trichostrongyloidea

Summary

Summary: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against three species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in laboratory faecal cultures from sheep and goats
    T S Waghorn
    AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Vet Parasitol 118:227-34. 2003
  2. doi Proteomic analysis of excretory/secretory products released by Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae early post-infection
    S K Smith
    Moredun Research Institute, Midlothian, UK
    Parasite Immunol 31:10-9. 2009
  3. ncbi A multiplex PCR assay for differentiating economically important gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle
    D S Zarlenga
    US Department of Agriculture, ARS, Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Bldg 1180, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 97:199-209. 2001
  4. ncbi Teladorsagia circumcincta: activation-associated secreted proteins in excretory/secretory products of fourth stage larvae are targets of early IgA responses in infected sheep
    A J Nisbet
    Parasitology Division, Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, UK
    Exp Parasitol 125:329-37. 2010
  5. doi Teladorsagia circumcincta: the transcriptomic response of a multi-drug-resistant isolate to ivermectin exposure in vitro
    Alison J Dicker
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland, UK
    Exp Parasitol 127:351-6. 2011
  6. ncbi Quantitative analysis of ITS2 sequences in trichostrongyle parasites
    G von Samson-Himmelstjerna
    Institute of Parasitology, Hannover School of Veterinary Medicine, Buenteweg 17, D 30559, Hannover, Germany
    Int J Parasitol 32:1529-35. 2002
  7. ncbi Development and validation of real-time PCR methods for diagnosis of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus in sheep
    Jane Learmount
    The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
    Vet Parasitol 166:268-74. 2009
  8. ncbi Trichostrongylina (Nematoda) parasitic in Phyllotis sp. (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Argentina, with description of three new species
    M C Digiani
    División Zoología Invertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s n 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    Parasitol Int 56:9-18. 2007
  9. doi A macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like tautomerase from Teladorsagia circumcincta (Nematoda: Strongylida)
    A J Nisbet
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland, UK
    Parasite Immunol 32:503-11. 2010
  10. ncbi A new genus of Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) from the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Sigmodontinae) in Argentina
    Maria Celina Digiani
    Laboratoire de Biologie Parasitaire, Protistologie et Helminthologie, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 61 rue de Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Parasitol 89:124-32. 2003

Detail Information

Publications141 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against three species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in laboratory faecal cultures from sheep and goats
    T S Waghorn
    AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Vet Parasitol 118:227-34. 2003
    ..The results of this trial indicate the potential use of this fungus as a broad spectrum anti-parasite agent for use in both goats and sheep...
  2. doi Proteomic analysis of excretory/secretory products released by Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae early post-infection
    S K Smith
    Moredun Research Institute, Midlothian, UK
    Parasite Immunol 31:10-9. 2009
    ..ELISA was performed to assess antigen-specific mucus IgA levels in individual sheep. These experiments provided preliminary evidence that the proteins identified in the larval secretome were subject to these antibody responses...
  3. ncbi A multiplex PCR assay for differentiating economically important gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle
    D S Zarlenga
    US Department of Agriculture, ARS, Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, Bldg 1180, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Vet Parasitol 97:199-209. 2001
    ..5 egg-DNA equivalent per species. Although, not designed as a quantitative technique, relative PCR signal intensities corresponded to relative egg burdens within the DNA samples from mixed species of eggs...
  4. ncbi Teladorsagia circumcincta: activation-associated secreted proteins in excretory/secretory products of fourth stage larvae are targets of early IgA responses in infected sheep
    A J Nisbet
    Parasitology Division, Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, UK
    Exp Parasitol 125:329-37. 2010
    ..A recombinant version of Tci-ASP-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was reactive with IgA present in abomasal mucus derived from immune sheep...
  5. doi Teladorsagia circumcincta: the transcriptomic response of a multi-drug-resistant isolate to ivermectin exposure in vitro
    Alison J Dicker
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland, UK
    Exp Parasitol 127:351-6. 2011
    ..Four clusters were identified as vitellogenin; three of these clusters had a statistically significant decrease in number of exposed ESTs compared to unexposed ESTs...
  6. ncbi Quantitative analysis of ITS2 sequences in trichostrongyle parasites
    G von Samson-Himmelstjerna
    Institute of Parasitology, Hannover School of Veterinary Medicine, Buenteweg 17, D 30559, Hannover, Germany
    Int J Parasitol 32:1529-35. 2002
    ..This technique provides means for a rapid, reliable and quantitative detection and differentiation of the most important parasitic nematodes of sheep and cattle...
  7. ncbi Development and validation of real-time PCR methods for diagnosis of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus in sheep
    Jane Learmount
    The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
    Vet Parasitol 166:268-74. 2009
    ..This assay has significant advantages over the traditional methods currently used routinely at Fera and other parasitology laboratories and these are discussed...
  8. ncbi Trichostrongylina (Nematoda) parasitic in Phyllotis sp. (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Argentina, with description of three new species
    M C Digiani
    División Zoología Invertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s n 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    Parasitol Int 56:9-18. 2007
    ..franciscanus right rays 4 and 5 diverge at their distal extremity. Lamanema chavezi Becklund, 1963 (Molineoidea: Molineinae), a parasite of South American camelids, is reported in rodents for the second time...
  9. doi A macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like tautomerase from Teladorsagia circumcincta (Nematoda: Strongylida)
    A J Nisbet
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland, UK
    Parasite Immunol 32:503-11. 2010
    ..Neither native, purified Tci-MIF nor recombinant Tci-MIF-1 dramatically influenced the in vitro migration of sheep monocytes...
  10. ncbi A new genus of Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) from the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Sigmodontinae) in Argentina
    Maria Celina Digiani
    Laboratoire de Biologie Parasitaire, Protistologie et Helminthologie, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 61 rue de Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Parasitol 89:124-32. 2003
    ..Malvinema victoriae possesses a synlophe with 22-24 ridges, an axis of orientation inclined at 45 degrees from the sagittal axis, and a caudal bursa with the right lobe enlarged vertically...
  11. doi A new heligmonellid (Nematoda) from Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) in Costa Rica, with some comments on species of Paraheligmonella Durette-Desset, 1971
    Maria Celina Digiani
    División Zoología Invertebrados, Museo de La Plata, CONICET, Paseo del Bosque s n 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    J Parasitol 95:673-7. 2009
    ..short and nearly straight) and by the synlophe at the ovejector level (ridge no. 1' hypertrophied and remaining ridges reduced vs. ventral ridges hypertrophied and dorso-lateral ridges reduced)...
  12. doi A calcium-activated apyrase from Teladorsagia circumcincta: an excretory/secretory antigen capable of modulating host immune responses?
    A J Nisbet
    Parasitology Division, Moredun Research Institute, Penicuik, Scotland, UK
    Parasite Immunol 33:236-43. 2011
    ..The potential immunomodulatory roles of this Tci-APY-1 are discussed in relation to purinergic signalling...
  13. ncbi Local immune responses in sensitized sheep following challenge infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta
    A Balic
    Centre for Animal Biotechnology, School of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Parasite Immunol 25:375-81. 2003
    ..No reactivity was observed against the adult extract. The 30-35 kDa antigen seemed to exist as a high molecular weight complex in L3 homogenate and was not susceptible to protease K treatment, suggesting it may be non-protein in nature...
  14. doi Genetic variability of Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in alpine ruminant host species
    M C Cerutti
    Department of Animal Pathology, Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Universita degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
    J Helminthol 84:276-83. 2010
    ..contortus as a generalist nematode and suggesting that parasite transmission between populations of domestic and wild ruminants normally occurs...
  15. ncbi Genetic resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta: IgA and parameters at slaughter in Churra sheep
    M Martinez-Valladares
    Departamento Sanidad Animal, Parasitologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Leon, Leon, Spain
    Parasite Immunol 27:213-8. 2005
    ..Furthermore there were also strong relationships between the peripheral eosinophilia with serum (P<0.01) and gastric mucus IgA activity (P<0.01). Moreover serum pepsinogen and the number of L4 at slaughter were related (P<0.01)...
  16. ncbi Relationship between helminth species diversity, intensity of infection and breeding management in dairy goats
    A Silvestre
    INRA, Station de Pathologie Aviaire et de Parasitologie, 37380, Nouzilly, France
    Vet Parasitol 94:91-105. 2000
    ..Intensity of infection was negatively correlated with species diversity. This suggested that more diverse communities were better controlled by the host, in agreement with the widespread statement that diversity would beget stability...
  17. doi Teladorsagia circumcincta in the sheep abomasum: defining the role of dendritic cells in T cell regulation and protective immunity
    T N McNeilly
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Midlothian, UK
    Parasite Immunol 31:347-56. 2009
    ..In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the immune effector mechanisms elicited by T. circumcincta and consider the probable role of dendritic cells in the initiation of both effector and regulatory responses in the abomasum...
  18. ncbi [Sheep trichostrongylidosis in Van province]
    Zeynep Tas Cengiz
    Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Parazitoloji Anabilim Dali, Van, Turkey
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 33:222-6. 2009
    ..It was found that the young animals have a parasite density higher than the adults and the females have parasite density higher than the males...
  19. ncbi A preliminary proteomic survey of the in vitro excretory/secretory products of fourth-stage larval and adult Teladorsagia circumcincta
    H Craig
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland EH 26 0PZ, UK
    Parasitology 132:535-43. 2006
    ..Adult ES contained a nucleoside diphosphate kinase homologue, an enzyme which has been linked to cellular changes and can affect liquid secretion and goblet cell degranulation...
  20. ncbi The effect of weather on the occurrence and magnitude of periparturient rise in trichostronglyid nematode egg output in Dorper ewes in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya
    C J Ng'ang'a
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    Trop Anim Health Prod 38:389-95. 2006
    ..In addition, the animals must be given supplementary feeding during this period...
  21. pmc A short-term divergent selection for resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta in Romanov sheep using natural or artificial challenge
    Lucas Gruner
    BioAgresseurs, Santé et Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France
    Genet Sel Evol 36:217-42. 2004
    ..22 and 0.38 respectively. The genetic correlation was 0.87: the FEC recorded under natural or artificial infection appear to depend on the same genetic potential...
  22. ncbi An ovine chitinase-like molecule, chitinase-3 like-1 (YKL-40), is upregulated in the abomasum in response to challenge with the gastrointestinal nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta
    P A Knight
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 120:55-60. 2007
    ..Chi3L1 transcripts were found to be significantly upregulated in both the abomasum and gastric lymph nodes in response to T. circumcincta challenge of previously infected animals...
  23. ncbi Resistance to benzimidazole and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics in cattle nematodes in Argentina
    O S Anziani
    EEA INTA Rafaela, Inst Nacional de Tecn Agropecuaria, CC 22, 2300 Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Vet Parasitol 122:303-6. 2004
    ..This is the first reported case of Haemonchus parasiting cattle showing simultaneous resistance to avermectins and benzimidazole type anthelmintics...
  24. ncbi [Biology of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants]
    M T Manfredi
    Department of Animal Pathology, Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health DIPAV, Section of General Pathology and Parasitology, University of Milan, Italy
    Parassitologia 48:397-401. 2006
    ..They contribute to the spread of the faecal material on the pasture and allow the larval death as a consequence of drying...
  25. ncbi Treatment of small lungworm infestation in sheep by using moxidectin
    E Papadopoulos
    School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
    Vet Parasitol 121:329-36. 2004
    ..0, 0.0 and 26.4 lpg, (percentage reduction after moxidectin administration 100%). It is concluded that treatment of small lungworm infestation of sheep can be effected by using moxidectin...
  26. ncbi [Physiopathological mechanisms of abomasal Trichostrongylidae infections in small ruminants]
    A Scala
    Department of Animal Biology, Section of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, University of Sassari, Italy
    Parassitologia 48:403-8. 2006
    ....
  27. ncbi Individual administration of three tanniferous forage plants to lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei
    Felix Heckendorn
    Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH 5070 Frick, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 146:123-34. 2007
    ..contortus not only by mitigating parasite related health disturbances of the host but also by a sustained reduction of pasture contamination...
  28. ncbi Efficacy of ivermectin in calves against a resistant Cooperia oncophora field isolate
    A I Njue
    Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, 21, 111 Lakeshore Road, H9X 3V9, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
    Parasitol Res 93:419-22. 2004
    ..The untreated calves had 1,330 and 848 adult worms, respectively, for the IVS and IVR infected animals...
  29. ncbi Resistance of trichostrongyles to benzimidazoles in Italy: a first report in a goat farm with multiple and repeated introductions
    G Cringoli
    Dipartimento di Patologia e Sanita Animale, Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II CREMOPAR, Regione Campania, Via Della Veterinaria 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy
    Parasitol Res 101:577-81. 2007
    ..Single drug and single species resistance suggest that resistance is on its beginning and that measures for reducing the spread of resistance are of interest and should be promoted...
  30. ncbi Flock cull due to anthelmintic-resistant nematodes
    Neil Blake
    Vet Rec 161:36. 2007
  31. ncbi Some observations on immunologically mediated inhibited Teladorsagia circumcincta and their subsequent resumption of development in sheep
    W D Smith
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland EH26 0PZ, UK
    Vet Parasitol 147:103-9. 2007
    ..It was concluded that under these conditions arrested development of Teladorsagia was a short-lived, immunologically mediated phenomenon which could be reversed by immuno-suppressing the sheep...
  32. ncbi The relationship between IgA activity against 4th-stage larvae and density-dependent effects on the number of 4th-stage larvae of Teladorsagia circumcincta in naturally infected sheep
    M J Stear
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland, UK
    Parasitology 129:363-9. 2004
    ..There was a statistical interaction between the number of adults and IgA activity that moderated their combined effect...
  33. ncbi Innovative restriction site created PCR-RFLP for detection of benzimidazole resistance in Teladorsagia circumcincta
    Parviz Shayan
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
    Parasitol Res 100:1063-8. 2007
    ..Five out of 40 worms collected from the albendazole-treated sheep were BZ(RR) homozygotes, whereas the rest (35) were BZ(RS) heterozygotes. No BZ(SS) homozygote form was detected within this group...
  34. ncbi Effect of a low protein diet on the resistance of Churra sheep to Teladorsagia circumcincta
    M Martinez-Valladares
    Departamento Sanidad Animal, Parasitologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Leon, Leon, Spain
    Parasite Immunol 27:219-25. 2005
    ..Our results support the view that low protein diets could influence immune function and as a result resistant genotypes do not show any superiority in comparison with susceptible ones...
  35. ncbi The relationship between responsiveness against gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs and the numbers of circulating IgE-bearing cells
    J J Pettit
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PZ, Scotland, UK
    Vet Parasitol 134:131-9. 2005
    ..circumcincta infections in lambs...
  36. ncbi Comparing different formulae to test for gastrointestinal nematode resistance to benzimidazoles in smallholder goat farms in Mexico
    J F J Torres-Acosta
    Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan Merida, Yucatan, México Km 15 5 carretera Mérida Xmatkuil, Merida, Yucatan
    Vet Parasitol 134:241-8. 2005
    ..Further laboratory studies are needed to confirm the resistance status in the herds...
  37. ncbi Impact on productivity of peri-parturient rise in fecal egg counts in Creole goats in the humid tropics
    N Mandonnet
    Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Unité de Recherches Zootechniques, Domaine Duclos, 97170 Petit Bourg, French West Indies, France
    Vet Parasitol 134:249-59. 2005
    ..Thus, it is clear that a peri-parturient rise in FEC exists in Creole goats. By controlling the intensity of this peri-parturient rise in FEC, herd health and productivity could be substantially improved...
  38. ncbi Confirmation of resistance to ivermectin by Cooperia curticei in sheep
    P L Hughes
    Taihape Veterinary Services Limited, Taihape, New Zealand
    N Z Vet J 53:344-6. 2005
    ..To investigate the occurrence of resistance to a full dose of oral ivermectin by Cooperia curticei in sheep...
  39. ncbi The effect of chicory ( Cichorium intybus ) and sulla ( Hedysarum coronarium ) on larval development and mucosal cell responses of growing lambs challenged with Teladorsagia circumcincta
    O Tzamaloukas
    Animal Nutrition and Health Department, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK
    Parasitology 132:419-26. 2006
    ..The results suggest elevated immune responses against T. circumcincta infections in growing lambs grazing on either sulla or chicory compared to those grazing on grass/clover, probably due to differences in forage nutritional values...
  40. ncbi In vivo anthelmintic activity of Butea monosperma against Trichostrongylid nematodes in sheep
    Zafar Iqbal
    Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
    Fitoterapia 77:137-40. 2006
    ..The maximum reduction of 78.4% in eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was recorded on day 10 after treatment with 3 g/kg. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent, exhibited 99.1% reduction in EPG...
  41. ncbi The effects of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) when compared with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on ovine gastrointestinal parasite development, survival and migration
    C L Marley
    Institute of Rural Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3AL, UK
    Vet Parasitol 138:280-90. 2006
    ..These effects may be one of the ways in which these forages may affect parasitic infections in grazing livestock...
  42. ncbi A computer model to simulate control of parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep on UK farms
    J Learmount
    Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, United Kingdom
    Vet Parasitol 142:312-29. 2006
    ..The model will be used to demonstrate the advantage, in terms of delaying resistance development, of current guidelines for anthelmintic use and management practices for worm control in sheep...
  43. ncbi Very low helminth infection in sheep grazed on pastures fertilised by sewage sludge or cattle slurry
    M N Moussavou-Boussougou
    INRA, BASE, 37380 Nouzilly, France
    Vet Parasitol 131:65-70. 2005
    ..and Nematodirus spp. were observed in the slurry group. It was concluded that in our conditions the helminth risk was extremely low and was not a cause of restriction of the use of these biowastes...
  44. ncbi Efficiency of Duddingtonia flagrans against Trichostrongyle infections of sheep on mountain pastures
    C Gomez-Rincón
    Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria de Aragón, Apartado 727, Zaragoza, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 141:84-90. 2006
    ..This novel approach to parasite control would be of interest amongst both organic and conventional sheep farmers operating in mountain regions...
  45. ncbi Investigations on the seasonal patterns of strongyle infections in grazing lambs, and the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in western Anatolia, Turkey
    R Tinar
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle Bursa, Turkey
    Parasitol Res 96:18-23. 2005
    ..There was no hint of benzimidazole resistance, and unequivocal evidence of ivermectin resistance was missing. In contrast, tetramisole resistance was detected on one sheep farm...
  46. ncbi The larval feeding inhibition assay for the diagnosis of nematode anthelmintic resistance
    M A Alvarez-Sánchez
    Department of Patología Animal Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Leon, Campus de Vegazana s n, 24071 Leon, Spain
    Exp Parasitol 110:56-61. 2005
    ..These results suggest that this technique may provide an alternative in vitro to detect anthelmintic resistance...
  47. ncbi Effects of protein supply and reproductive status on local and systemic immune responses to Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep
    J G M Houdijk
    Animal Nutrition and Health Department, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK
    Vet Parasitol 129:105-17. 2005
    ..circumcincta. However, the data support the view that increased globule leukocyte counts and plasma IgE anti-L3 antibody may be associated with nutritionally improved expression of immunity in periparturient ewes...
  48. ncbi The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on infection with the nematodes Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in calves
    K N Muturi
    Department of Agriculture and Forestry, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Hilton Campus, Block M, Hilton Place, Aberdeen AB24 4FA, Scotland, UK
    Vet Parasitol 129:273-83. 2005
    ....
  49. ncbi Real time PCR for the diagnosis of benzimidazole resistance in trichostrongylids of sheep
    M A Alvarez-Sánchez
    Dpt Patología Animal Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Leon, C Profesor Pedro Cármenes s n, 24071 Leon, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 129:291-8. 2005
    ..A sensitive, rapid, highly reproducible and inexpensive technique for detecting resistance to benzimidazoles in a worm population has been developed...
  50. ncbi The effect of grazing forage containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal parasite infection and milk composition in Angora does
    B R Min
    E Kika de la Garza American Institute for Goat Research, P O Box 730, Langston, OK 73050, USA
    Vet Parasitol 130:105-13. 2005
    ..In summary, grazing CT forages reduced FEC, larval development and worm burden, and also appeared to enhance immune response. The CT-containing forage SL reduced gastro-intestinal parasite infections of Angora does and kids...
  51. ncbi Effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage and hay on established populations of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei in lambs
    Felix Heckendorn
    Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH 5070 Frick, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 142:293-300. 2006
    ..For both, hay and silage, an antiparasitic effect could be shown, offering promising perspectives for the use of conserved tanniferous fodder as a complementary control approach against GIN...
  52. ncbi Mathematical models to assess strategies for the control of gastrointestinal roundworms in cattle 2. Validation
    C J Ward
    1, Hill View, Bollington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 5DU, United Kingdom
    Vet Parasitol 138:268-79. 2006
    ....
  53. doi Field evaluation for anthelmintic-resistant ovine gastrointestinal nematodes by in vitro and in vivo assays
    P Díez-Baños
    Department of Animal Pathology, Zoonoses, Epidemiology, and Parasitic Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain
    J Parasitol 94:925-8. 2008
    ..As the use of macrocyclic lactones is increasing in this region, further investigation is needed for detecting resistance to the anthelmintic family compounds by the LFIA...
  54. ncbi Comparative aspects of plasma antioxidant status in sheep and goats, and the influence of experimental abomasal nematode infection
    J H Lightbody
    Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, Scotland, UK
    J Comp Pathol 124:192-9. 2001
    ..The observed differences in plasma antioxidant capacity between sheep and goats may have important implications in terms of the comparative resilience of sheep and goats to parasite infection...
  55. ncbi Failure of moxidectin to control benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant Teladorsagia circumcinda in a sheep flock
    N D Sargison
    Large Animal Practice, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian
    Vet Rec 156:105-9. 2005
    ..Oral dosing with moxidectin was effective in removing adult female burdens of ivermectin-resistant T. circumcincta, but the effect of the drug did not persist against the resistant helminth population...
  56. ncbi Cooperia punctata trickle infections: parasitological parameters and evaluation of a Cooperia recombinant 14.2 kDa protein ELISA for estimating cumulative exposure of calves
    A P Yatsuda
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Division of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P O Box 80165, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vet Parasitol 105:131-8. 2002
    ..Overall, there was a congruent relation between C. punctata antibodies and the cumulative exposure to the three different levels of trickle infections...
  57. ncbi Eosinophilia as a marker of resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta in Scottish Blackface lambs
    M J Stear
    Glasgow University Veterinary School
    Parasitology 124:553-60. 2002
    ..48 +/- 0.16 and 0.43 +/- 0.17, respectively. Therefore, under defined circumstances, eosinophil concentrations may be a useful indicator of resistance to predominantly T. circumcincta infection...
  58. ncbi New molecular evidence that Teladorsagia circumcincta (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidea) is a species complex
    Vincent Leignel
    INRA, Station de Pathologie Aviaire et de Parasitologie, Nouzilly, France
    J Parasitol 88:135-40. 2002
    ..A third putative species was found in the SGL line based exclusively on the ND4 gene. These findings suggest that T. circumcincta is a species complex and that further investigation is required on a wider geographic scale...
  59. ncbi Are Teladorsagia circumcincta (Nematoda) morphs equally able to survive under anthelmintic treatment in sheep on pastures?
    V Leignel
    INRA, Station de Pathologie Aviaire et de Parasitologie, Nouzilly, France
    Parasitol Res 87:687-92. 2001
    ..During the second grazing season, the treatments indirectly depleted the proportions of T. c. trifurcata, probably due to the poor infectivity of this morph...
  60. ncbi Immune expulsion of the trichostrongylid Cooperia oncophora is associated with increased eosinophilia and mucosal IgA
    K Kanobana
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 165, 3508, Utrecht, TD, The Netherlands
    Int J Parasitol 32:1389-98. 2002
    ..Our results describe the involvement of both eosinophils and mucosal IgA in the regulation of C. oncophora expulsion and suggest the development of a Th2 effector immune response...
  61. ncbi Evaluation of gastro-intestinal nematode parasite control strategies for first-season grazing cattle in Sweden
    Sten Olof Dimander
    Department of Parasitology SWEPAR, National Veterinary Institute and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 751 89 Uppsala, Sweden
    Vet Parasitol 111:193-209. 2003
    ..In addition, the study has shown that adequate parasite control may be achievable without the use of anthelmintics...
  62. ncbi The effect of treatment with a 1% injectable formulation of moxidectin during the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season on gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle from communal areas in Zimbabwe
    D Z Moyo
    Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Trop Anim Health Prod 35:1-16. 2003
    ..Anthelmintic treatment conferred significant weight gain advantages (p < 0.05) on treated calves. weaners and cows. The weight gains are discussed in relation to disease and nutrition...
  63. ncbi Benzimidazole-resistant beta-tubulin alleles in a population of parasitic nematodes (Cooperia oncophora) of cattle
    C A Winterrowd
    Pfizer Animal Health, 7000 Portage Road, Kalamazoo, MI 49001, USA
    Vet Parasitol 117:161-72. 2003
    ..This method could find utility in studying the molecular epidemiology of BZ resistance in cattle parasites and for defining the variables that limit the development and spread of anthelmintic resistance in this host...
  64. ncbi Anthelmintic resistance in Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep in the UK
    Dave Wilson
    Vet Rec 161:535-6. 2007
  65. ncbi Experimental infection of Black Belly and INRA 401 straight and crossbred sheep with trichostrongyle nematode parasites
    L Gruner
    INRA, BioAgresseurs, Santé et Environnement, 37380 Nouzilly, France
    Vet Parasitol 116:239-49. 2003
    ..contortus, with the F1 lambs being more like the BBs after the second dose. This difference was also found for T. colubriformis and, to a lesser extent, for T. circumcincta...
  66. ncbi The nature and prospects for gut membrane proteins as vaccine candidates for Haemonchus contortus and other ruminant trichostrongyloids
    David P Knox
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Scotland, EH 26 0PZ, Midlothian, UK
    Int J Parasitol 33:1129-37. 2003
    ..Gene knockout technologies such as RNA interference have the potential to provide high throughput, rapid and inexpensive methods to define whether the protein product of a particular gene would be a suitable vaccine candidate...
  67. doi Characterization of Dictyocaulus species (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from three species of wild ruminants in northwestern Spain
    Ramon A Carreno
    Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 43015, USA
    J Parasitol 95:966-70. 2009
    ..in R. rupicapra. These results showed that the LSU rDNA gene sequences are useful indicators of genetic and species diversity in species of Dictyocaulus...
  68. ncbi Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity
    L R Warner
    Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 28:839-46. 1998
    ..This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the ..
  69. ncbi Dictyocaulus capreolus n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from roe deer, Capreolus capreolus and moose, Alces alces in Sweden
    L M Gibbons
    Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts, AL9 7TA, UK
    J Helminthol 76:119-25. 2002
    ..eckerti and D. viviparus using either a PCR-linked hybridization assay or image analysis software to study the dimensions of the buccal capsule...
  70. doi Determinants of the prevalence of Heligmosomum costellatum (Heligmosomidae: Trichostrongyloidea) in a common vole population in southern Moravia, Czech Republic
    E Janova
    Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Kvetna 9, Brno, Czech Republic
    J Helminthol 84:410-4. 2010
    ..However, the H. costellatum prevalence study in a single common vole population was not sufficient to fully describe and explain the nematode-host interactions...
  71. ncbi Interaction between the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans and infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea)
    A K Campos
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Caixa Postal 486, Belo Horizonte, CEP 31270 901 Minas Gerais, Brazil
    J Helminthol 82:337-41. 2008
    ..Bacteria were also found at some points of interaction between fungus and larval cuticle. Cuticle penetration by fungus hyphae occurred only 48 h after predation...
  72. doi Imidazole initiates exsheathing of L3 Teladorsagia circumcincta
    Simon Brown
    School of Human Life Sciences, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1320, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia
    J Parasitol 99:332-6. 2013
    ..The initial rate of exsheathing initiation was stimulated by lactose and maltose, but not by some other carbohydrates, and by propylamine and imidazole acetic acid, but not by histidine...
  73. ncbi Life cycle of Trichostrongylus retortaeformis in its natural host, the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
    F Audebert
    Laboratoire de Biologie Parasitaire, Protistologie et Helminthologie, CNRS FR 63, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 61 rue de Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Helminthol 76:189-92. 2002
    The chronology of the life cycle of Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800) (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea) is studied in its natural host Oryctolagus cuniculus. The free living period lasted 5 days at 24 degrees C...
  74. doi Lysine catabolism in Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta
    S Umair
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Exp Parasitol 131:101-6. 2012
    ..This novel property of LKR/SDH suggests it could be a good candidate for anthelmintic targeting...
  75. doi Sarcosine metabolism in Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta
    S Umair
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Exp Parasitol 134:1-6. 2013
    ..contortus. Activity was inhibited by up to 70% by Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+). Possessing creatinase would allow host creatine to be incorporated into amino acids by the parasites...
  76. doi Arginine metabolism in the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta
    S Umair
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Exp Parasitol 127:506-14. 2011
    ..circumcincta. The flexibility of synthesis of putrescine in H. contortus may make this pathway less useful as a target for parasite control than in T. circumcincta, in which only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway was detected...
  77. ncbi [Case report: Libyostrongylus douglassii-associated proventriculitis in ostriches in Germany]
    C Schulze
    Landeslabor Brandenburg, Frankfurt Oder
    Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 113:240-2. 2006
    ..A massive invasion of the proventricular mucosa with L. douglassi was macroscopically and histologically detected at necropsy of the anemic birds...
  78. ncbi Failure of Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in dairy ewes
    H Faessler
    Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 147:96-102. 2007
    ..The discrepancy observed between the fungus efficacy in coprocultures and on pasture, which was also observed in several other studies deserves further research...
  79. doi Redescriptions of the nematodes Litomosoides patersoni (Mazza, 1928) (Onchocercidae) and Stilestrongylus stilesi Freitas, Lent, and Almeida, 1937 (Heligmonellidae) parasites of Holochilus chacarius (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from Salta, Argentina
    Juliana Notarnicola
    Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores CEPAVE CCT La Plata CONICET, Calle 2 584 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    J Parasitol 96:993-1001. 2010
    ..The present work validates and enlarges the original descriptions of both species and assigns the specimens from L. patersoni, recovered from the type locality and the type host species, as neotypes...
  80. ncbi Evaluation of broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity in a novel assay against Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and T. sigmodontis in the gerbil Meriones unguiculatus
    D A Ostlind
    J Helminthol 80:393-6. 2006
    ..All compounds were active against the caecal nematode T. sigmodontis although it was less sensitive than T. colubriformis. Haemonchus contortus was more sensitive than T. sigmodontis to all anthelmintics tested except thiabendazole...
  81. doi A suite of genes expressed during transition to parasitic lifestyle in the trichostrongylid nematode Haemonchus contortus encode potentially secreted proteins conserved in Teladorsagia circumcincta
    Alexia Delannoy-Normand
    French National Institute for Agricultural Research INRA, UR1282 Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, F 37380 Nouzilly, France
    Vet Parasitol 174:106-14. 2010
    ..circumcincta was performed in order to investigate whether they may be novel cross-specific targets...
  82. doi Altered avr-14B gene transcription patterns in ivermectin-resistant isolates of the cattle parasites, Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi
    A El-Abdellati
    Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Int J Parasitol 41:951-7. 2011
    ..ostertagi worms showed significantly lower levels in resistant worms compared with susceptible ones. Whether the down-regulation of this IVM target actually contributes to the resistance mechanism in these worms remains unclear...
  83. doi Glutamate synthase, but not GABA shunt enzymes, contributes to nitrogen metabolism of the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta
    S Umair
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
    Exp Parasitol 127:9-13. 2011
    ..C. 4.1.1.15) or succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.24), the first and third enzymes of the GABA shunt, respectively, suggesting that the GABA shunt is not important in general metabolism in these species...
  84. doi Emended description and redetermination of Sarwaria caballeroi n. comb. (nematoda: Ostertagiinae) with details of the synlophe and esophageal characters
    Eric P Hoberg
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States National Parasite Collection and Animal Parasitic Disease Laboratory, BARC East 1180, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 93:1140-50. 2007
    ....
  85. ncbi Do lagomorphs play a relay role in the evolution of the Trichostrongyuna nematodes?
    F Audebert
    Departement Systematique et Evolution, Museum national d histoire naturelle, UMR 7138 associee au CNRS, BP 52, 61, rue Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Parasite 14:183-97. 2007
    ..These data confirm, in their entirety, that lagomorphs may be considered as "relay" hosts in the evolution of the Trichostrongylina...
  86. doi Phosphorus kinetics in calves experimentally submitted to a trickle infection with Cooperia punctata
    H Louvandini
    Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, Distrito Federal, CP 04508, 70910 900, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 163:47-51. 2009
    ..The trickle infection of C. punctata affected P metabolism due to the decrease in P retained and live weight due to fall in feed intake...
  87. doi daf-7-related TGF-beta homologues from Trichostrongyloid nematodes show contrasting life-cycle expression patterns
    H J McSorley
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, and Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland
    Parasitology 137:159-71. 2010
    ..The molecular evolution of this gene family in parasitic nematodes has diversified the pre-protein and life-cycle expression patterns of TGF-beta homologues while conserving the structure of the active domain...
  88. ncbi Prevalence of lungworm infection in sheep and cattle in the Kirikkale province
    Kader Yildiz
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kirikkale University, Turkey
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 30:190-3. 2006
    ..It may be related to different humidity and temperature requirements for the development of free living larvae of the two Dictyocaulus species...
  89. ncbi Synlophe structure in Pseudomarshallagia elongata (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea), abomasal parasites among Ethiopian ungulates, with consideration of other morphological attributes and differentiation within the Ostertagiinae
    Eric P Hoberg
    US National Parasite Collection and Animal Parasitic Disease Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    J Parasitol 96:401-11. 2010
    ..Although this is particularly important in regions that remain poorly known, such as Africa, the principle certainly applies more broadly...
  90. ncbi Kinetics of the local immune response in the gastric lymph of lambs after primary and challenge infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta
    A M Halliday
    Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, UK
    Parasite Immunol 32:81-90. 2010
    ..The fact that 40% fewer larvae were given during the trickle infection regime in the four recent trials is offered as an explanation for this difference...
  91. ncbi Genetic variation among lambs in peripheral IgE activity against the larval stages of Teladorsagia circumcincta
    L Murphy
    Glasgow University Veterinary School, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
    Parasitology 137:1249-60. 2010
    ..Tropomyosin was selected for further analysis. IgE activity against tropomyosin was moderately heritable and associated with decreased egg counts and with reduced body weight at the time of sampling...
  92. doi Monitoring macrocyclic lactone resistance in Cooperia oncophora on a Belgian cattle farm during four consecutive years
    A El-Abdellati
    Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 171:167-71. 2010
    ..However, the test should be further optimized, e.g. more isolates with different susceptibility to ivermectin and mixtures of species, in order to use the test in field conditions...
  93. ncbi The influence of temperature on the development, hatching and survival of Nematodirus battus larvae
    J Van Dijk
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK
    Parasitology 135:269-83. 2008
    Although Nematodirus battus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) is an economically important and highly pathogenic parasite of sheep in the temperate regions, very little is known about the population dynamics of its free-living stages and ..
  94. ncbi Gastrointestinal nematode infections of first-season grazing calves in Belgium: general patterns and the effect of chemoprophylaxis
    D J Shaw
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gent, Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vet Parasitol 69:103-16. 1997
    ..e. metaphylaxis) if required...
  95. ncbi Effect of benzimidazole under-dosing on the resistant allele frequency in Teladorsagia circumcincta (Nematoda)
    A Silvestre
    INRA, Station de Pathologie Aviaire et de Parasitologie, Nouzilly, France
    Parasitology 123:103-11. 2001
    ..When the RS genotype had no selective advantage over the SS genotype, genetic drift almost always led to the loss of the R allele, except in the largest populations (average size = 2000 worms)...
  96. ncbi [Libyostrongylus douglassii in ostriches (Struthio camelus ssp.) in the Netherlands: case report and review]
    W J Landman
    Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren, Afdeling Pluimveegezondheidszorg, Postbus 9, 7400 AA Deventer
    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 126:484-7. 2001
    ..This article describes mortality due to this parasite on an ostrich farm and discusses relevant literature on L. douglassii...
  97. ncbi Inactivation of eggs and larvae of the cattle nematodes Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora after passage in pigs
    N R Steenhard
    The Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, 100 Dyrlaegevej, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Vet Parasitol 101:137-42. 2001
    ..It may imply that pigs can play an important role in reducing transmission of cattle nematodes if the two species are grazed together or alternately...
  98. ncbi Characterization of host responder types after a single Cooperia oncophora infection: kinetics of the systemic immune response
    K Kanobana
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Division of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Parasite Immunol 23:641-53. 2001
    ..A quantitative positive relationship between worm counts and total serum IgE levels was observed. Based on the observed correlations, we propose a role for the humoral response against the maintenance of the infection in the gut...
  99. ncbi Variation among Merino sheep in susceptibilty to lice (Bovicola ovis) and association with susceptibility to trichostrongylid gastrointestinal parasites
    P J James
    South Australian Research and Development Institute, 33 Flemington Street, Glenside, SA 5065, Australia
    Vet Parasitol 103:355-65. 2002
    ..Whether this is due to interaction of the effects of the parasites or to correlation in underlying resistance mechanisms requires clarification...
  100. ncbi Winter survival in Sweden of L(3)-stage larvae of the ostrich wireworm Libyostrongylus douglassii
    Desiree S Jansson
    Department of Poultry, National Veterinary Institute, SE75189 Uppsala, Sweden
    Vet Parasitol 106:69-74. 2002
    ..1 degrees C, and the air temperature varied between -19.6 and +14.9 degrees C. It was concluded that L(3)-stage larvae of L. douglassii probably have the ability to remain viable on pastures during winter in Sweden...
  101. ncbi Resistance to macrocyclic lactones in nematodes of goats
    P I Veale
    Para Site Diagnostic Services, Benalla, Victoria
    Aust Vet J 80:303-4. 2002

Research Grants2

  1. Hierarchical models for the spatio-temporal dynamics in*
    Gary Smith; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In the case of Avian Influenza especially, controlling the infection in birds is a pre-emptive strategy for control in people. ..
  2. Hierarchical models for the spatio-temporal dynamics in*
    Gary Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the case of Avian Influenza especially, controlling the infection in birds is a pre-emptive strategy for control in people. ..