Summary: Insects are a class, Insecta, of Arthropoda whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth, several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. They have lived on earth for about 350 million years, as compared with less than 2 million for man. While insects are often commercially valuable and useful as scavengers, many species are harmful, causing enormous losses in agriculture and storage. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and Siphonaptera; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in man and animal. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Mechanisms of dsRNA uptake in insects and potential of RNAi for pest control: a review
    Hanneke Huvenne
    Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    J Insect Physiol 56:227-35. 2010
  2. ncbi Odorant reception in insects: roles of receptors, binding proteins, and degrading enzymes
    Walter S Leal
    Honorary Maeda Duffey Laboratory, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 58:373-91. 2013
  3. ncbi Plant immunity to insect herbivores
    Gregg A Howe
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:41-66. 2008
  4. ncbi The gut bacteria of insects: nonpathogenic interactions
    R J Dillon
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Entomol 49:71-92. 2004
  5. ncbi Accelerated species inventory on Madagascar using coalescent-based models of species delineation
    Michael T Monaghan
    Entomology Department, Natural History Museum, London, UK
    Syst Biol 58:298-311. 2009
  6. ncbi Signal signature and transcriptome changes of Arabidopsis during pathogen and insect attack
    Martin De Vos
    Graduate School Experimental Plant Sciences, Section Phytopathology, Department of Biology, Utrecht Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P O Box 800 84, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:923-37. 2005
  7. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides in insects; structure and function
    P Bulet
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche du CNRS 9022, Strasbourg, France
    Dev Comp Immunol 23:329-44. 1999
  8. ncbi Advances in insect phylogeny at the dawn of the postgenomic era
    Michelle D Trautwein
    Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 57:449-68. 2012
  9. pmc Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses
    Linlin Li
    Blood Systems Research Institute 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Virol 84:6955-65. 2010
  10. ncbi Host plant quality and fecundity in herbivorous insects
    Caroline S Awmack
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 237 Russell Labs, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 47:817-44. 2002

Detail Information

Publications331 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Mechanisms of dsRNA uptake in insects and potential of RNAi for pest control: a review
    Hanneke Huvenne
    Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    J Insect Physiol 56:227-35. 2010
    RNA interference already proved its usefulness in functional genomic research on insects, but it also has considerable potential for the control of pest insects...
  2. ncbi Odorant reception in insects: roles of receptors, binding proteins, and degrading enzymes
    Walter S Leal
    Honorary Maeda Duffey Laboratory, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 58:373-91. 2013
    Our knowledge of the molecular basis of odorant reception in insects has grown exponentially over the past decade...
  3. ncbi Plant immunity to insect herbivores
    Gregg A Howe
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:41-66. 2008
    Herbivorous insects use diverse feeding strategies to obtain nutrients from their host plants...
  4. ncbi The gut bacteria of insects: nonpathogenic interactions
    R J Dillon
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Entomol 49:71-92. 2004
    ..particularly with termites and cockroaches, have focused on the nutritional contributions of gut bacteria in insects living on suboptimal diets...
  5. ncbi Accelerated species inventory on Madagascar using coalescent-based models of species delineation
    Michael T Monaghan
    Entomology Department, Natural History Museum, London, UK
    Syst Biol 58:298-311. 2009
    ..Applied here to 12 families from 4 orders of insects in Madagascar, we used the model to delineate 370 putative species from mitochondrial DNA sequence variation ..
  6. ncbi Signal signature and transcriptome changes of Arabidopsis during pathogen and insect attack
    Martin De Vos
    Graduate School Experimental Plant Sciences, Section Phytopathology, Department of Biology, Utrecht Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P O Box 800 84, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:923-37. 2005
    Plant defenses against pathogens and insects are regulated differentially by cross-communicating signaling pathways in which salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) play key roles...
  7. ncbi Antimicrobial peptides in insects; structure and function
    P Bulet
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Unité Propre de Recherche du CNRS 9022, Strasbourg, France
    Dev Comp Immunol 23:329-44. 1999
    ..During the past 15 years a multitude of these peptides have been isolated largely from insects. In spite of great differences in size, amino acid composition and structure, most of the antimicrobial peptides ..
  8. ncbi Advances in insect phylogeny at the dawn of the postgenomic era
    Michelle D Trautwein
    Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 57:449-68. 2012
    Most species on Earth are insects and thus, understanding their evolutionary relationships is key to understanding the evolution of life...
  9. pmc Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses
    Linlin Li
    Blood Systems Research Institute 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Virol 84:6955-65. 2010
    ..and Texas, respectively, were related to eukaryotic viruses, and the largest proportion of those infect insects, reflecting the diet of these insectivorous bats, including members of the viral families Dicistroviridae, ..
  10. ncbi Host plant quality and fecundity in herbivorous insects
    Caroline S Awmack
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 237 Russell Labs, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 47:817-44. 2002
    Host plant quality is a key determinant of the fecundity of herbivorous insects. Components of host plant quality (such as carbon, nitrogen, and defensive metabolites) directly affect potential and achieved herbivore fecundity...
  11. ncbi Insect olfactory receptors are heteromeric ligand-gated ion channels
    Koji Sato
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277 8562, Japan
    Nature 452:1002-6. 2008
    In insects, each olfactory sensory neuron expresses between one and three ligand-binding members of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene family, along with the highly conserved and broadly expressed Or83b co-receptor...
  12. ncbi Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases
    Hans Merzendorfer
    Department of Biology Chemistry, University of Osnabruck, 49069 Osnabruck, Germany
    J Exp Biol 206:4393-412. 2003
    ..It is mainly produced by fungi, arthropods and nematodes. In insects, it functions as scaffold material, supporting the cuticles of the epidermis and trachea as well as the ..
  13. ncbi Heterogeneous genomic differentiation between walking-stick ecotypes: "isolation by adaptation" and multiple roles for divergent selection
    Patrik Nosil
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Evolution 62:316-36. 2008
    ..cristinae walking-sticks with existing data on adaptive phenotypic divergence and ecological speciation in these insects. We found that about 8% of loci are outliers in multiple population comparisons...
  14. ncbi Revisiting the insect mitochondrial molecular clock: the mid-Aegean trench calibration
    Anna Papadopoulou
    Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 27:1659-72. 2010
    Phylogenetic trees in insects are frequently dated by applying a "standard" mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clock estimated at 2.3% My(-1), but despite its wide use reliable calibration points have been lacking...
  15. ncbi Methods for marking insects: current techniques and future prospects
    J R Hagler
    United States Department of Agriculture, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Arizona 85040, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 46:511-43. 2001
    Tracking the movement of insects in their natural habitat is essential for understanding their basic biology, demography, and ethology...
  16. ncbi New insights into plant responses to the attack from insect herbivores
    Jianqiang Wu
    Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans Knöll Straße 8, 07745 Jena, Germany
    Annu Rev Genet 44:1-24. 2010
    ..When plants perceive herbivore-derived physical and chemical cues, such as elicitors in insects' oral secretions and compounds in oviposition fluids, plants dramatically reshape their transcriptomes, proteomes,..
  17. pmc Common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects
    Barbora Konopova
    Biology Center, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    PLoS ONE 6:e28728. 2011
    ..In holometabolous insects, JH acts through its putative receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) to regulate Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-..
  18. ncbi The gut microbiota of insects - diversity in structure and function
    Philipp Engel
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8106, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 37:699-735. 2013
    ..b>Insects display a wide range in degree of dependence on gut bacteria for basic functions...
  19. ncbi RNAi-mediated crop protection against insects
    Daniel R G Price
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Trends Biotechnol 26:393-400. 2008
    ..of the expression of specific genes through RNA interference (RNAi), has been widely used for genetic research in insects. The method has relied on the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is not possible for practical ..
  20. ncbi Use of a new adhesive film for the preparation of multi-purpose fresh-frozen sections from hard tissues, whole-animals, insects and plants
    Tadafumi Kawamoto
    Radioisotope Research Institute, Tsurumi University, School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, Japan
    Arch Histol Cytol 66:123-43. 2003
    ..This method is also useful for preparing frozen sections from samples of fish, insects, and plants...
  21. pmc Aquatic insects as a vector for Mycobacterium ulcerans
    Laurent Marsollier
    Laboratoire de bactériologie virologie hygiène, CHU, 49033 Angers, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:4623-8. 2002
    ..ulcerans to water, the mode of transmission of this organism remains elusive. To determine the role of aquatic insects in the transmission of M...
  22. ncbi The Strepsiptera problem: phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology
    M F Whiting
    Department of Zoology and M L Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA
    Syst Biol 46:1-68. 1997
  23. ncbi Evolutionary ecology of insect immune defenses
    Paul Schmid-Hempel
    Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zurich, ETH Zentrum NW, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Annu Rev Entomol 50:529-51. 2005
    ..In addition, the field is now rapidly becoming revolutionized by molecular data and methods that allow unprecedented access to study evolution in action...
  24. ncbi The evolution of color vision in insects
    A D Briscoe
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 46:471-510. 2001
    ..that the basic bauplan, UV-blue-green-trichromacy, appears to date back to the Devonian ancestor of all pterygote insects. There are variations on this theme, however...
  25. ncbi Olfactory signalling in vertebrates and insects: differences and commonalities
    U Benjamin Kaupp
    Center of Advanced European Studies and Research, Ludwig Erhard Allee 2, Bonn, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:188-200. 2010
    Vertebrates and insects have evolved complex repertoires of chemosensory receptors to detect and distinguish odours...
  26. ncbi The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision
    D Peitsch
    , , FRG
    J Comp Physiol A 170:23-40. 1992
    ..Four of the hymenopteran insects tested contain an additional R-receptor with maximal sensitivity around 600 nm...
  27. pmc The first mitochondrial genome for the fishfly subfamily Chauliodinae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Megaloptera
    Yuyu Wang
    Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e47302. 2012
    ..The divergence time estimation suggests that stem lineage of Neuropterida and Coleoptera separated in the Early Permian. The interordinal divergence within Neuropterida might have occurred in the Late Permian...
  28. ncbi Genomic and morphological evidence converge to resolve the enigma of Strepsiptera
    Oliver Niehuis
    Center for Molecular Biodiversity Research, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, 53113 Bonn, Germany
    Curr Biol 22:1309-13. 2012
    The phylogeny of insects, one of the most spectacular radiations of life on earth, has received considerable attention...
  29. ncbi Metarhizium spp., cosmopolitan insect-pathogenic fungi: mycological aspects
    Donald W Roberts
    Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 5305, USA
    Adv Appl Microbiol 54:1-70. 2004
  30. pmc Living with genome instability: the adaptation of phytoplasmas to diverse environments of their insect and plant hosts
    Xiaodong Bai
    Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, 44691, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:3682-96. 2006
    ..cause disease in hundreds of economically important plants and are obligately transmitted by sap-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera, mainly leafhoppers and psyllids...
  31. ncbi Comparison of smooth and hairy attachment pads in insects: friction, adhesion and mechanisms for direction-dependence
    James M R Bullock
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Exp Biol 211:3333-43. 2008
    ..In the fibrillar pads, anisotropy additionally arises from the direction-dependence of individual setae...
  32. ncbi Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance
    Bruce E Tabashnik
    Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 29:1128-31. 2011
    ..Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains...
  33. ncbi Genomic organization of the glutathione S-transferase family in insects
    Robert Friedman
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, 715 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 61:924-32. 2011
    Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large and diverse gene family in insects. They are classified into six major subclasses...
  34. ncbi Pancrustacean phylogeny in the light of new phylogenomic data: support for Remipedia as the possible sister group of Hexapoda
    Bjoern M von Reumont
    Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Zentrum für molekulare Biodiversitätsforschung, Bonn, Germany
    Mol Biol Evol 29:1031-45. 2012
    ..We also show that selecting data subsets with increased overall signal can help to identify and prevent artifacts in phylogenetic analyses...
  35. ncbi Insects as alternative hosts for phytopathogenic bacteria
    Geetanchaly Nadarasah
    Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:555-75. 2011
    ..disease, but their intimate associations with plants also predispose them to frequent encounters with herbivorous insects, providing these phytopathogens with ample opportunity to colonize and eventually evolve alternative associations ..
  36. pmc What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny
    Gerard Talavera
    Institut de Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF, PG, Marítim de la Barceloneta 37, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    BMC Evol Biol 11:315. 2011
    ..Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes...
  37. ncbi Perception of plant volatile blends by herbivorous insects--finding the right mix
    Toby J A Bruce
    Rothamsted Research, Biological Chemistry Department, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL52JQ, United Kingdom
    Phytochemistry 72:1605-11. 2011
    Volatile plant secondary metabolites are detected by the highly sensitive olfactory system employed by insects to locate suitable plants as hosts and to avoid unsuitable hosts...
  38. ncbi Plant lectins as defense proteins against phytophagous insects
    Gianni Vandenborre
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Glycobiology, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Phytochemistry 72:1538-50. 2011
    One of the most important direct defense responses in plants against the attack by phytophagous insects is the production of insecticidal peptides or proteins...
  39. ncbi Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature
    A Kessler
    Department of Molecular Ecology, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena 07745, Germany
    Science 291:2141-4. 2001
    ..As a consequence, a plant could reduce the number of herbivores by more than 90% by releasing volatiles. These results confirm that indirect defenses can operate in nature...
  40. pmc Common sense about taste: from mammals to insects
    David A Yarmolinsky
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Cell 139:234-44. 2009
    ..Despite the fact that vertebrates and insects have independently evolved distinct anatomic and molecular pathways for taste sensation, there are clear ..
  41. pmc Major signaling pathways modulate Arabidopsis glucosinolate accumulation and response to both phloem-feeding and chewing insects
    Inga Mewis
    Department of Entomology, Chemical Ecology Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Plant Physiol 138:1149-62. 2005
    ..major signaling pathways modulate Arabidopsis GS accumulation and response to both phloem-feeding and chewing insects, often antagonistically; NPR appears to be central to these interactions...
  42. ncbi The evolutionary ecology of insect resistance to plant chemicals
    Laurence Despres
    Laboratoire d Ecologie Alpine, LECA UMR CNRS 5553, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53 38041, Grenoble Cedex 09, France
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:298-307. 2007
    ..To what extent do the resistance mechanisms evolved by insects to deal with the chemical defences of plants differ from those that have evolved to resist insecticides? Here, we ..
  43. ncbi Body size variation in insects: a macroecological perspective
    Steven L Chown
    Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 85:139-69. 2010
    ..This review provides a critical and synthetic overview of body size variation in insects from a predominantly macroecological (large-scale temporal and spatial) perspective...
  44. ncbi Ecological role of volatiles produced by plants in response to damage by herbivorous insects
    J Daniel Hare
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 56:161-80. 2011
    Plants often release a blend of volatile organic compounds in response to damage by herbivorous insects that may serve as cues to locate those herbivores by natural enemies...
  45. pmc A unique virulence factor for proliferation and dwarfism in plants identified from a phytopathogenic bacterium
    Ayaka Hoshi
    Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6416-21. 2009
    ..These results suggest that TENGU inhibits auxin-related pathways, thereby affecting plant development...
  46. ncbi Exploiting the potential of insects for in vivo pathogenicity testing of microbial pathogens
    Kevin Kavanagh
    Medical Mycology Unit, Department of Biology, National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co Kildare, Ireland
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 28:101-12. 2004
    ..A number of workers have demonstrated that insects can be used for evaluating microbial pathogenicity and provide results comparable to those that can be obtained ..
  47. pmc Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance
    Ke Dong
    Department of Entomology, Genetics Program and Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Invert Neurosci 7:17-30. 2007
    ..on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides.
  48. pmc Unveiling the biosynthetic puzzle of destruxins in Metarhizium species
    Bing Wang
    Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, People s Republic of China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1287-92. 2012
    ..that dtxs could suppress both cellular and humoral immune responses thereby assisting fungal propagation in insects. The differing abilities of Metarhizium species to produce toxins is dependent on the presence of the dtxS1 gene...
  49. ncbi Biogeography of the yeasts of ephemeral flowers and their insects
    M A Lachance
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
    FEMS Yeast Res 1:1-8. 2001
    ..Distinct but sympatric insects may also carry radically different yeast communities.
  50. ncbi Navigational strategies used by insects to find distant, wind-borne sources of odor
    Ring T Cardé
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    J Chem Ecol 34:854-66. 2008
    b>Insects locate many resources important to survival by tracking along wind-borne odor plumes to their source...
  51. pmc Comparative performances of DNA barcoding across insect orders
    Massimiliano Virgilio
    Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:206. 2010
  52. ncbi Odorant-binding proteins in insects
    Jing Jiang Zhou
    Centre for Sustainable Pest and Disease Management, Insect Molecular Biology Group, Biological Chemistry Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK
    Vitam Horm 83:241-72. 2010
    Our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects has been greatly improved after the discovery of olfactory and taste receptor proteins...
  53. ncbi DNA methylation in insects: on the brink of the epigenomic era
    K M Glastad
    School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
    Insect Mol Biol 20:553-65. 2011
    ..the evolution and function of DNA methylation has only recently emerged as the subject of widespread study in insects. In this review we profile the known distribution of DNA methylation systems across insect taxa and synthesize ..
  54. pmc Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States
    Juliann E Aukema
    The National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24587. 2011
    ..provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United States but estimates of broad-scale ..
  55. ncbi MicroRNA functions in insects
    Sassan Asgari
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 43:388-97. 2013
    ..Here, I review what is currently known about miRNA functions in insects to provide an insight into their diverse roles in insect biology.
  56. ncbi Complete mitochondrial genomes of two green lacewings, Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto, 1914) and Apochrysa matsumurae Okamoto, 1912 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
    Naoto Haruyama
    Laboratory of Applied Entomology, Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271 8510, Japan
    Mol Biol Rep 38:3367-73. 2011
    ..A high A + T content (78.89 and 79.02%, respectively), A + T-rich codon bias, and a mismatch between the most-used codon and its corresponding tRNA anticodon were observed as a typical feature of the insect mitochondrial genome...
  57. ncbi Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects
    Saskia A Hogenhout
    Department of Disease and Stress Biology, The John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Colney, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UH, UK
    Mol Plant Pathol 9:403-23. 2008
    ..Superkingdom Prokaryota; Kingdom Monera; Domain Bacteria; Phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C, Gram-positive eubacteria); Class Mollicutes; Candidatus (Ca.) genus Phytoplasma...
  58. ncbi Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects
    Hervé Jactel
    INRA, UMR1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Laboratory of Forest Entomology and Biodiversity, Cestas Cedex, France
    Ecol Lett 10:835-48. 2007
    ..showed a significant reduction of herbivory in more diverse forests but this varied with the host specificity of insects. In diverse forests, herbivory by oligophagous species was virtually always reduced, whereas the response of ..
  59. ncbi Insects as chemosensors of humans and crops
    Wynand Van der Goes van Naters
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, PO Box 208103, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8103, USA
    Nature 444:302-7. 2006
    b>Insects transmit disease to hundreds of millions of people a year, and cause enormous losses to the world's agricultural output...
  60. ncbi Evaluating the life-history trade-off between dispersal capability and reproduction in wing dimorphic insects: a meta-analysis
    Patrick A Guerra
    Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 86:813-35. 2011
    A life-history trade-off exists between flight capability and reproduction in many wing dimorphic insects: a long-winged morph is flight-capable at the expense of reproduction, while a short-winged morph cannot fly, is less mobile, but ..
  61. ncbi Functional conservation of an insect odorant receptor gene across 250 million years of evolution
    Walton D Jones
    Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Curr Biol 15:R119-21. 2005
    Pest insects have a profound negative impact on agriculture and human health. Significant global losses of crops, stored agricultural products, timber and livestock can be attributed to damage and destruction by insects ...
  62. ncbi Host-plant adaptation drives the parallel evolution of reproductive isolation
    Patrik Nosil
    Department of Biosciences, Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada, V5A 1S6
    Nature 417:440-3. 2002
    ..Our findings represent a clear demonstration that host-plant adaptation can play a crucial and repeatable role in the early stages of speciation...
  63. ncbi Southern hemisphere biogeography inferred by event-based models: plant versus animal patterns
    Isabel Sanmartín
    Department of Systematic Zoology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Norbyvagen 18D, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Syst Biol 53:216-43. 2004
    ..Our results also confirm the hybrid origin of the South American biota: there has been surprisingly little biotic exchange between the northern tropical and the southern temperate regions of South America, especially for animals...
  64. ncbi A Beauveria phylogeny inferred from nuclear ITS and EF1-alpha sequences: evidence for cryptic diversification and links to Cordyceps teleomorphs
    Stephen A Rehner
    Insect Biocontrol Laboratory, USDA ARS, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Mycologia 97:84-98. 2005
    ..hyphomycetes of interest as a model system for the study of entomopathogenesis and the biological control of pest insects. Species recognition in Beauveria is difficult due to a lack of taxonomically informative morphology...
  65. pmc Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects
    Ya Long Xu
    Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Diseases and Pest Insects, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210095, PR China
    BMC Genomics 10:632. 2009
    ..binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task...
  66. ncbi The mevalonate pathway and the synthesis of juvenile hormone in insects
    Xavier Belles
    Department of Physiology and Molecular Biodiversity, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    Annu Rev Entomol 50:181-99. 2005
    The mevalonate pathway in insects has two important peculiarities, the absence of the sterol branch and the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH), that may have influenced the mechanisms of regulation...
  67. pmc The mitochondrial genome of the ascalaphid owlfly Libelloides macaronius and comparative evolutionary mitochondriomics of neuropterid insects
    Enrico Negrisolo
    Department of Public Health, Comparative Pathology and Veterinary Hygiene, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell Universita 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
    BMC Genomics 12:221. 2011
    ..These analyses are further extended to other endopterygotan orders...
  68. pmc The multipartite mitochondrial genome of Liposcelis bostrychophila: insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes in bilateral animals
    Dan Dan Wei
    Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e33973. 2012
    ..Within parasitic lice, however, the suborder Ischnocera is paraphyletic; this differs from the traditional view that each suborder of parasitic lice is monophyletic...
  69. ncbi Parallel olfactory systems in insects: anatomy and function
    C Giovanni Galizia
    University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    Annu Rev Entomol 55:399-420. 2010
    A striking commonality across insects and vertebrates is the recurring presence of parallel olfactory subsystems, suggesting that such an organization has a highly adaptive value...
  70. ncbi Insect cuticular sclerotization: a review
    Svend Olav Andersen
    The Collstrop Foundation, The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, H C Andersens Boulevard 35, DK 1553 Copenhagen V, Denmark
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 40:166-78. 2010
    ..However, many important questions still remain unanswered, especially regarding the precise regional and temporal regulation of the various steps in the process...
  71. ncbi Molecular evolution of the major chemosensory gene families in insects
    A Sanchez-Gracia
    Institut de Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF, Barcelona, Spain
    Heredity (Edinb) 103:208-16. 2009
    Chemoreception is a crucial biological process that is essential for the survival of animals. In insects, olfaction allows the organism to recognise volatile cues that allow the detection of food, predators and mates, whereas the sense ..
  72. pmc Function and evolution of sex determination mechanisms, genes and pathways in insects
    Tanja Gempe
    Department of Genetics, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstrasse 1, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Bioessays 33:52-60. 2011
    ..Studies of sex determination genes--their history and function--in non-model insects and Drosophila have allowed us to begin to understand the generation of sex determination diversity...
  73. pmc Acetic acid bacteria, newly emerging symbionts of insects
    Elena Crotti
    Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche DISTAM, Universita degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6963-70. 2010
    ..microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, ..
  74. ncbi Comparative biochemistry of eumelanogenesis and the protective roles of phenoloxidase and melanin in insects
    Manickam Sugumaran
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA
    Pigment Cell Res 15:2-9. 2002
    ..Invertebrates, such as insects, employ phenoloxidase and dopachrome (decarboxylating) isomerase for melanin biosynthesis...
  75. ncbi Immune reactions of insects on bacterial pathogens and mutualists
    Heike Feldhaar
    Lehrstuhl für Soziobiologie und Verhaltensphysiologie, Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Microbes Infect 10:1082-8. 2008
    ..This review provides a brief overview of insect strategies to on the one hand defeat bacterial pathogens while on the other hand cooperating with symbiotic bacteria beneficial for the insects.
  76. ncbi Juvenile hormone action: a 2007 perspective
    Lynn M Riddiford
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA
    J Insect Physiol 54:895-901. 2008
    ..This short review highlights the recent papers of the past year that lend new insight into the role of this hormone in the larva and the mechanisms whereby it achieves this role...
  77. ncbi Size assessment and growth control: how adult size is determined in insects
    Christen Kerry Mirth
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Bioessays 29:344-55. 2007
    ..Thus, the mechanisms that control growth rates converge on those assessing size to ensure that the larvae attain the appropriate size at metamorphosis...
  78. ncbi Genomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts
    Nancy A Moran
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 42:165-90. 2008
    ..In addition, insect symbionts provide some of the extremes of cellular genomes, including the smallest and the fastest evolving, raising new questions about the limits of evolution of life...
  79. ncbi Cuckoos versus hosts in insects and birds: adaptations, counter-adaptations and outcomes
    Rebecca M Kilner
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 86:836-52. 2011
    ..Birds and insects defend themselves from attack by brood parasites; their defences in turn select counter-strategies in the ..
  80. ncbi The role of allatostatins in juvenile hormone synthesis in insects and crustaceans
    Barbara Stay
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 1911, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 52:277-99. 2007
    Allatostatins are pleiotropic neuropeptides for which one function in insects is the inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis...
  81. ncbi Recombinant protease inhibitors for herbivore pest control: a multitrophic perspective
    Urte Schlüter
    Plant Science Department, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
    J Exp Bot 61:4169-83. 2010
  82. ncbi Odor detection in insects: volatile codes
    M de Bruyne
    Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
    J Chem Ecol 34:882-97. 2008
    ..Whereas moth pheromones are detected by highly specialized neurons, many insects share sensitivities to chemical signals from microbial processes and plant secondary metabolism...
  83. ncbi Insects as innovative models for functional studies of DNA methylation
    Frank Lyko
    Division of Epigenetics, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
    Trends Genet 27:127-31. 2011
  84. ncbi Structural aspects of sexual attraction and chemical communication in insects
    Mariella Tegoni
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Universités Aix Marseille I and II, 31 Ch Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Trends Biochem Sci 29:257-64. 2004
    ..In the olfaction of insects, small antennary proteins--such as odorant- and pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs and PBPs, respectively) and ..
  85. pmc EGF signaling and the origin of axial polarity among the insects
    Jeremy A Lynch
    Institute of Developmental Biology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Strasse 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany
    Curr Biol 20:1042-7. 2010
    The eggs of insects are unusual in that they often have bilateral symmetry when they are laid, indicating that both anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) symmetries are broken during oogenesis...
  86. ncbi Comparison of microglomerular structures in the mushroom body calyx of neopteran insects
    Claudia Groh
    Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biozentrum, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Arthropod Struct Dev 40:358-67. 2011
    ..The size and general morphology of MBs are diverse across insects. In this study we comparatively investigated the microstructure of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli) in major ..
  87. ncbi Vision and visual navigation in nocturnal insects
    Eric Warrant
    Department of Biology, University of Lund, S 22362 Lund, Sweden
    Annu Rev Entomol 56:239-54. 2011
    With their highly sensitive visual systems, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to discriminate colors, orient themselves using faint celestial cues, fly unimpeded through a complicated habitat, and navigate to and from ..
  88. ncbi Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops
    Nina Alphey
    Mathematical Ecology Research Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    J Econ Entomol 102:717-32. 2009 plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive...
  89. ncbi Managing insecticide resistance by mass release of engineered insects
    Nina Alphey
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    J Econ Entomol 100:1642-9. 2007
    ..toxin-free crops as refuges near the insecticidal crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive...
  90. ncbi Molecular marker systems in insects: current trends and future avenues
    Susanta K Behura
    Department of Entomology, 505 S Goodwin Avenue, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Mol Ecol 15:3087-113. 2006
    b>Insects comprise the largest species composition in the entire animal kingdom and possess a vast undiscovered genetic diversity and gene pool that can be better explored using molecular marker techniques...
  91. ncbi Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects revisited: a quantitative assessment of competition theory
    Ian Kaplan
    Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
    Ecol Lett 10:977-94. 2007
    ..competition is a highly controversial and unresolved issue for community ecology in general, and for phytophagous insects in particular...
  92. pmc Genome sequence of Blochmannia pennsylvanicus indicates parallel evolutionary trends among bacterial mutualists of insects
    Patrick H Degnan
    Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Genome Res 15:1023-33. 2005
    ..the aphid endosymbiont Buchnera, suggests that genome stability characterizes long-term bacterial mutualists of insects and constrains their evolutionary potential...
  93. ncbi New light shed on the oldest insect
    Michael S Engel
    Division of Entomology, Natural History Museum, and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Snow Hall, 1460 Jayhawk Blvd, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 7523, USA
    Nature 427:627-30. 2004
    b>Insects are the most diverse lineage of all life in numbers of species, and ecologically they dominate terrestrial ecosystems. However, how and when this immense radiation of animals originated is unclear...
  94. ncbi Divergent host plant adaptation and reproductive isolation between ecotypes of Timema cristinae walking sticks
    Patrik Nosil
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Am Nat 169:151-62. 2007
    ..cristinae ecotypes is incomplete, and so only the stages before the completion of speciation have been examined. Studies of more divergent taxa within the genus are required to determine the factors that complete speciation...
  95. ncbi Variation in genomic recombination rates among animal taxa and the case of social insects
    L Wilfert
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, ETH Zurich, Institute of Integrative Biology IBZ, ETH Zentrum CHN, Zurich, Switzerland
    Heredity (Edinb) 98:189-97. 2007
    ..The high rates are compatible with current hypotheses suggesting that sociality in insects strongly selects for increased genotypic diversity in worker offspring to either meet the demands of a ..
  96. ncbi Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management
    Peter Witzgall
    SLU, Chemical Ecology Group, Alnarp, Sweden
    J Chem Ecol 36:80-100. 2010
    The idea of using species-specific behavior-modifying chemicals for the management of noxious insects in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, stored products, and for insect vectors of diseases has been a driving ambition through five ..
  97. ncbi Central processing of natural odor mixtures in insects
    Hong Lei
    ARL Neurobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Chem Ecol 34:915-27. 2008
    ..e., antennal lobe in insects or olfactory bulb in vertebrates) and higher areas of the brain, with an emphasis on how the lateral circuits in ..
  98. ncbi Beyond Drosophila: RNAi in vivo and functional genomics in insects
    Xavier Belles
    Institut de Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF, Barcelona, Spain
    Annu Rev Entomol 55:111-28. 2010
    ..RNAi also has drawbacks and obscure points, however, such as those related to differences in species sensitivity. Disentangling these differences is one of the main challenges in the RNAi field...
  99. pmc MicroRNA-dependent metamorphosis in hemimetabolan insects
    Eva Gómez-Orte
    Institut de Biologia Evolutiva Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37 49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21678-82. 2009
    ..In insects, Dicer-1 ribonuclease transforms miRNA precursors into mature miRNAs...
  100. ncbi Widespread lateral gene transfer from intracellular bacteria to multicellular eukaryotes
    Julie C Dunning Hotopp
    Institute for Genomic Research, J Craig Venter Institute, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 317:1753-6. 2007
    ..Therefore, heritable lateral gene transfer occurs into eukaryotic hosts from their prokaryote symbionts, potentially providing a mechanism for acquisition of new genes and functions...
  101. pmc Conflict over male parentage in social insects
    Robert L Hammond
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Batiment de Biologie, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Biol 2:E248. 2004
    ..In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing) by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would ..

Research Grants71

  1. DnaK Protein Inhibitor Antimicrobials
    Michael Sturgess; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..molecules to study these processes are the short, proline-rich antibacterial peptides originally isolated from insects. Pyrrhocoricin, drosocin and perhaps apidaecin appear to inhibit chaperone-assisted protein folding via binding ..
  2. Novel genomic effects of Y-linked polymorphisms
    Daniel L Hartl; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with thermal tolerance of spermatogenesis, a key biological factor in limiting the ecological range of many insects including the mosquitoes that transmit malaria...
  3. Nitric Oxide Signaling with Heme Proteins
    William R Montfort; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..past funding period, we uncovered the means by which the nitrophorins, NO transport proteins from blood-sucking insects, are able to overcome the reactive nature of NO and successfully transport and release the molecule while ..
  4. Analysis of the functions of axon guidance genes during vector mosquito developme
    MOLLY DUMAN SCHEEL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..increased interest in the potential for arthropod-borne disease control by genetic manipulation of vector insects. Targets of particular interest include genes that regulate development...
  5. Molecular Physiology of the Epitrachael Endocrine System
    Michael E Adams; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We are investigating the neuroendocrine basis of an innate behavioral sequence in model insects. At the end of each developmental stage, release of peptide ecdysis triggering hormones (ETH) programs a sequence ..
  6. Genome-wide Identification of Immediate Early Genes in Insects
    Anandasankar Ray; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A few genes have been identified as IEGs in mammals, but very little is known about IEGs in insects such as Drosophila melanogaster, which is used as a model to study these biological process...
  7. Cytosine DNA Methylation and Transcriptional Repression in African Trypanosomes
    KEVIN MILITELLO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..understanding of the parasite's biochemistry and its relationship to its complex life cycle involving insects and mammals will potentially reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention...
  8. Genetic Mapping Of Novel Molecular Players in Itch
    RACHEL BETH BREM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pruritus serves an important protective function by warning against harmful agents in the environment such as insects, toxic plants or other irritants...
  9. Molecular Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Action
    Subba R Palli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..20E is the most active form) are the major hormones that regulate development and reproduction in insects. Since these hormones are not present in vertebrates, they represent attractive targets for the development of ..
  10. De novo establishment of Polycomb-group-mediated repression
    Richard S Jones; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of Drosophila Hox genes, their functions and molecular/biochemical activities have been highly conserved from insects to mammals...
  11. Lipid metabolism during tsetse reproduction
    JOSH B BENOIT; Fiscal Year: 2013 become an authority on the physiology of insect disease vectors and increase public awareness of the role of insects on public health...
  12. Tsetse Fecundity Reduction for Trypanosomiasis Control
    Serap Aksoy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..conserved peptide hormone/receptor system (adipokinetic hormone) responsible for regulating lipid mobilization in insects as well as the system responsible for the physical movement of lipids through the hemolymph (lipophorin/..
  13. Control of developmental timing and body size in Drosophila
    MICHAEL BRENDAN O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In insects, timing of developmental transitions, i.e...
  14. IRS insecticides for malaria control and child neurodevelopment in South Africa
    Brenda Eskenazi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DDT and pyrethroids are neurotoxicants in insects and animals...
  15. A novel transgenic silkworm system for recombinant glycoprotein production
    Donald L Jarvis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for the past decade and the Fraser lab has developed a superb system for efficient genetic transformation of insects, particularly the silkworm...
    Hermann Steller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..expressed in most animal cells, and key components of this program have been conserved in evolution from worms to insects to man...
  17. A semi field trial test on efficacy of transgenic antimalarial biocontrol fungi
    Raymond J St Leger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..posed by pathogens engineered to express arthropod toxins in comparison with a strain with wild type virulence to insects but expressing ant-malarial proteins that reduce the parasite burden in mosquitoes by 98%...
  18. Olfactory and behavioral responses of kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae), vec
    John G Hildebrand; Fiscal Year: 2010 applicant): Triatomine bugs, commonly known as kissing bugs, vinchuca, chipo, barbeiro, are blood-sucking insects, vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas Disease...
  19. Sestrin1-knockout mice as a model of facilitated muscle aging
    Jun Hee Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, in order to overcome the physiological differences between insects and mammals, we need to develop and utilize mammalian animal models to investigate the role of Sestrins in age-..
  20. Molecular genetic control of the immature female mosquito vector
    Helen Benes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Insect Technique (SIT), by developing novel genetic sexing strains and the release of only males;and "release of insects carrying a dominant lethal" (RIDL), by releasing males carrying a female-specific dominant lethal acting at the ..
  21. Function of Laccases in Anopheles gambiae
    Michael R Kanost; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Whether laccases have similar functions in insects is unknown, as laccases have not previously been investigated in insects in detail...
  22. Reversible phosphorylation in Hedgehog signaling
    ALAN ZHU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given that Hh signaling is highly conserved from insects to humans, and as PP2A itself is a strong tumor suppressor for many forms of cancer, our studies of the normal ..
  23. The Biodemographic Determinants of Life Span
    James R Carey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on the medfly in Greece and butterflies in Uganda to ask questions about aging, lifespan, and impairment of insects in the wild...
  24. Disruption of Host-Seeking Behavior in Aedes and Culex Mosquitoes using Odorants
    Anandasankar Ray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Female mosquitoes, like most other blood-feeding insects, identify their human hosts primarily using olfactory cues like carbon dioxide in exhaled breath, as well as ..
  25. Systematic analysis of cell death regulation in mosquitoes
    Lei Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of Apoptosis Proteins) are the essential [unreadable]Brake[unreadable] of the core cell death machinery in insects. They bind to caspases and inhibit the activity of these [unreadable]deadly[unreadable] enzymes...
  26. Production and Evaluation of a Vault-CCL21 Nanocapsule as a Lung Cancer Treatment
    GEORGE BUCHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The unique and powerful system uses recombinant baculovirus expression in whole insects in an automated platform to generate high protein yields cost effectively...
  27. Interplay between the Endocrine and Innate Systems of Drosphila
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regulatory interactions, and are likely to identify new avenues for manipulating these interactions in vector insects and/or mammals...
  28. Gamete membrane adhesion and fusion during fertilization
    William J Snell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HAP2 family members are present in sponges;cnidarians;several insects;higher plants;and many devastating pathogenic protists, including Plasmodium...
  29. Developing cell lines from clock neurons in Drosophila
    Paul E Hardin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..time in essentially all eukaryotes, and the genes that mediate feedback loop function are well conserved from insects to mammals...
  30. Interconnectivity between genome packagaing and other viral functions
    A L Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses pathogenic to humans and animals (polio and alphaviruses) and insects (flock house virus;FHV) revealed that the mechanism of genome packaging in these viral systems is functionally ..
  31. Chagas Disease Confirmatory Assay
    Andrew Levin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The trypanosome is transmitted to humans through contact with triatomid bugs (insects) of the family Reduviidae...
  32. Establishment of epithelial planar cell polarity
    Marek Mlodzik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Drosophila, and insects in general, all cuticular structures show PCP features...
  33. Mobilization of Triacylglycerol Stores in Insects
    Estela L Arrese; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Lipids, stored as triacylglycerol (TG), play an essential role as reserve of metabolic energy in insects. Utilization of fat body TG stores requires TG hydrolysis (lipolysis)...
  34. Homolog orientation and segregation in acentrosomal meiosis
    Kim S McKim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In many organisms, including mammals and insects, the oocyte meiotic spindle lacks centrosomes...
  35. Inflammation, Stress, and Social Behavior: Using Ecological Assessments and Model
    Charles Raison; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Excluding certain insects, humans are the Earth's supremely social species. Befitting this status, it is increasingly clear that social processes are a prime determinant of human health...
  36. The functional role of DRH-1 in RNAi directed viral immunity
    Rui Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Interestingly, DRH-1 is not conserved in fungi, plants or insects but shares significant sequence identity with RIG-I, a mammalian cytosolic virus sensor...
  37. Glial Cell Regulation of Circadian Behavior
    F Rob Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Molecular components of the circadian system are conserved between insects and mammals, including humans, and Drosophila is an outstanding model for conducting genetic investigations of ..
  38. Evolution of interactions between Wolbachia and its hosts: Drosophila model syste
    Michael Turelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transmission, Wolbachia hold significant promise for controlling many diseases transmitted between humans by insects, including malaria and West Nile virus...
  39. The Role of Plasmids in Rickettsia Biology
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Obligate intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia are transmitted by blood-feeding insects and ticks. Members of the Rickettsia cause disease in humans that includes typhus and spotted fevers...
  40. Ultraviolet light sensing by cryptochrome
    Todd C Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ultraviolet (UV) light attracts most flying insects, including human disease vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, and biting gnats;and major agricultural pests...
    Luis A Diaz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, the sera of patients with leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and onchocerciasis, where these insects are involved as carriers of parasites, possess anti-Dsg1 antibodies...
  42. Soy sphingadienes and related compounds in colon cancer chemoprevention and treat
    Julie D Saba; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This project explores the safety, efficacy and mechanism of action of a family of natural lipids found in soy and insects that exhibit cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells and prevent tumors in a preclinical model of colon cancer.
  43. Ecological triggers to exploit antibiotic and virulence factor regulation
    JASON MICHAEL CRAWFORD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..niches, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus species are at the center of a trilateral symbiosis with nematodes and insects that provides an ecological framework for laboratory investigation...
  44. Lectin-Carbohydrate Interactions in the Host-Parasite System
    Xiao Qiang Yu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Parasites are causative agents of some insect-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and filariasis. Insects respond to infection by parasites with both cellular and humoral immune responses...
  45. Manipulation of stem cell activity and cell death by intracellular bacteria
    Horacio M Frydman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Infections of the maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria Wolbachia are widespread in nature, found in most insects and in parasitic worms...
  46. Activation of Insect Immunity by Gram-negative Bacteria
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are the conserved NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways that drive the immediate response to infection, in both insects and mammals...
  47. Taste representations in the Drosophila brain
    KRISTIN E SCOTT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research focuses on the molecular mechanisms of taste detection in insects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying detection of chemical compounds by Drosophila gustatory neurons ..
    Michael R Kanost; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proteomics systems approach may reveal previously undiscovered protease-activated immune molecules of insects. The specific aims of the project are to: 1...
  49. Regulation of Circadian Transcription
    Paul E Hardin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..time in essentially all eukaryotes, and the genes that mediate feedback loop function are well conserved from insects to mammals...
  50. FASEB SRC on Lipid Droplets: Metabolic Consequences of the Storage of Neutral Lip
    Andrew S Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..bring together experts in lipid biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of organisms ranging from worms and insects to mouse and man to discuss the biology of lipid droplets...
  51. Optimizing Wolbachia manipulation in mosquito cell lines
    Ann M Fallon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposal focuses on Wolbachia, an obligate intracellular bacterium that is widespread in arthropods, including insects that vector diseases of humans...
    Marc Tatar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Reproductive investment accelerates aging in animals ranging from nematodes, to insects, to mammals and including humans...
    Anthony A James; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Major steps in the laboratory efforts to develop these insects Included the adaptation of transgenesis technologies for the stable introduction of genes into the appropriate ..
  54. Taste Receptor Genes and Sensory Coding
    HUBERT O AMREIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In insects and vertebrates, this 'chemical world'is generally perceived by two distinct sensory modalities, ..
  55. Development of an autodissemination station for control of mosquito vectors
    Yi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Autodissemination is a novel technique for insect control whereby target insects spread insecticide to their own habitats through their innate behaviors: a small treatment area results in far wider ..
  56. Genes and Neural Circuits Mediating Avoidance Behavior
    Greg S B Suh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Relevance Insects transmit diseases to humans and animals including livestock, and cause serious threats to health and enormous ..
  57. Regulation of juvenile hormone titers in mosquitoes
    ..Juvenile hormone (JH) is a major hormonal regulator in insects. In the female mosquito, JH signals the completion of the ecdysis to the adult stage, and initiates reproductive ..
  58. Testing DNA Vaccine Against T. cruzi in Large Animal Model (Dogs)
    Nisha Jain Garg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a zoonotic disease, in which dogs serve as a principal reservoir host and the blood-sucking triatomine insects are the vectors. Strategies leading to reduction of T...
  59. Functions of mammalian PGLYRPs in the cornea
    Shukti Chakravarti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Much more is known of the large PGLYRP family in insects: they are mostly bactericidal, some hydrolyze peptidoglycans (PGN) to restrict inflammation, while others signal ..
  60. Intracellular transfer of cholesterol in mosquitoes
    Que Lan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The inability to synthesize cholesterol makes insects highly dependent on the efficient transport mechanisms involved in cellular sterol translocation...
  61. Conformations and interactions of insect olfactory receptor proteins
    ROBERT D RENTHAL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Many of these diseases are capable of spreading to the United States. Because insects depend on chemical senses for host location, feeding, and mating, a successful assault on insect disease vectors ..
  62. TRPA1: a polymodal sensor for aversive stimuli
    Craig Montell; Fiscal Year: 2013 to use the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as an animal model to unravel the mechanisms through which insects respond to sensory cues, ranging from changes in temperature to insect repellents...
    Dean P Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pheromone signal transduction in Drosophila will translate into new methods to control reproduction in insects that transmit human diseases and destroy crops...
  64. A HTS Assay for Identifying Anti-Viral Drugs Against Arbovirus Infections
    Qianjun Li; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..vectors, therefore, they must be capable of replicating in two very divergent host taxa--vertebrates and insects. Although arboviruses replicate efficiently in both vertebrate and insect cells, the respective host cellular ..
  65. Identification of Novel Alpha Amidated Peptide Hormones
    ANGELO CONSALVO; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Peptide hormones with a C-terminal a-amide functionality are widely important, being found in mammals, insects, cnidarians and plants...
  66. A Viral Vector for Gene Expression in Insects
    Ranjit Dasgupta; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These insects showed no adverse effect when infected with appropriate doses of FHV...
    JOHN CASIDA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..for the selective toxicity of insecticides acting at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor of mammals and insects. This is the target of major neurotoxic insecticides acting as both blockers and activators of the GABA-gated ..
  68. Improving Production of Attenuated Malaria Sporozoite Vaccines through Genetic Mo
    Peter Billingsley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Insect scientists have made considerable progress toward understanding how insects respond to infections by foreign microbes...
    DAVID SCHOOLEY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Insects have low pressure circulatory systems and require diuretic hormones (DH) to control rate of urine production by Malpighian tubules...
  70. Catalytic definition of insecticide-metabolizing P450s
    MARY SCHULER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Insects are continually exposed to an array of natural toxic plant chemicals and synthetic toxic insecticides that are used in the management of insects vectoring human and animal ..
  71. Technology for automated real-time counting and identification of adult mosquitoe
    PHILIPP KIRSCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..novel sensor detects minute changes in light intensity that wings and other moving body parts of nearby flying insects cause to incident light falling on a photocell...