. 2005
    ..Novel DHFR inhibitors, designed using the recently revealed crystal structures of the enzymes from two parasitic protozoa, are in development.
  69. ncbi Protistan diversity estimates based on 18S rDNA from seawater incubations in the Western North Atlantic
    Peter D Countway
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 0371, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:95-106. 2005
    ..Containment resulted in significant shifts in the dominance of these taxa, enabling the presence of previously unobserved phylotypes to be documented after 24 or 72 h of incubation...
  70. ncbi Legionella pneumophila - a human pathogen that co-evolved with fresh water protozoa
    C Albert-Weissenberger
    Unité de Génomique des Microorganismes Pathogènes and CNRS URA 2171, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Cell Mol Life Sci 64:432-48. 2007
    ..This review summarizes what is currently known about regulation of the Legionella life cycle and gives insight in the Legionella-specific features as deduced from genome analysis...
  71. ncbi Diarrhea, CD4+ cell counts and opportunistic protozoa in Indian HIV-infected patients
    Javid Sadraei
    Parasitology Department of Medical School, Tarbiat Modarres University, P O Box 14115 331, Tehran, Iran
    Parasitol Res 97:270-3. 2005
    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among diarrhea, CD4+ cell counts and opportunistic protozoa in HIV-infected patients in North India...
  72. ncbi More than one way to build a flagellum: comparative genomics of parasitic protozoa
    Laura J Briggs
    Curr Biol 14:R611-2. 2004
  73. ncbi Purine and pyrimidine transport in pathogenic protozoa: from biology to therapy
    Harry P de Koning
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Infection and Immunity, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:987-1020. 2005
    Purine salvage is an essential function for all obligate parasitic protozoa studied to date and most are also capable of efficient uptake of preformed pyrimidines...
  74. ncbi Molecular phylogeny of Cercomonadidae and kinetid patterns of Cercomonas and Eocercomonas gen. nov. (Cercomonadida, Cercozoa)
    Serguei A Karpov
    Department of Zoology, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Moika emb 48, 191186 St Petersburg, Russian Federation
    Protist 157:125-58. 2006
    ..n.). We establish Paracercomonas ekelundi sp. n. for culture SCCAP C1 and propose a Cercomonas longicauda neotype and Cercomonas (=Neocercomonas) jutlandica comb. n. and Paracercomonas (=Cercomonas) metabolica comb. n...
  75. pmc Protist taxonomy: an ecological perspective
    Bland J Finlay
    CEH Dorset, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith Newburgh, Dorchester DT2 8ZD, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:599-610. 2004
    ..There is some progress with respect to the latter. Using the example of a community of ciliated protozoa living in the stratified water column of a freshwater pond, it is shown to be possible to gauge the potential of ..
  76. ncbi Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of parasitic protozoa
    Thomas A Richards
    Protist 154:17-32. 2003
  77. ncbi Phospholipids in parasitic protozoa
    Henri J Vial
    Dynamique Moleculaire des Interactions Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5539, cc107, Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, France
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 126:143-54. 2003
    Parasitic protozoa are surrounded by membrane structures that have a different lipid and protein composition relative to membranes of the host...
  78. ncbi Protein kinases as drug targets in parasitic protozoa
    Christian Doerig
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U 511, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, 91 Bd de l Hopital, 75013 Paris, France
    Trends Parasitol 18:366-71. 2002
    ..Here, the current progress in applying developments from the wider protein kinase field to parasitic protozoa is reviewed...
  79. ncbi Stalked protozoa identification by image analysis and multivariable statistical techniques
    A L Amaral
    Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 057, Braga, Portugal
    Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1321-5. 2008
    b>Protozoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems as they are sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes...
  80. ncbi The evolutionary origin of hedgehog proteins
    Maja Adamska
    School of Integrative Biology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia
    Curr Biol 17:R836-7. 2007
  81. ncbi The symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki, nov. gen. nov. sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea
    Lynn A Hertel
    Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Int J Parasitol 32:1183-91. 2002
    ..This suggests further that the symbiont is not restricted to albino lab-reared snails. A role, if any, of the symbiont in resistance awaits further study...
  82. ncbi A phylogenomic investigation into the origin of metazoa
    Inaki Ruiz-Trillo
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 25:664-72. 2008
    ..Understanding the function of "metazoan-specific" proteins we have identified in these protists will clarify the evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of the Metazoa...
  83. pmc Interactions between food-borne pathogens and protozoa isolated from lettuce and spinach
    Poornima Gourabathini
    Center for the Management, Utilization, and Protection of Water Resources, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2518-25. 2008
    ..linked to outbreaks of enteric illness, the present investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of protozoa on spinach and lettuce and to examine their interactions with S...
  84. pmc Methods for cultivation of luminal parasitic protists of clinical importance
    C Graham Clark
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, Great Britain
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:329-41. 2002
    ..While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter that this review is primarily aimed...
  85. ncbi Osmoregulation and contractile vacuoles of protozoa
    Richard D Allen
    Department of Microbiology and Pacific Biomedical Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu 96822, USA
    Int Rev Cytol 215:351-94. 2002
    b>Protozoa living in fresh water are subjected to a hypotonic environment. Water flows across their plasma membrane since their cytosol is always hypertonic to the environment...
  86. ncbi The effects of sequential inoculation of mixed rumen protozoa on the degradation of orchard grass cell walls by anaerobic fungus Anaeromyces mucronatus 543
    S S Lee
    Nutrition Physiology Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suweon, Korea
    Can J Microbiol 47:754-60. 2001
    The effects of protozoa on the degradation of plant cell walls (CW) during different growth stages of the fungus Anaeromyces mucronatus have been investigated...
  87. ncbi Fatty acid synthesis in protozoan parasites: unusual pathways and novel drug targets
    C D Goodman
    School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Curr Pharm Des 14:901-16. 2008
    ..Pathways used by parasites to scavenge and modify host lipids are also described briefly and their potential for therapeutics discussed...
  88. ncbi Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins
    Nicole King
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute HHMI, University of Wisconsin, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Science 301:361-3. 2003
    ..Choanoflagellates, unicellular and colonial protozoa closely related to Metazoa, provide a potential window into early animal evolution...
  89. ncbi Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia
    Damien Stark
    Department of Microbiology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, and Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:549-52. 2007
    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia...
  90. ncbi The cell cycle of parasitic protozoa: potential for chemotherapeutic exploitation
    Tansy C Hammarton
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Anderson College, University of Glasgow, 56 Dumbarton Road, Glasgow, G11 6NU, UK
    Prog Cell Cycle Res 5:91-101. 2003
    There is an urgent need to develop new drugs against eukaryotic parasitic protozoa such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania, which cause the diseases malaria, trypanosomiasis and the leishmaniases respectively...
  91. ncbi Phylogeny, taxonomy, and astounding genetic diversity of glissomonadida ord. nov., the dominant gliding zooflagellates in soil (Protozoa: Cercozoa)
    Alexis T Howe
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Protist 160:159-89. 2009
    ..rather uniform gliding zooflagellates, including Bodomorpha and Heteromita, the most ubiquitous and numerous soil protozoa. The generally used name 'Heteromita globosa' for the commonest gliding biflagellates is incorrect...
  92. ncbi Targeting enzymes involved in spermidine metabolism of parasitic protozoa--a possible new strategy for anti-parasitic treatment
    A Kaiser
    Institute for Medical Parasitology, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany
    Parasitol Res 91:508-16. 2003
    ..One of the most characteristic features in the process of drug development against parasitic protozoa is target identification in a biological pathway...
  93. ncbi Phylogenomic analysis supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of rhizaria with chromalveolates
    Jeremiah D Hackett
    Department of Biological Sciences and Roy J Carver Center for Comparative Genomics, University of Iowa, IA, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 24:1702-13. 2007
    ..The association of the two Rhizaria with chromalveolates is supported by the approximately unbiased (AU)-test and when the fastest evolving amino acid sites are removed from the 16-protein alignment...
  94. ncbi An introduction to the structural organization of parasitic protozoa
    Wanderley de Souza
    Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS Bloco G, 21941 900, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
    Curr Pharm Des 14:822-38. 2008
    As eukaryotic cells, protozoa present a classical structural organization where most of the structures and organelles typical of mammalian cells are found. However, even for usual organelles these organisms present structural diversity...
  95. ncbi Effects of the absence of protozoa from birth or from weaning on the growth and methane production of lambs
    R S Hegarty
    New South Wales Department of Primary Industries Beef Industry Centre, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia
    Br J Nutr 100:1220-7. 2008
    ..While there was no main effect of protozoa treatment on enteric methane production, there was an interaction between protozoa treatment and diet for methane ..
  96. pmc Repetitive elements in genomes of parasitic protozoa
    Bill Wickstead
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:360-75, table of contents. 2003
    ..Here we review the genomes of parasitic protozoa in the context of the current understanding of repetitive elements...
  97. ncbi Diplonemid glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfer
    Q Qian
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Protist 152:193-201. 2001
    ....
  98. ncbi Ultrastructural alterations in organelles of parasitic protozoa induced by different classes of metabolic inhibitors
    Juliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues
    Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Bloco G, subsolo, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21 941 902, Brazil
    Curr Pharm Des 14:925-38. 2008
    Parasitic protozoa such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia and Trichomonas are able to cause several diseases affecting millions of people around the world with dramatic consequences to the socio-economic ..
  99. ncbi Kudoa iwatai (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in wild and cultured fish in the Red Sea: redescription and molecular phylogeny
    A Diamant
    Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Ltd, National Center for Mariculture, Eilat, Israel
    J Parasitol 91:1175-89. 2005
    ..Therefore, we conclude that K. iwatai is an Indo-Pacific species that, in the Red Sea, has extended its host range to include the allochthonous gilt-head sea bream, European sea bass, and grey mullet...
  100. ncbi A new species of myxozoan (Myxosporea) from the brain and spinal cord of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Idaho
    Carla I Hogge
    Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Eagle Fish Health Laboratory, 1800 Trout Road, Eagle, Idaho 83616, USA
    J Parasitol 94:218-22. 2008
    ..cerebralis, histological examination shows no host response to M. neurotropus n. sp. A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is included as an aid in properly identifying the species...
  101. ncbi Distribution and abundance of the salmonid parasite Parvicapsula minibicornis (Myxozoa) in the Klamath River basin (Oregon-California, U.S.A.)
    Jerri L Bartholomew
    Center for Fish Disease Research, Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, 220 Nash Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA
    Dis Aquat Organ 78:137-46. 2007
    ..High parasite prevalence in the lower Klamath River is likely a combined effect of high spore input from heavily infected, spawned adult salmon and the proximity to dense populations of polychaetes...

Research Grants75

  1. Killed But Metabolically Active Leishmania: a novel protozoan vaccine technology
    Noah Craft; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The insect-borne protozoa Leishmania causes death and morbidity in millions of humans living in and traveling to the developing world...
  2. Planning Grant for the Efficacy of Auranofin for the Treatment of Amebiasis
    Sharon L Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Resistance to metronidazole is a growing concern in multiple protozoa, including Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and E. histolytica...
  3. Development of Small Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics as Drug-Resistant and Susceptib
    Richard W Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Antiparasitic activities are also reported for a number of AMPs and are thought to kill protozoa by a mechanism similar to their mechanism of action against bacteria: interacting with plasma membranes, causing ..
  4. Functions of nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases in Trypanosomes
    Ruslan Aphasizhev; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Targeting essential parasite-specific enzymes, such as nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase introduced in our application, is a promising approach toward creating a new generation of trypanocides. ..
  5. Legionella pneumophila developmental cycle & virulence
    PAUL STOKES HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) resides in aquatic habitats as an intracellular parasite of protozoa and when transmitted in aerosols to susceptible humans, produces an acute pneumonia known as Legionnaires'disease...
  6. Toward suicidal automation of porphyric Leishmania for photodynamic vaccination
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The work proposed in this application is to develop, improve and evaluate inducible suicidal mutants of parasitic protozoa, Leishmania, which have the natural ability to enter and live in our immune cells specialized in accepting ..
  7. Multiplexed Detection of Food and Waterborne Pathogens
    Francis Barany; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Aim 2. To identify multiple food and waterborne protozoa and viruses simultaneously from a single sample...
  8. CRISPR Cas genes and Legionella pneumophila infection
    Nicholas P Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In its aquatic habitats, Lpn is an intracellular parasite of amoebae, and infection of these protozoa is unquestionably an important step in the transmission and pathogenesis of disease...
  9. The Lysosome of Trypanosoma brucei: A Proteomic Analysis
    James D Bangs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei ssp.) are parasitic protozoa that cause human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) and nagana in livestock...
  10. 2011 Cold Spring Harbor Conference on Telomeres and Telomerase
    David J Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that use a large number of different model organisms (mammals, flies, plants, nematodes, fungi and protozoa)...
  11. TYPE II SECRETION AND LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA INFECTION
    Nicholas P Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In water and the lungs, Lp grows as an intracellular parasite, infecting either aquatic protozoa, macrophages, or epithelia...
  12. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents, most notably bacteria and protozoa that cause chronic infections...
  13. INTRAFLAGELLAR TRANSPORT IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII
    DOUGLAS COLE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Motile forms of these organelles are capable of propelling some cells like sperm and protozoa through a liquid environment while other cells like the ciliated trachea of man use the coordinated beating of ..
  14. Interaction between Vibrio cholerae and Dictylostelium discoideum
    SHELLEY M contact PAYNE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies to determine the mechanisms of resistance to predation will lead to a better understanding of the ecology of V. cholerae. This may allow the development of strategies to control the source of epidemic V. cholerae. ..
  15. REGULATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI
    CHING CHUNG WANG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The parasitic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei spp., are the causative pathogens of African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle...
  16. TLR-mediated Signaling Complex Formation and Regulation of Effector Functions
    Hans Haecker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e. autoimmune diseases and sepsis. ..
  17. Photo-inactivation of Leishmania for safe and effective delivery of surrogate vac
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Transgenic biotechnology is well-developed for these eukaryotic protozoa to express foreign proteins for vaccination...
  18. Lysosomal biogenesis and function in African trypanosomes
    James D Bangs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei ssp.) are parasitic protozoa that cause human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), as well as nagana in cattle and other livestock...
  19. Novel Therapeutics for Class B Protozoa
    Sharon L Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are Class B protozoa, which are major causes of water- and foodborne epidemics worldwide...
  20. A role for microRNAs in global changes in gene expression induced by Leishmania
    MARY EDYTHE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Leishmania spp. protozoa have a profound effect on the host cell that they invade...
  21. Deep sequence profiling of gRNA transcriptomes in two stages of Trypanosoma bruce
    DONNA JAY KOSLOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The kinetoplastid protozoa include the causative agents for three of the most severe parasitic diseases targeted for attention by the World ..
  22. Purine Nucleoside/Nucleobase Transporters in Leishmania
    Scott Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..All parasitic protozoa examined to date are unable to synthesize purines and must salvage these essential nutrients from their hosts...
  23. Structural Analysis of the GPI Transamidase Complex
    Anant K Menon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..they are important in diseases such as trypanosomiasis, malaria and leishmaniasis that are caused by parasitic protozoa. The GPI assembly pathway is a drug target for fungal and protozoal diseases...
  24. Structural Requirements for Sterol 14alpha-Demethylases
    Galina I Lepesheva; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..characterized novel chemical scaffolds which we believe are the basis of very efficient inhibitors of CYP51 from protozoa. This competing renewal application consists of three Specific Aims...
  25. Secretion, protein targeting, and lipid metabolism in African Trypanosomes
    James D Bangs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that sphingomyelin synthesis is essential in bloodstream stage trypanosomes, in contrast to other kinetoplasted protozoa, which do not make sphingomyelin at all...
  26. REGULATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI
    Ching Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..6. ti' IL' I.) PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT <c .-U. The parasitic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei spp., are the causative pathogens of spp...
  27. Viral and Microbial RNA Modifying Enzymes
    STEWART H SHUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as well as a complete divergence in the structure and catalytic mechanism of the TPase enzymes found in fungi, protozoa, and several large DNA viruses versus the human TPase...
  28. BIOSYNTHESIS OF MEMBRANE PROTEIN GLYCOLIPID ANCHORS
    Anant K Menon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to the design of reagents that could be used to selectively block essential GPI anchoring in trypanosomatid protozoa while these parasites are resident in their mammalian hosts...
  29. Kinetoplastid SL RNA biogenesis
    David A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..research is aimed at understanding gene expression in the family Trypanosomatidae, which includes the parasitic protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease...
  30. The interaction between outer membrane porins and toll-like receptors
    T M Iverson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..system, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide a front-line defense against invading bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Intriguingly, TLRs bind their "non-self" cognate ligand without known maturation or selection...
  31. The Role of Jam-A in Regulating Intestinal Antigen Presenting Cell Function and I
    Charles A Parkos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..DCs) and macrophages, hold great promise in this regard because they can uptake enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa and induce distinct types of immune responses, for example pro-inflammatory (Th1/Th17) versus regulatory (Treg/..
  32. The Role of Trypanosome Calcium Signaling in Parasite Virulence and Transmission
    Brian T Emmer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proteins investigated in the proposed work, as well as interacting proteins identified by these experiments, are promising targets for drug development. ..
  33. RNA CAPPING IN TRYPANOSOMES
    Christian Tschudi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Parasitic protozoa are a major cause of global infectious diseases and thus, represent one of the most serious threats to public ..
  34. An Automated Multi-target Diagnostic System for Gastrointestinal Pathogens
    Margarita B Rogatcheva; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The number and diversity of diarrhea causing pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa along with the similarities in clinical presentation pose significant problems for diagnosis...
  35. Chemically-Rich Structure and Dynamics in the Active Site of Tryptophan Synthase
    Leonard J Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  36. Regulation of Host Defense by IRG Proteins
    Gregory A Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are a family of IFN-gamma-induced proteins that play critical roles in resistance to intracellular bacteria and protozoa, including Salmonella typhimurium and Toxoplasma gondii...
  37. "Understanding Complex Gene Editing Systems in Protists"
    Laura F Landweber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): RNA, normally thought of as a conduit in gene expression, has a novel mode of action in ciliated protozoa, where long and small noncoding RNAs orchestrate an intricate process of genome remodeling, and maternal RNA ..
  38. Development of Pulmonary Immunocompetency: Focus on the Neonate
    BRETT ALAN SPONSELLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Reactive intermediates have a broad spectrum of activity against infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi...
  39. Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 1 as a drug target for T. gondii and C. parvum
    ARTHUR CLINTON WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will initiate development of new drugs to treat diseases caused by two parasitic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma that are commonly transmitted by consumption of impure food or water...
  40. Pathogenic and Protective T Cells in Toxoplasmosis
    George S Yap; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Disease caused by parasitic protozoa and other intracellular microbial agents are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide...
  41. Selective inhibition of tRNA synthetases from pathogenic protozoa
    WILHELMUS G J HOL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This project focuses on essential proteins from three major global pathogenic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species...
  42. Structures and selective inhibition of tRNA synthetases from pathogenic protozoa
    WILHELMUS HOL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Abstract: This project focuses on essential proteins from three major global pathogenic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species...
  43. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PHOSPHOETHANOLAMINE METHYLTRANSFERASES: NEW ANTI-PARAS
    JOSEPH MARTIN JEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  44. VIRULENCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN LYME DISEASE
    Steven J Norris; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents, most notably bacteria and protozoa that cause chronic infections...
  45. Comprehensive Molecular Diagnosis for Food and Waterborne Enteropathogens
    Eric R Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Aim 1, Dr. Houpt of UVA will expand existing work on protozoa multiplex PCR with Luminex bead-based amplicon detection to include the additional Category B protozoa, bacteria, ..
  46. Lysozymes and immunity in Anopheles gambiae
    Susan M Paskewitz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  47. 2013 Polyamines Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar
    John L Cleveland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GRC brings together top-notch researchers who study polyamines in several organisms (vertebrates, yeast, plants, protozoa and bacteria) with those assessing therapeutic applications...
  48. Antigenic variation in microbial transmission
    GUY HUGHES PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding how this occurs in bacteria and protozoa, complex pathogens that cannot rely on mutation and the large progeny burst size as do viruses, and the ..
  49. Training in Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases
    Boris Striepen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in cutting-edge research, it also broadens their perspectives so they are able to interface with translational and operational researchers to push forward both scientifically and in regard to public health measures around the globe ..
  50. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF LEISHMANIA PANAMENSIS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
    Christian Tschudi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This application focuses on trypanosomatid protozoa of the genus Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniasis...
  51. 7th Biennial Symposium on Polyamines in Parasites
    SIGRID CHRISTIANE ROBERTS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The focus of the meeting will be the polyamine pathway as a drug target in parasitic protozoa and other pathogens...
  52. Biogenesis and Function of Guide RNAs
    RUSLAN AFASIZHEV; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Trypanosomes are parasitic protozoa responsible for health problems in developing countries, including those with a substantial U.S. presence...
  53. Plasmodium signal peptide peptidase as a novel antimalarial target
    Doron Greenbaum; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..falciparum, we will utilize a multifaceted approach using biological, genetic and chemical techniques. ..
  54. Flavoenzymes in Pyrimidine Metabolism
    Bruce A Palfey; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..discovered two inhibitors that bind specifically to Class 1A DHODs which occurs in some pathogenic bacteria and protozoa. Our kinetic and structural studies suggest a new molecule to be synthesized and studied...
  55. LRG-47: a critical regulator of host defense and hematopoietic stem cell function
    Megan P Tierney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..LRG-47, a member of the murine p47 family, is critical for host response to intracellular bacteria and protozoa. Bone marrow transplants and colony-forming assays demonstrated that LRG-47 is also essential for HSC function...
  56. Genetic models for post-genome functional analysis of Toxoplasma gondii
    David J Bzik; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the model intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii has great potential to more rapidly decipher underlying biology and should lead to new treatments and vaccines to fight significant diseases of humans caused by parasitic protozoa.
  57. HTS for Cytochrome C Synthesis Pathways
    Robert G Kranz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..are the basis for certain human genetic diseases (in system III) and because only prokaryotes, plants, and protozoa use systems I or II, these pathways are ideal extracytoplasmic targets for antimicrobial agents (against ..
  58. Mechanism and Inhibition of Arginine Deiminase
    Hua Guo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Arginine deiminase is an enzyme that plays an essential role in energy production of bacteria and primitive protozoa. Since its gene is absent in the human genome, it is an attractive target for developing novel antibacterial and ..
  59. Structures and functions of the human Josephin domain-containing proteins
    Patrick J Loll; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. Novel Role for Piwi/piRNA pathway in developmental robustness
    VAMSI GANGARAJU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  61. Performance Validation of a Multiplexed IVD System for Gastrointestinal Pathogens
    Kevin M Bourzac; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The number and diversity of diarrhea causing pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa along with the similarities in clinical presentation pose significant problems for diagnosis and subsequent ..
  62. Phosphoinositides in the T. brucei Endomembrane System
    Julia K Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Trypanosoma brucei ssp. are parasitic protozoa responsible for causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) in humans and nagana in cattle and other livestock...
  63. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These infectious diseases are caused by parasitic protozoa of the family, Trypanoisomatidae...
  64. SRP RNA level as a determinant of leishmanial parasitism of macrophages
    Gautam Chaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania is a group of parasitic protozoa that infect human macrophages and thrive inside the hostile environment of the phagolysosomes of these cells...
  65. Mechanisms of Dinitroaniline Action, Selectivity and Resistance
    Naomi S Morrissette; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Dinitroanilines (oryzalin, ethafluralin and trifluralin) disrupt MTs in plants and protozoa but are ineffective against vertebrate or fungal MTs...
  66. Lyophilization of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine
    Stephen Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..vaccines, and which is also in routine use for the storage of stock strains of many prokaryotes and also certain protozoa. In preliminary studies, PfSPZ tolerate lyoprotective agents well, including those agents commonly used in the ..
  67. Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We expect that our work will lead to new compounds with a specific and known mechanism of action that will be useful for the treatment of human leishmaniasis. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  68. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM DHFR AS A CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TARGET
    Richard Nelson; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..However, DHFR also varies greatly among protozoa and the available inhibitors (pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, proguanil) bind poorly to some protozoan DHFRs (..
  69. POLYAMINE INHIBITORS TARGETING MICROSPORIDIA
    Murray Wittner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): [unreadable] The Microsporidia are a group of intracellular parasitic protozoa of the phylum Microspora...
  70. Multiplex Screening ELISA for Giardia, Cryptosporidium and E. histolytica
    JOEL F HERBEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and Entamoeba histolytica in stool. These enteric protozoa share the characteristics of food and water-borne transmission, low infectious dose, and environmental stability...
  71. New drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Ultimately, this work will lead to the identification of a lead compound for human clinical trials for the treatment of leishmaniasis. ..
  72. A novel vaccine against Leishmania
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We believe that this work will lead to the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against Leishmania ..
  73. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF TELOMERASE RNAS
    Daniel Romero; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Telomerase will be partially purified from transformants expressing mutant TER and characterized more completely with respect to number of kinetic parameters (substrate and dNTP binding, Vmax, etc.) ..
  74. MITOCHONDRIAL RNA EDITING IN TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI
    DONNA KOSLOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Understanding RNA editing in these organisms may lend considerable insight to the evolution of early replication mechanisms, and has substantial implications on our understanding of the storage and regulation of genetic information. ..
  75. Mouse Strain dependent innate resistance to intestinal amebiasis
    Eric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Entamoeba histolytica kills more humans than any other Category B protozoa by far. This R01 proposes work by a new investigator to identify mechanisms of innate resistance to intestinal amoebiasis in a new mouse model...