Genomes and Genes
Summary: A subkingdom consisting of unicellular organisms that are the simplest in the animal kingdom. Most are free living. They range in size from submicroscopic to macroscopic. Protozoa are divided into seven phyla: SARCOMASTIGOPHORA; Labyrinthomorpha, APICOMPLEXA; MICROSPORA; Ascetospora, Myxozoa, and CILIOPHORA.
Publications235 found, 100 shown here
- Evasion of innate immunity by parasitic protozoaDavid Sacks
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Nat Immunol 3:1041-7. 2002Parasitic protozoa are a major cause of global infectious disease. These eukaryotic pathogens have evolved with the vertebrate immune system and typically produce long-lasting chronic infections...
- The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protistsSina M Adl
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Canada
J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:399-451. 2005This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists...
- The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of ProtozoaT Cavalier-Smith
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:297-354. 2002..here and revise higher protozoan classification by updating as subkingdoms Lankester's 1878 division of Protozoa into Corticata (Excavata, Alveolata; with prominent cortical microtubules and ancestrally localized cytostome--..
- Update on human infections caused by intestinal protozoaKristen K Pierce
Department of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:12-7. 2009To update the reader on the recent literature discussing human infections due to intestinal protozoa.
- A Legionella effector acquired from protozoa is involved in sphingolipids metabolism and is targeted to the host cell mitochondriaElena Degtyar
Department of Molecular Microbiology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Cell Microbiol 11:1219-35. 2009Legionella pneumophila infects alveolar macrophages and protozoa through establishment of an intracellular replication niche...
- The PmrA/PmrB two-component system of Legionella pneumophila is a global regulator required for intracellular replication within macrophages and protozoaSouhaila Al-Khodor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Louisville, Room 412, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
Infect Immun 77:374-86. 2009..pneumophila within human macrophages and protozoa. Differences in gene regulation and intracellular growth phenotypes between the pmrA and pmrB mutant suggests a ..
- Ubiquitin-like modifiers and their deconjugating enzymes in medically important parasitic protozoaElizabeth L Ponder
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Dr Edwards R343, Stanford, CA 94305 5324, USA
Eukaryot Cell 6:1943-52. 2007
- Gastrointestinal protozoa in non-human primates of four zoological gardens in BelgiumBruno Levecke
Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Vet Parasitol 148:236-46. 2007..p<0.001) and C. mesnili (p<0.05). Samples containing Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in OW monkeys (p<0.0083). Samples collected from OW monkeys contained the highest number of parasite species (p<0.0083)...
- Strategies for acquiring the phospholipid metabolite inositol in pathogenic bacteria, fungi and protozoa: making it and taking itTodd B Reynolds
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Microbiology 155:1386-96. 2009..The specific strategies used by these pathogens to acquire inositol while in the host are discussed in relation to each pathogen's unique metabolic requirements...
- Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa)Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Protist 154:341-58. 2003..g. Massisteria, Gymnophrys, a Dimorpha-like protozoan). Cercozoa, now with nine classes and 17 orders (four new), will probably include many, possibly most, other filose and reticulose amoebae and zooflagellates not yet assigned to phyla...
- Targeting the cell cycle in the pursuit of novel chemotherapies against parasitic protozoaKaren M Grant
Department of Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
Curr Pharm Des 14:917-24. 2008....
- Polymorphic insertions and deletions in parabasalian enolase genesPatrick J Keeling
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 3529 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
J Mol Evol 58:550-6. 2004....
- Phylogenetic analysis of protozoa in the rumen contents of cow based on the 18S rDNA sequencesE C Shin
Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju, South Korea
J Appl Microbiol 97:378-83. 2004To examine the diversity of protozoa in the rumen contents of cow.
- Ecto-ATPases in protozoa parasites: looking for a functionJosé Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Bloco H 20 andar sala 13, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21541 590, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Parasitol Int 51:299-303. 2002..involvement in signal transduction, and (v). involvement in cellular adhesion. In this review, the biochemical properties and possible functions of the ecto-ATPases of different protozoa are summarized.
- Exposure to rumen protozoa leads to enhancement of pathogenicity of and invasion by multiple-antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica bearing SGI1Mark A Rasmussen
USDA ARS, National Animal Disease Center, 2300 Dayton Rd, Box 70, Ames, IA 50010, USA
Infect Immun 73:4668-75. 2005..Since protozoa have been implicated in the alteration of virulence in Legionella and Mycobacterium spp...
- Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases of parasitic protozoaMikhail A Kutuzov
Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 909 S Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Mol Biochem Parasitol 161:81-90. 2008Protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism implicated in physiology of any organism, including parasitic protozoa. Enzymes that control protein phosphorylation (kinases and phosphatases) are considered promising targets for drug ..
- Polyamine biosynthetic enzymes as drug targets in parasitic protozoaO Heby
Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, SE 901 87 Umea, Sweden
Biochem Soc Trans 31:415-9. 2003..Therefore it is conceivable that exploitation of such differences can lead to the design of new inhibitors that will selectively kill the parasites while exerting minimal, or at least tolerable, effects on the parasite-infected patient...
- Rooting the eukaryote tree by using a derived gene fusionAlexandra Stechmann
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
Science 297:89-91. 2002..The root lies between bikonts and opisthokonts (animals, Fungi, Choanozoa). Amoebozoa either diverged even earlier or are sister of bikonts or (less likely) opisthokonts...
- Spermidine metabolism in parasitic protozoa--a comparison to the situation in prokaryotes, viruses, plants and fungiAnnette E Kaiser
Institut für Medizinische Parasitologie, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universitat Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
Folia Parasitol (Praha) 50:3-18. 2003Targeting polyamines of parasitic protozoa in chemotherapy has attracted attention because polyamines might reveal novel drug targets for antiparasite therapies (Müller et al. 2001)...
- Molecular and biochemical markers for monitoring dynamic shifts of cellulolytic protozoa in Reticulitermes flavipesMarsha M Wheeler
Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 0620, USA
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 37:1366-74. 2007Lower termites rely on cellulolytic protozoa to aid in the digestion of their wood-based diet...
- DNA evidence for global dispersal and probable endemicity of protozoaDavid Bass
Department of Zoology, The University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK
BMC Evol Biol 7:162. 2007..However, morphology and most previously used evolutionary markers evolve too slowly to test this important hypothesis adequately...
- [Hygienic aspects of the Tiber river: presence of pathogenic protozoa and correlation with microbiological and physico-chemical parameters]L Bonadonna
Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma
Ann Ig 16:273-80. 2004..No correlation was found between the protozoa concentrations and that of the other microorganisms, whilst a significant correlation with redox potential and ..
- Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases in amitochondriate protists constitute a single protein subfamily with eubacterial relationshipsLidya Sánchez
The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Gene 295:51-9. 2002....
- Taxonomic confusion blurs the debate on cosmopolitanism versus local endemism of free-living protistsEdward A D Mitchell
Protist 156:263-7. 2005
- The effect of protozoa on the composition of rumen bacteria in cattle using 16S rRNA gene clone librariesYuhei Ozutsumi
United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69:499-506. 2005The effect of the presence of protozoa on the composition of rumen bacteria was investigated in cattle...
- Diversity and habitat specificity of free-living protozoa in commercial poultry housesJulie Baré
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1417-26. 2009..To date, however, virtually no information is available on the diversity and occurrence of free-living protozoa in these environments...
- The closest unicellular relatives of animalsB F Lang
The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research Program in Evolutionary Biology, Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Quebec, Canada
Curr Biol 12:1773-8. 2002..Our findings provide insight into the nature of the animal ancestor and have broad implications for our understanding of the evolutionary transition from unicellular protists to multicellular animals...
- Structure and seasonal dynamics of the protozoan community (heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, amoeboid protozoa) in the plankton of a large river (River Danube, Hungary)Aron Keve Kiss
Institute of Ecology and Botany of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian Danube Research Station, Jávorka, Hungary
Eur J Protistol 45:121-38. 2009..In October and November a second high protozoan peak occurred, with flagellate dominance, and slightly different taxonomic composition...
- Anaerobic protozoa and their growth in biomethanation systemsM Priya
Process Engineering and Environmental Technology Division, Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Thiruvananthapuram, 695019, India
Biodegradation 19:179-85. 2008This study was to investigate growth of protozoa and its influence on biodegradation in anaerobic treatment systems...
- Contribution of rumen protozoa to duodenal flow of nitrogen, conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in steers fed silages differing in their water-soluble carbohydrate contentDavid R Yáñez-Ruiz
Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3ED, UK
Br J Nutr 96:861-9. 2006The present experiment was designed to estimate the quantitative contribution of rumen protozoa to the total N, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA; trans-11-18 : 1) flow to the duodenum of steers fed two silage diets: ..
- Ultrastructure of cyst differentiation in parasitic protozoaBibiana Chavez-Munguia
Department of Experimental Pathology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Av IPN 2508, Zacatenco, 07360, Mexico City, Mexico
Parasitol Res 100:1169-75. 2007Cysts represent a phase in the life cycle of biphasic parasitic protozoa that allow them to survive under adverse environmental conditions...
- Rumen ciliate protozoa contain high concentrations of conjugated linoleic acids and vaccenic acid, yet do not hydrogenate linoleic acid or desaturate stearic acidEstelle Devillard
Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
Br J Nutr 96:697-704. 2006..An investigation was undertaken to determine the role of ruminal ciliate protozoa v. bacteria in the formation of CLA and its precursor in animal tissues, vaccenic acid (trans-11-18 : 1 (VA))...
- Intestinal parasites in Dakahlia governorate, with different techniques in diagnosing protozoaAtef M El Shazly
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36:1023-34. 2006..1%), E. vermicularis (by smear; 1.1 %), T. trichura (0.7%) and lastly A. duodenale (0.1%). The intestinal protozoa in a descending order of abundance were Blastocystis hominis (22.4%), Giardia lamblia (19...
- Selective grazing of methanotrophs by protozoa in a rice field soilJun Murase
Graduate School of Bioagricultural Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Japan
FEMS Microbiol Ecol 65:408-14. 2008..The methanotrophic biomass may be grazed by protozoa, thus linking the methane cycle to the soil microbial food web...
- Klebsiella to Salmonella gene transfer within rumen protozoa: implications for antibiotic resistance and rumen defaunationZ P McCuddin
Pre harvest Food Safety and Enteric Disease Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA
Vet Microbiol 114:275-84. 2006The rumen has long been thought to be a site of gene transfer for microorganisms. Rumen protozoa (RPz) are active predators of bacteria that can harbor antibiotic resistance genes...
- Macro, micro and nano domains in the membrane of parasitic protozoaWanderley de Souza
Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Parasitol Int 56:161-70. 2007..The biochemical data available concerning the presence of microdomains in parasitic protozoa is reviewed and emphasis is given on the identification of special domains recognized by morphological approaches,..
- [The significance of amoebae and other protozoa in water conduit systems in dental units]R Michel
Ernst Rodenwaldt Institut, Koblenz
Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg B 187:312-23. 1989..as a complement to extended microbiological tests (4) for the occurrence of free-living amebae and other protozoa. In 96% of all water samples, one or several ameba species were detected...
- New advances in molecular epizootiology of canine hematic protozoa from Venezuela, Thailand and SpainA Criado-Fornelio
Departamento de Microbiologia y Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Spain
Vet Parasitol 144:261-9. 2007..Two protozoa isolates showing 99.7-100% identity to H. canis Spain 2 were found. In Spain, 250 dogs were studied. B...
- Systematics of the parasitic ProtozoaFrank E G Cox
Trends Parasitol 18:108. 2002
- Bacteria and protozoa as integral components of the forest ecosystem--their role in creating a naturally varied soil fertilityMarianne Clarholm
Swedish University ofAgricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:309-18. 2002The paper explores interactions between the two first organism groups to appear on earth, the bacteria and protozoa, and their interplay with the rest of the ecosystem focusing upon northern boreal forests...
- Electron microscopy and cytochemistry analysis of the endocytic pathway of pathogenic protozoaWanderley de Souza
Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941 902, Brazil
Prog Histochem Cytochem 44:67-124. 2009..Among protozoa it is also important for evading from host immune defenses and to support intense proliferation characteristic of ..
- Prevalence of intestinal protozoa in an aborigine community in Pahang, MalaysiaM Y Noor Azian
Parasitology Unit, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang 50588, Kuala Lumpur
Trop Biomed 24:55-62. 2007The objective was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal protozoa among the aborigines and to determine the problems regarding the infection. The study was carried out in January 2006 in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia...
- Evolutionary relationships of apusomonads inferred from taxon-rich analyses of 6 nuclear encoded genesEunsoo Kim
Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA
Mol Biol Evol 23:2455-66. 2006..Together with other information, our data suggest instead that unikonts (=Opisthokonta and Amoebozoa) are not strictly monophyletic and are descended from biflagellate ancestors...
- ABC transporters and drug resistance in parasitic protozoaAntonios Klokouzas
Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK
Int J Antimicrob Agents 22:301-17. 2003Parasitic protozoa are responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases in humans and domestic animals. The main line of defence available against these organisms is chemotherapy...
- Molecular screening of free-living microbial eukaryotes: diversity and distribution using a meta-analysisThomas A Richards
Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK
Curr Opin Microbiol 8:240-52. 2005....
- Amphibian antimicrobial peptides and Protozoa: lessons from parasitesLuis Rivas
Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Biochim Biophys Acta 1788:1570-81. 2009..Compared to the other two groups, protozoa are fairly neglected targets in antimicrobial chemotherapy, despite their role as causative agents for scourges ..
- Unique phylogenetic relationships of glucokinase and glucosephosphate isomerase of the amitochondriate eukaryotes Giardia intestinalis, Spironucleus barkhanus and Trichomonas vaginalisK Henze
The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Gene 281:123-31. 2001..The intriguing relationships of these enzymes to cyanobacterial (and chloroplast) enzymes might reflect horizontal gene transfer between the common ancestor of the diplomonad and parabasalid lineages and the ancestor of cyanobacteria...
- Rafts and sphingolipid biosynthesis in the kinetoplastid parasitic protozoaPaul W Denny
Wellcome Trust Laboratories for Molecular Parasitology, Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK
Mol Microbiol 53:725-33. 2004....
- Clan CD cysteine peptidases of parasitic protozoaJeremy C Mottram
Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, The Anderson College, University of Glasgow, G11 6NU, Glasgow, UK
Trends Parasitol 19:182-7. 2003Parasitic protozoa contain an abundance of cysteine peptidases that are crucial for a range of important biological processes...
- Strategies and results of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) in the study of parasitic protozoaWanderley de Souza
Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21949 900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Micron 39:77-87. 2008..FE-SEM observation and various protocols of sample fixation to analyze the structural organization of parasitic protozoa and their interaction with host cells...
- Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel's RadiolariaStephane Polet
Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Sciences III, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
Protist 155:53-63. 2004..Our study also confirms the common origin of Acantharea and Polycystinea, which form a sister-group to the Cercozoa, and allows a phylogenetic reinterpretation of the morphological features of the three radiolarian groups...
- Purine and pyrimidine transport in pathogenic protozoa: from biology to therapyHarry P de Koning
Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Infection and Immunity, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:987-1020. 2005Purine salvage is an essential function for all obligate parasitic protozoa studied to date and most are also capable of efficient uptake of preformed pyrimidines...
- Evolution of four gene families with patchy phylogenetic distributions: influx of genes into protist genomesJan O Andersson
Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Biomedical Center, Box 596, S 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
BMC Evol Biol 6:27. 2006....
- Legionella pneumophila - a human pathogen that co-evolved with fresh water protozoaC Albert-Weissenberger
Unité de Génomique des Microorganismes Pathogènes and CNRS URA 2171, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724, Paris Cedex 15, France
Cell Mol Life Sci 64:432-48. 2007..This review summarizes what is currently known about regulation of the Legionella life cycle and gives insight in the Legionella-specific features as deduced from genome analysis...
- Interactions between planktonic microalgae and protozoan grazersUrban Tillmann
Alfred Wegener Institute, Am Handelshafen 12, D 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
J Eukaryot Microbiol 51:156-68. 2004....
- Polyubiquitin insertions and the phylogeny of Cercozoa and RhizariaDavid Bass
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Protist 156:149-61. 2005..e. that the second insertion took place earlier, in the ancestral filosan, and was followed by three independent reversions to a single amino acid in Chlorarachnea, Metopion and Cercobodo...
- Bacterial-protozoa interactions; an update on the role these phenomena play towards human illnessWilliam J Snelling
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, CO, Londonderry, Northern Ireland BT52 1SA, UK
Microbes Infect 8:578-87. 2006..current thinking on the nature of the interaction between a range of human bacterial pathogens and waterborne protozoa. The importance of protozoa acting as protective environments for pathogenic bacteria from disinfection and of ..
- Protist taxonomy: an ecological perspectiveBland J Finlay
CEH Dorset, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith Newburgh, Dorchester DT2 8ZD, UK
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:599-610. 2004..There is some progress with respect to the latter. Using the example of a community of ciliated protozoa living in the stratified water column of a freshwater pond, it is shown to be possible to gauge the potential of ..
- Diarrhea, CD4+ cell counts and opportunistic protozoa in Indian HIV-infected patientsJavid Sadraei
Parasitology Department of Medical School, Tarbiat Modarres University, P O Box 14115 331, Tehran, Iran
Parasitol Res 97:270-3. 2005The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among diarrhea, CD4+ cell counts and opportunistic protozoa in HIV-infected patients in North India...
- Molecular phylogeny of Cercomonadidae and kinetid patterns of Cercomonas and Eocercomonas gen. nov. (Cercomonadida, Cercozoa)Serguei A Karpov
Department of Zoology, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Moika emb 48, 191186 St Petersburg, Russian Federation
Protist 157:125-58. 2006..n.). We establish Paracercomonas ekelundi sp. n. for culture SCCAP C1 and propose a Cercomonas longicauda neotype and Cercomonas (=Neocercomonas) jutlandica comb. n. and Paracercomonas (=Cercomonas) metabolica comb. n...
- A molecular approach to identify active microbes in environmental eukaryote clone librariesThorsten Stoeck
School of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin Schroedinger Str 14, D 67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Microb Ecol 53:328-39. 2007....
- Protistan diversity estimates based on 18S rDNA from seawater incubations in the Western North AtlanticPeter D Countway
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 0371, USA
J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:95-106. 2005..Containment resulted in significant shifts in the dominance of these taxa, enabling the presence of previously unobserved phylotypes to be documented after 24 or 72 h of incubation...
- Targeting DHFR in parasitic protozoaAmy C Anderson
Department of Chemistry, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
Drug Discov Today 10:121-8. 2005..Novel DHFR inhibitors, designed using the recently revealed crystal structures of the enzymes from two parasitic protozoa, are in development.
- More than one way to build a flagellum: comparative genomics of parasitic protozoaLaura J Briggs
Curr Biol 14:R611-2. 2004
- Archaea in protozoa and metazoaMarianne Lange
BioCentrum, Technical University of Denmark, BioCentrum, Building 227, Lyngby, 2800, Denmark
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:465-74. 2005..Methanogens are the dominating archaeal organisms found in most animals, from unicellular protozoa to humans...
- Mitochondria of protistsMichael W Gray
Robert Cedergren Center, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Canada
Annu Rev Genet 38:477-524. 2004..This comparative genomics approach has also revealed unique and fascinating aspects of mitochondrial gene expression, highlighting the mitochondrion as an evolutionary playground par excellence...
- The cell cycle of parasitic protozoa: potential for chemotherapeutic exploitationTansy C Hammarton
Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Anderson College, University of Glasgow, 56 Dumbarton Road, Glasgow, G11 6NU, UK
Prog Cell Cycle Res 5:91-101. 2003There is an urgent need to develop new drugs against eukaryotic parasitic protozoa such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania, which cause the diseases malaria, trypanosomiasis and the leishmaniases respectively...
- Phylogeny, taxonomy, and astounding genetic diversity of glissomonadida ord. nov., the dominant gliding zooflagellates in soil (Protozoa: Cercozoa)Alexis T Howe
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Protist 160:159-89. 2009..rather uniform gliding zooflagellates, including Bodomorpha and Heteromita, the most ubiquitous and numerous soil protozoa. The generally used name 'Heteromita globosa' for the commonest gliding biflagellates is incorrect...
- Protein kinases as drug targets in parasitic protozoaChristian Doerig
Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U 511, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, 91 Bd de l Hopital, 75013 Paris, France
Trends Parasitol 18:366-71. 2002..Here, the current progress in applying developments from the wider protein kinase field to parasitic protozoa is reviewed...
- The evolutionary origin of hedgehog proteinsMaja Adamska
School of Integrative Biology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland 4072, Australia
Curr Biol 17:R836-7. 2007
- The symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki, nov. gen. nov. sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the MesomycetozoeaLynn A Hertel
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
Int J Parasitol 32:1183-91. 2002..This suggests further that the symbiont is not restricted to albino lab-reared snails. A role, if any, of the symbiont in resistance awaits further study...
- A phylogenomic investigation into the origin of metazoaInaki Ruiz-Trillo
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
Mol Biol Evol 25:664-72. 2008..Understanding the function of "metazoan-specific" proteins we have identified in these protists will clarify the evolutionary steps that led to the emergence of the Metazoa...
- Methods for cultivation of luminal parasitic protists of clinical importanceC Graham Clark
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, Great Britain
Clin Microbiol Rev 15:329-41. 2002..While cultivation is of limited importance in the diagnostic laboratory, it is essential to most research laboratories, and it is toward the latter that this review is primarily aimed...
- Osmoregulation and contractile vacuoles of protozoaRichard D Allen
Department of Microbiology and Pacific Biomedical Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu 96822, USA
Int Rev Cytol 215:351-94. 2002b>Protozoa living in fresh water are subjected to a hypotonic environment. Water flows across their plasma membrane since their cytosol is always hypertonic to the environment...
- The effects of sequential inoculation of mixed rumen protozoa on the degradation of orchard grass cell walls by anaerobic fungus Anaeromyces mucronatus 543S S Lee
Nutrition Physiology Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suweon, Korea
Can J Microbiol 47:754-60. 2001The effects of protozoa on the degradation of plant cell walls (CW) during different growth stages of the fungus Anaeromyces mucronatus have been investigated...
- Diplonemid glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transferQ Qian
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Protist 152:193-201. 2001....
- Interactions between food-borne pathogens and protozoa isolated from lettuce and spinachPoornima Gourabathini
Center for the Management, Utilization, and Protection of Water Resources, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2518-25. 2008..linked to outbreaks of enteric illness, the present investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of protozoa on spinach and lettuce and to examine their interactions with S...
- Stalked protozoa identification by image analysis and multivariable statistical techniquesA L Amaral
Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 057, Braga, Portugal
Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1321-5. 2008b>Protozoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems as they are sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes...
- Effects of the absence of protozoa from birth or from weaning on the growth and methane production of lambsR S Hegarty
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries Beef Industry Centre, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia
Br J Nutr 100:1220-7. 2008..While there was no main effect of protozoa treatment on enteric methane production, there was an interaction between protozoa treatment and diet for methane ..
- An introduction to the structural organization of parasitic protozoaWanderley de Souza
Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS Bloco G, 21941 900, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Curr Pharm Des 14:822-38. 2008As eukaryotic cells, protozoa present a classical structural organization where most of the structures and organelles typical of mammalian cells are found. However, even for usual organelles these organisms present structural diversity...
- Ultrastructural alterations in organelles of parasitic protozoa induced by different classes of metabolic inhibitorsJuliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues
Laboratorio de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CCS, Bloco G, subsolo, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21 941 902, Brazil
Curr Pharm Des 14:925-38. 2008Parasitic protozoa such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia and Trichomonas are able to cause several diseases affecting millions of people around the world with dramatic consequences to the socio-economic ..
- Phospholipids in parasitic protozoaHenri J Vial
Dynamique Moleculaire des Interactions Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5539, cc107, Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, France
Mol Biochem Parasitol 126:143-54. 2003Parasitic protozoa are surrounded by membrane structures that have a different lipid and protein composition relative to membranes of the host...
- Repetitive elements in genomes of parasitic protozoaBill Wickstead
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:360-75, table of contents. 2003..Here we review the genomes of parasitic protozoa in the context of the current understanding of repetitive elements...
- Fatty acid synthesis in protozoan parasites: unusual pathways and novel drug targetsC D Goodman
School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
Curr Pharm Des 14:901-16. 2008..Pathways used by parasites to scavenge and modify host lipids are also described briefly and their potential for therapeutics discussed...
- Targeting enzymes involved in spermidine metabolism of parasitic protozoa--a possible new strategy for anti-parasitic treatmentA Kaiser
Institute for Medical Parasitology, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany
Parasitol Res 91:508-16. 2003..One of the most characteristic features in the process of drug development against parasitic protozoa is target identification in a biological pathway...
- Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal originsNicole King
Howard Hughes Medical Institute HHMI, University of Wisconsin, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Science 301:361-3. 2003..Choanoflagellates, unicellular and colonial protozoa closely related to Metazoa, provide a potential window into early animal evolution...
- Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of parasitic protozoaThomas A Richards
Protist 154:17-32. 2003
- Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, AustraliaDamien Stark
Department of Microbiology, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, and Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:549-52. 2007A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia...
- Phylogenomic analysis supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of rhizaria with chromalveolatesJeremiah D Hackett
Department of Biological Sciences and Roy J Carver Center for Comparative Genomics, University of Iowa, IA, USA
Mol Biol Evol 24:1702-13. 2007..The association of the two Rhizaria with chromalveolates is supported by the approximately unbiased (AU)-test and when the fastest evolving amino acid sites are removed from the 16-protein alignment...
- Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North CarolinaLuke R Iwanowicz
National Fish Health Research Laboratory, U S Geological Survey, Kearneysville, West Virginia 25430, USA
J Parasitol 94:46-57. 2008..Morphologically, this species is similar to other species of Henneguya that are known to infect ictalurids. Based on SSU rDNA sequences, this species is most closely related to H. exilis and H. ictaluri, which infect Ictalurus punctatus...
- Myxozoan pathogens in cultured Malaysian fishes. II. Myxozoan infections of redtail catfish Hemibagrus nemurus in freshwater cage culturesK Molnar
Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 18, 1581 Budapest, Hungary
Dis Aquat Organ 68:219-26. 2006..hemibagri developed in the capillary network of the lamellae. H. basifilamentalis sp. n. had large oval plasmodia located deep among the filaments just above the gill arch...
- Epizootiology of Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease in the Rock Creek drainage of west-central MontanaWillard O Granath
Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA
J Parasitol 93:104-19. 2007..Although a major habitat restoration project did not seem to have an effect on decreasing disease intensity, this was not surprising because the restored area was located just downstream from a "hotspot" of infected T. tubifex...
- Henneguya garavelli n. sp. and Myxobolus peculiaris n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in the gills of Cyphocharax nagelli (Osteichthyes: Curimatidae) from Rio do Peixe Reservoir, São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, BrazilM L Martins
Aquaculture Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC, Rod SC 404, Km 03, C P 476, 88040 900 Itacorubi, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil
Vet Parasitol 137:253-61. 2006..Myxobolus peculiaris n. sp. was very different when compared to other species of Myxobolus in its morphology and the biggest size of spore body. The authors present tables with comparative measurements of Brazilian myxozoan parasites...
- A packed-bed filtration system for collection of Myxobolus cerebralis triactinomyxonsHalcyon J Lukins
Montana Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, U S Geological Survey, and Fish and Wildlife Management Program, Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
J Aquat Anim Health 19:234-41. 2007..7-1.4/L. The packed-bed filtration system has the potential to quickly determine the temporal and spatial variation in infection risk and to test the efficacy of various management strategies...
- Parvicapsula bicornis n. sp. and P. limandae n. sp. (Myxozoa, Parvicapsulidae) in Pleuronectidae (Teleostei, Heterosomata) from DenmarkMarianne Køie
Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, 3000 Helsingør, Denmark
Dis Aquat Organ 76:123-9. 2007..was examined with their partial small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. P. limandae n. sp. and P. asymmetrica appear to be closely related, while P. bicornis n. sp. and P. minibicornis are the most divergent members of the genus...
- The life cycle of Chloromyxum auratum (Myxozoa) from goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), involves an antonactinomyxon actinosporeS D Atkinson
School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
J Fish Dis 30:149-56. 2007..This is the first life cycle that incorporates an actinospore of the collective group Antonactinomyxon, and the first life cycle demonstrated in the laboratory for a species of Chloromyxum...
- Molecular identity, phylogeny and life cycle of Chloromyxum schurovi Shul'man & Ieshko 2003Astrid S Holzer
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, FK9 4LA Stirling, Scotland, UK
Parasitol Res 99:90-6. 2006..schurovi clusters with representatives of other myxozoan genera which inhabit the urinary system, whereas the other Chloromyxum species form a more basic clade together with another gall bladder parasite...
- A new species of myxozoan (Myxosporea) from the brain and spinal cord of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from IdahoCarla I Hogge
Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Eagle Fish Health Laboratory, 1800 Trout Road, Eagle, Idaho 83616, USA
J Parasitol 94:218-22. 2008..cerebralis, histological examination shows no host response to M. neurotropus n. sp. A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is included as an aid in properly identifying the species...
- Kudoa iwatai (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in wild and cultured fish in the Red Sea: redescription and molecular phylogenyA Diamant
Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Ltd, National Center for Mariculture, Eilat, Israel
J Parasitol 91:1175-89. 2005..Therefore, we conclude that K. iwatai is an Indo-Pacific species that, in the Red Sea, has extended its host range to include the allochthonous gilt-head sea bream, European sea bass, and grey mullet...
- Two multivalvulid myxozoans causing postmortem myoliquefaction: Kudoa megacapsula n. sp. from red barracuda (Sphyraena pinguis) and Kudoa thyrsites from splendid alfonso (Beryx splendens)H Yokoyama
Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Japan
J Parasitol 91:1132-7. 2005..Morphological and molecular analyses of the myxozoan from splendid alfonso identified it as K. thyrsites, which has been described from many marine fishes. To our knowledge, this is the first record of K. thyrsites in splendid alfonso...
- Systemic infection of Kudoa lutjanus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in red snapper Lutjanus erythropterus from TaiwanPei Chi Wang
Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
Dis Aquat Organ 67:115-24. 2005..It is, therefore, proposed that the strains isolated from the diseased red snapper be assigned to a new species...
- Transformation of Mitochondria in Kinetoplastid ParasitesDAN RAY; Fiscal Year: 2007..The kinetoplastid protozoa are the causative agents of devastating diseases in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world and include ..
- Functional cloning of S. mansoni egg-specific Th2 cellsMarkus Mohrs; Fiscal Year: 2007..Additionally, in contrast to many bacteria, protozoa and viruses, helminthic antigens are generally not known...
- Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid ParasitesFrederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2004..These infectious diseases are caused by parasitic protozoa of the family, Trypanoisomatidae...
- Prenyldiphosphate Synthase Inhibitors: Novel Anti-Infective AgentsEric Oldfield; Fiscal Year: 2009..of this work is to develop novel anti-infective agents which target the isoprene biosynthesis pathways in protozoa and bacteria by using a combination of x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, enzyme and cell ..
- Prenyldiphosphate Synthase Inhibitors: Novel Anti-Infective AgentsEric Oldfield; Fiscal Year: 2007..of this work is to develop novel anti-infective agents which target the isoprene biosynthesis pathways in protozoa and bacteria by using a combination of x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, enzyme and cell ..
- Mechanisms of Dinitroaniline Action, Selectivity and ResistanceNaomi Morrissette; Fiscal Year: 2007..Dinitroanilines (oryzalin, ethafluralin and trifluralin) disrupt MTs in plants and protozoa but are ineffective against vertebrate or fungal MTs...
- DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA VIRUSES IN TRICHOMONAS & GIARDIAC Wang; Fiscal Year: 1993..causative agents Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia for the two diseases are both anaerobic flagellated protozoa multiplying asexually and providing no genetic information for researchers...
- REGULATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEICHING CHUNG WANG; Fiscal Year: 2011DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The parasitic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei spp., are the causative pathogens of African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle...
- REGULATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEICHING CHUNG WANG; Fiscal Year: 2010The parasitic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei spp., are the causative pathogens of African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle...
- Mechanisms of Dinitroaniline Action, Selectivity and ResistanceNaomi S Morrissette; Fiscal Year: 2010..Dinitroanilines (oryzalin, ethafluralin and trifluralin) disrupt MTs in plants and protozoa but are ineffective against vertebrate or fungal MTs...
- TYPE II SECRETION AND LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA INFECTIONNicholas Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2009..In water and the lungs, Lp grows as an intracellular parasite, infecting either aquatic protozoa, macrophages, or epithelia...
- Lyophilization of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccineStephen Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2007..vaccines, and which is also in routine use for the storage of stock strains of many prokaryotes and also certain protozoa. In preliminary studies, PfSPZ tolerate lyoprotective agents well, including those agents commonly used in the ..
- Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitorsClaude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007..We expect that our work will lead to new compounds with a specific and known mechanism of action that will be useful for the treatment of human leishmaniasis. ..
- Multiplexed Detection of Food and Waterborne PathogensFrancis Barany; Fiscal Year: 2007..Aim 2. To identify multiple food and waterborne protozoa and viruses simultaneously from a single sample...
- Kinetoplastid SL RNA biogenesisDavid A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2010..research is aimed at understanding gene expression in the family Trypanosomatidae, which includes the parasitic protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease...
- TYPE II SECRETION AND LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA INFECTIONNicholas P Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2010..In water and the lungs, Lp grows as an intracellular parasite, infecting either aquatic protozoa, macrophages, or epithelia...
- POLYAMINE INHIBITORS TARGETING MICROSPORIDIAMurray Wittner; Fiscal Year: 2007The Microsporidia are a group of intracellular parasitic protozoa of the phylum Microspora. These organisms are emerging as human pathogens primarily affecting immunosuppressed hosts (e.g., those with AIDS)...
- TRYPANOSMIASIS--MOLECULAR APPROACHES TO CHEMOTHERAPYMargaret Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2003The parasitic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, are the cause of major morbidity and mortality in Africa and South America, yet the available anti-trypanosomal drugs have limited effectiveness...
- TYPE II SECRETION AND LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA INFECTIONNicholas P Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2011..In water and the lungs, Lp grows as an intracellular parasite, infecting either aquatic protozoa, macrophages, or epithelia...
- Legionella pneumophila developmental cycle & virulencePaul Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2007Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) resides in aquatic habitats as an intracellular parasite of protozoa and when transmitted in aerosols to susceptible humans, produces an acute pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease...
- A novel vaccine against LeishmaniaClaude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2005..We believe that this work will lead to the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against Leishmania ..
- New drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasisClaude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004..Ultimately, this work will lead to the identification of a lead compound for human clinical trials for the treatment of leishmaniasis. ..
- GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PURINE METABOLISM IN LEISHMANIABuddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 1993Parasitic protozoa are the causative agents of a plethora of devastating and often fatal diseases to humans and their domestic animals...
- INTRAFLAGELLAR TRANSPORT IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTIIDOUGLAS COLE; Fiscal Year: 2009..Motile forms of these organelles are capable of propelling some cells like sperm and protozoa through a liquid environment while other cells like the ciliated trachea of man use the coordinated beating of ..
- INTRAFLAGELLAR TRANSPORT IN CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTIIDOUGLAS COLE; Fiscal Year: 2007..Motile forms of these organelles are capable of propelling some cells like sperm and protozoa through a liquid environment while other cells like the ciliated trachea of man use the coordinated beating of ..
- Mouse Strain dependent innate resistance to intestinal amebiasisEric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2009Entamoeba histolytica kills more humans than any other Category B protozoa by far. This R01 proposes work by a new investigator to identify mechanisms of innate resistance to intestinal amoebiasis in a new mouse model...
- Mouse Strain dependent innate resistance to intestinal amebiasisEric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2007Entamoeba histolytica kills more humans than any other Category B protozoa by far. This R01 proposes work by a new investigator to identify mechanisms of innate resistance to intestinal amoebiasis in a new mouse model...
- APEs as novel drug targets in AIDS opportunistic pathogen ToxoplasmaWILLIAM SULLIVAN JR; Fiscal Year: 2007DESCRIPTION (Provided by Applicant): New drugs against parasitic protozoa of phylum Apicomplexa are urgently needed...
- Legionella pneumophila developmental cycle & virulencePaul Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2009Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) resides in aquatic habitats as an intracellular parasite of protozoa and when transmitted in aerosols to susceptible humans, produces an acute pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease...
- Polyamine and glutathione metabolism in trypanosomes.Margaret Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2007The parasitic protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma are the causative agents of African sleeping sickness and of Chagas' disease in South America...