spheniscidae

Summary

Summary: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Abrupt recent shift in delta 13C and delta 15N values in Adélie penguin eggshell in Antarctica
    Steven D Emslie
    Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11666-9. 2007
  2. ncbi Spatially integrated assessment reveals widespread changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula
    Heather J Lynch
    640 Life Sciences Building, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    Ecology 93:1367-77. 2012
  3. pmc Microevolution and mega-icebergs in the Antarctic
    L D Shepherd
    Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16717-22. 2005
  4. ncbi Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula
    Martin Montes-Hugo
    Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 323:1470-3. 2009
  5. ncbi Measuring foraging activity in a deep-diving bird: comparing wiggles, oesophageal temperatures and beak-opening angles as proxies of feeding
    Nicolas Hanuise
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, CEBC CNRS UPR 1934, Villiers en Bois, France
    J Exp Biol 213:3874-80. 2010
  6. ncbi Coexistence of oceanic predators on wintering areas explained by population-scale foraging segregation in space or time
    Jean Baptiste Thiebot
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, UPR 1934 du CNRS, 79360 Beauvoir sur Niort, France
    Ecology 93:122-30. 2012
  7. pmc Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguin
    C A Bost
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, UPR 1934 du CNRS, 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
    Biol Lett 5:473-6. 2009
  8. pmc Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins
    Michael J Polito
    Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e26642. 2011
  9. ncbi Antennae on transmitters on penguins: balancing energy budgets on the high wire
    Rory P Wilson
    Institut für Meereskunde, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    J Exp Biol 207:2649-62. 2004
  10. ncbi Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change
    Claire Saraux
    Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
    Nature 469:203-6. 2011

Research Grants

  1. REGULATION OF CYCLOOXGENASE GENES IN DEVELOPING LUNG
    Philip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. Nitric Oxide in Lung Development and CLD
    Philip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. Cholesterol and Endothelial NO Synthase
    Philip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. Estrogen Modulation of Endothelial Cell Phenotype
    Philip W Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. CRP, eNOS and Endothelial Dysfunction
    Philip W Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications180 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Abrupt recent shift in delta 13C and delta 15N values in Adélie penguin eggshell in Antarctica
    Steven D Emslie
    Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11666-9. 2007
    ..Our results support the "krill surplus" hypothesis that predicts excess krill availability in the Southern Ocean after this period of exploitation...
  2. ncbi Spatially integrated assessment reveals widespread changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula
    Heather J Lynch
    640 Life Sciences Building, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    Ecology 93:1367-77. 2012
    ..Aggregating population data at the regional scale also allows us to quantify rates of regional population change in a way not previously possible...
  3. pmc Microevolution and mega-icebergs in the Antarctic
    L D Shepherd
    Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16717-22. 2005
    ..The latter is likely to be precipitated by mega-icebergs that act to promote migration among penguin colonies that typically show strong natal return...
  4. ncbi Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula
    Martin Montes-Hugo
    Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    Science 323:1470-3. 2009
    ..Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations...
  5. ncbi Measuring foraging activity in a deep-diving bird: comparing wiggles, oesophageal temperatures and beak-opening angles as proxies of feeding
    Nicolas Hanuise
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, CEBC CNRS UPR 1934, Villiers en Bois, France
    J Exp Biol 213:3874-80. 2010
    ....
  6. ncbi Coexistence of oceanic predators on wintering areas explained by population-scale foraging segregation in space or time
    Jean Baptiste Thiebot
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, UPR 1934 du CNRS, 79360 Beauvoir sur Niort, France
    Ecology 93:122-30. 2012
    ..Our results highlight parsimonious mechanisms of resource partitioning operating at the population level that may explain how animals from neighboring localities can coexist during the nonbreeding period...
  7. pmc Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguin
    C A Bost
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, UPR 1934 du CNRS, 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
    Biol Lett 5:473-6. 2009
    ..Such winter information is a crucial step for a better integrative approach for the conservation of this species whose world population is known to be declining...
  8. pmc Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins
    Michael J Polito
    Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e26642. 2011
    ....
  9. ncbi Antennae on transmitters on penguins: balancing energy budgets on the high wire
    Rory P Wilson
    Institut für Meereskunde, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    J Exp Biol 207:2649-62. 2004
    ..Suggestions are made as to how antenna-induced drag might be minimized for future studies on marine diving animals...
  10. ncbi Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change
    Claire Saraux
    Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
    Nature 469:203-6. 2011
    ..In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper-band data should be reconsidered...
  11. ncbi Bacterial diversity associated with ornithogenic soil of the Ross Sea region, Antarctica
    J Aislabie
    Landcare Research, Private Bag 3127, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Can J Microbiol 55:21-36. 2009
    ..Results of this study indicate that despite relatively high nutrient levels and microbial biomass, bacterial communities of ornithogenic soils were not more diverse than those of mineral soils of the Ross Sea region of Antarctica...
  12. ncbi The phylogeography of Adelie penguin faecal flora
    Jonathan C Banks
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Environ Microbiol 11:577-88. 2009
    ..There was little support for a correlation between distance between collection sites and community similarity...
  13. ncbi Autonomous gliders reveal features of the water column associated with foraging by adelie penguins
    L Alex Kahl
    Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
    Integr Comp Biol 50:1041-50. 2010
    ....
  14. ncbi Group-specific polymerase chain reaction for DNA-based analysis of species diversity and identity in dietary samples
    S N Jarman
    Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia
    Mol Ecol 13:1313-22. 2004
    ..These primers, their design and their application to studying prey diversity and identity in predator diet are described...
  15. ncbi Stable isotopes document seasonal changes in trophic niches and winter foraging individual specialization in diving predators from the Southern Ocean
    Yves Cherel
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chizé and UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, F 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
    J Anim Ecol 76:826-36. 2007
    ..The findings have a number of implications for understanding the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem and on the demography of these species...
  16. ncbi Are stress hormone levels a good proxy of foraging success? An experiment with king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus
    Frederic Angelier
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 79360, Villiers en Bois, France
    J Exp Biol 212:2824-9. 2009
    ....
  17. ncbi Outbreaks of avian cholera in Hope Bay, Antarctica
    G A Leotta
    Laboratorio de Diagnóstico e Investigaciones Bacteriológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 60 y 118, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Wildl Dis 42:259-70. 2006
    ..This study reports avian cholera in new bird species, their potential role in the transmission of the disease, and the different responses of these species to the disease...
  18. ncbi Bacterial diversity in Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, guano: molecular and morpho-physiological approaches
    Marek K Zdanowski
    Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02 141 Warsaw, Ustrzycka 10, Poland
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 50:163-73. 2004
    ..The results indicate that the bacterial community in penguin guano is not only one of the richest in Antarctica, but is extremely diverse, both phylogenetically and morpho-physiologically...
  19. pmc Variability in krill biomass links harvesting and climate warming to penguin population changes in Antarctica
    Wayne Z Trivelpiece
    Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7625-8. 2011
    ....
  20. ncbi Working less to gain more: when breeding quality relates to foraging efficiency
    Amélie Lescroël
    CEBC CNRS, UPR 1934, 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
    Ecology 91:2044-55. 2010
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate the importance of "extrinsic" conditions (in terms of environmental conditions and offspring needs) on the relationship between foraging behavior and individual quality...
  21. pmc Yolk androgen deposition without an energetic cost for female rockhopper penguins: a compensatory strategy to accelerate brood reduction?
    Maud Poisbleau
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany
    Biol Lett 7:605-7. 2011
    ..Since the B-egg is usually the first to hatch and the only one to produce a fledging chick, we hypothesize that differential yolk androgen deposition may be an adaptive strategy for females to affect brood reduction...
  22. pmc Effects of individual pre-fledging traits and environmental conditions on return patterns in juvenile king penguins
    Claire Saraux
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e20407. 2011
    ..Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age...
  23. ncbi Molecular sexing of unusually large numbers of Spheniscus magellanicus (Spheniscidae) washed ashore along the Brazilian coast in 2008
    E C Reis
    Laboratório de Genética Marinha, Departamento de Genetica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
    Genet Mol Res 10:3731-7. 2011
    ..Therefore, this method proved to be effective and sensitive for sex determination of S. magellanicus individuals. Data on sex ratios are useful for understanding the dynamics and ecology of Magellanic penguin populations...
  24. ncbi Ecophysiological response of Adelie penguins facing an experimental increase in breeding constraints
    M Beaulieu
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien IPHC, Departement Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie DEPE, UMR 7178 CNRS UDS, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
    J Exp Biol 213:33-9. 2010
    ..We propose that this flexible use of ecological niches may allow birds facing increased breeding constraints to avoid chronic stress and to minimize the impact on their body condition...
  25. ncbi Effect of penguin and seal excrement on mercury distribution in sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica
    Yaguang Nie
    Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, PR China
    Sci Total Environ 433:132-40. 2012
    ..Compared with typical sediments from other sites in Antarctica and the SQGs (sediment quality guidelines), the total amount of Hg in our study area is still not considered to be adversely high...
  26. pmc Evaluating the impact of handling and logger attachment on foraging parameters and physiology in southern rockhopper penguins
    Katrin Ludynia
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e50429. 2012
    ..Increased drag may alter their diving behaviour substantially, thus constraining them in their ability to catch prey. Results obtained in this study indicate that data recorded may also not represent their normal dive behaviour...
  27. ncbi Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how Little Penguins maintain body reserves while feeding offspring
    Claire Saraux
    Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
    Ecology 92:1909-16. 2011
    ..Inshore seabirds do use dual strategies of alternating short and long trips, but from our data, on a simpler and less flexible way than for offshore birds...
  28. pmc An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space
    Peter T Fretwell
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e33751. 2012
    ..To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research...
  29. ncbi In search of human-associated bacterial pathogens in Antarctic wildlife: report from six penguin colonies regularly visited by tourists
    Jonas Bonnedahl
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, Sweden
    Ambio 34:430-2. 2005
    ..There is, however, an urgent need to further investigate the situation in areas closer to permanent Antarctic settlements...
  30. pmc Survival differences and the effect of environmental instability on breeding dispersal in an Adelie penguin meta-population
    Katie M Dugger
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 3803, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12375-80. 2010
    ..Contrary to current thought, breeding penguins are not always philopatric. Rather, stressful conditions can significantly increase dispersal rates...
  31. ncbi Adélie penguins and temperature changes in Antarctica: a long-term view
    Craig D Millar
    Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Integr Zool 7:113-20. 2012
    ..At this time, temperatures were much lower than now. Hence, this species offers unique long-term information, at both the genomic and ecological levels, about how a species has responded to climate change over more than 40 000 years...
  32. pmc Coordinated movements prevent jamming in an Emperor penguin huddle
    Daniel P Zitterbart
    Department of Physics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e20260. 2011
    ..Our data show that the dynamics of penguin huddling is governed by intermittency and approach to kinetic arrest in striking analogy with inert non-equilibrium systems, including soft glasses and colloids...
  33. ncbi Elevated hormonal stress response and reduced reproductive output in Yellow-eyed penguins exposed to unregulated tourism
    Ursula Ellenberg
    Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King St, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 152:54-63. 2007
    ..For maintenance of attractive Yellow-eyed penguin-viewing destinations we recommend that tourists stay out of breeding areas and disturbance at penguin landing beaches is reduced...
  34. ncbi Habituation of adult Magellanic penguins to human visitation as expressed through behavior and corticosterone secretion
    Brian G Walker
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Conserv Biol 20:146-54. 2006
    ..The physiological differences between tourist-visited and undisturbed groups of Magellanic Penguins emphasize the importance of monitoring the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on wildlife at multiple levels...
  35. ncbi What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome)
    M Poisbleau
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 162:139-45. 2009
    ..Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone...
  36. ncbi Measuring corticosterone in seabird egg yolk and the presence of high yolk gestagen concentrations
    Petra Quillfeldt
    Max Planck Institut für Ornithologie, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 173:11-4. 2011
    ..This was observed for both species. We further found species-specific differences in the actual corticosterone amounts present in the egg yolks...
  37. ncbi Huddling behavior in emperor penguins: Dynamics of huddling
    Caroline Gilbert
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Departement Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie, UMR 7178, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg Cedex 02, France
    Physiol Behav 88:479-88. 2006
    ..This complex social behavior therefore enables all breeders to get a regular and equal access to an environment which allows them to save energy and successfully incubate their eggs during the Antarctic winter...
  38. ncbi Heart rate as a predictor of energy expenditure in undisturbed fasting and incubating penguins
    R Groscolas
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Departement d Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie, UMR 7178, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg Cedex 02, France
    J Exp Biol 213:153-60. 2010
    ..This result suggests that stress induces a disproportionate increase of f(H) vs O(2) consumption, and that the use of EE/f(H) relationships obtained in stressed birds could lead to underestimated EE values...
  39. pmc Studying seabird diet through genetic analysis of faeces: a case study on macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus)
    Bruce E Deagle
    School of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
    PLoS ONE 2:e831. 2007
    ..Conventional stomach-content data was also collected, allowing comparison of the approaches...
  40. ncbi Avian malaria (Plasmodium spp) in yellow-eyed penguins: investigating the cause of high seroprevalence but low observed infection
    H J W Sturrock
    Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    N Z Vet J 55:158-60. 2007
    ..To investigate the cause of a high seroprevalence of antibodies to Plasmodium spp known to cause avian malaria, but extremely low levels of observed infection, in yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes...
  41. ncbi African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour
    Gregory B Cunningham
    Percy FitzPatrick Institute DST NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
    J Exp Biol 211:3123-7. 2008
    ..The implication of this work is that the detection of changes in the odour landscape (DMS) may assist penguins in identifying productive areas of the ocean for foraging. At-sea studies are needed to investigate this issue further...
  42. ncbi How accurately can we estimate energetic costs in a marine top predator, the king penguin?
    Lewis G Halsey
    Centre for Ornithology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK
    Zoology (Jena) 110:81-92. 2007
    ..Finally, a statistical method to include easy-to-measure morphometric characteristics, which may improve the accuracy of f(H) - V(O2) prediction equations, is explained...
  43. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium
    Allison D Tuttle
    Department of Research and Veterinary Services, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355, USA
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:2059-62, 2003. 2005
    ..An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported...
  44. pmc Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins
    Darren A Talbot
    Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    J Physiol 558:123-35. 2004
    ....
  45. ncbi Yolk androgen deposition in rockhopper penguins, a species with reversed hatching asynchrony
    M Poisbleau
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Schlossallee 2, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 170:622-8. 2011
    ..We discuss these results in relation to the chronology of egg formation and the potential effect of the observed differences on embryo development and brood reduction...
  46. pmc Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean
    Audrey Jaeger
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Villiers en Bois, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e16484. 2011
    ....
  47. ncbi Energy saving processes in huddling emperor penguins: from experiments to theory
    Caroline Gilbert
    IPHC DEPE, UMR 7178, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087, Strasbourg, France
    J Exp Biol 211:1-8. 2008
    ..These processes, linked together, explain how huddling emperors save energy and maintain a constant body temperature, which ensures a successful incubation in the midst of the austral winter...
  48. ncbi Stroke rates and diving air volumes of emperor penguins: implications for dive performance
    Katsufumi Sato
    International Coastal Research Center, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 2 106 1, Akahama, Otsuchi, Iwate, 028 1102, Japan
    J Exp Biol 214:2854-63. 2011
    ..This was exemplified by a 27.6 min dive, after which the bird required 6 min before it stood up from a prone position, another 20 min before it began to walk, and 8.4 h before it dived again...
  49. pmc Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population
    Stephanie Jenouvrier
    Department of Biology, MS 34, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1844-7. 2009
    ..However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth...
  50. ncbi Heart rate and energetics of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)
    G Froget
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    J Exp Biol 207:3917-26. 2004
    ..It is suggested that the regional hypothermia that has been recorded in this species during diving bouts may be at least a contributing factor to such hypometabolism...
  51. ncbi Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coast
    Pablo García-Borboroglu
    Centro Nacional Patagónico CONICET, Boulevard Brown 3600, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
    Mar Pollut Bull 60:1652-7. 2010
    ..The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins...
  52. ncbi Maternal deposition of yolk corticosterone in clutches of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome)
    Maud Poisbleau
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
    Horm Behav 55:500-6. 2009
    ..The adaptive value, if any, of high yolk corticosterone is presently unknown...
  53. pmc Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change
    Julia A Clarke
    Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 8208, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11545-50. 2007
    ..morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude approximately 14 degrees S) regions during ..
  54. pmc Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic Peninsula
    Hugh W Ducklow
    School of Marine Science, The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:67-94. 2007
    ..The climate/ecological gradients extending along the WAP and the presence of monitoring systems, field stations and long-term research programmes make the region an invaluable observatory of climate change and marine ecosystem response...
  55. ncbi Mercury concentrations in king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) feathers at Crozet Islands (sub-Antarctic): temporal trend between 1966--1974 and 2000--2001
    Renaud Scheifler
    Universite de Franche Comte, Laboratoire de Biologie Environnementale, EA 3184 MR USC INRA, Place Leclerc, 25030 Besancon Cedex, France
    Environ Toxicol Chem 24:125-8. 2005
    ..These first results may constitute a basis for further ecotoxicological and/or biomonitoring studies of king penguins in these remote ecosystems...
  56. ncbi Do seasonal changes in metabolic rate facilitate changes in diving behaviour?
    J A Green
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Exp Biol 208:2581-93. 2005
    ....
  57. ncbi The penguin feathers as bioindicator of Antarctica environmental state
    R Metcheva
    Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bd Tzar Osvoboditel 1, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
    Sci Total Environ 362:259-65. 2006
    ..The concentrations of most of the investigated elements were significantly higher in P. papua than in P. antarctica and this probably could be explained by the different diet and feeding habit of these species...
  58. pmc Skuas at penguin carcass: patch use and state-dependent leaving decisions in a top-predator
    Steffen Hahn
    Institute of Ecology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743 Jena, Germany
    Proc Biol Sci 272:1449-54. 2005
    ..Thus our results provide evidence that under natural conditions, territorial skuas adjust their foraging decision on actual energy requirements, i.e. offspring number and age...
  59. ncbi Emperor penguins adjust swim speed according to the above-water height of ice holes through which they exit
    Katsufumi Sato
    International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 2 106 1 Akahama, Otsuchi, Iwate 028 1102, Japan
    J Exp Biol 208:2549-54. 2005
    ....
  60. ncbi Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver
    Jefferson T Hinke
    Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Oecologia 153:845-55. 2007
    ....
  61. ncbi Corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in emperor and Adelie penguins in Antarctica
    John F Cockrem
    Conservation Endocrinology Research Group, Institute of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Zoolog Sci 25:291-8. 2008
    ..The results for the emperor and Adelie penguins, together with data from other penguin species, suggest that there is no relationship between the size of corticosterone responses and body mass in penguins...
  62. ncbi Captain Leslie Russell Blake and Aberdeen University's penguin egg
    Martyn L Gorman
    The Zoology Museum, School of Biological Sciences, King s College, The University of Aberdeen, Scotland
    Curr Biol 15:R402-5. 2005
  63. ncbi Methane fluxes from tundra soils and snowpack in the maritime Antarctic
    Renbin Zhu
    Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei City, Anhui Province 230026, PR China
    Chemosphere 59:1583-93. 2005
    ....
  64. ncbi Gas act
    Nigel Williams
    Curr Biol 18:R6-7. 2008
    ..New research finds that the emperor penguin is able to tolerate extremely low oxygen levels during its dives for food...
  65. ncbi Soil microarthropods in the feathers of Antarctic birds
    D A Krivolutsky
    Institute of Parasitology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr 33, Moscow, 117071 Russia
    Dokl Biol Sci 397:342-5. 2004
  66. pmc Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling
    Allan J Baker
    Department of Natural History, Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Proc Biol Sci 273:11-7. 2006
    ..Thus, global cooling has had a major impact on penguin evolution, as it has on vertebrates generally. Penguins only reached cooler tropical waters in the Galapagos about 4 mya, and have not crossed the equatorial thermal barrier...
  67. pmc Are king penguin populations threatened by Southern Ocean warming?
    Christophe Barbraud
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:E38; author eply E39. 2008
  68. ncbi Green activists enlist penguins to save the world
    Katie McGoldrick
    Nature 444:978-9. 2006
  69. ncbi Corticosterone in relation to body mass in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) affected by unusual sea ice conditions at Ross Island, Antarctica
    J F Cockrem
    Conservation Endocrinology Research Group, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 149:244-52. 2006
    ..The results indicate that corticosterone and corticosterone responses are elevated in phase III of fasting in the Adelie penguin...
  70. ncbi Competition among penguins and cetaceans reveals trophic cascades in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica
    David G Ainley
    H T Harvey and Associates, 3150 Almaden Expressway, Suite 145, San Jose, California 95118, USA
    Ecology 87:2080-93. 2006
    ..Reduction in the middle-trophic-level prey is expressed in the relaxed grazing pressure on phytoplankton...
  71. ncbi Boom and bust in a polar hot zone
    Erik Stokstad
    Science 315:1522-3. 2007
  72. ncbi Genetic diversity in populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua)
    A S Dranitsina
    National Taras Shevchenko University of Kiev, Faculty of Biology, Kyiv 01033, Prospekt Glushkova 2, Ukraine
    Tsitol Genet 40:57-62. 2006
    ..Nei's distances values ranged from 0.0746 to 0.5787 among the populations and species. The obtained results will be used for further estimation of genetic diversity of Gentoo penguins and determination of their taxonomic status...
  73. ncbi Microbiaeratin, a new natural indole alkaloid from a Microbispora aerata strain, isolated from Livingston Island, Antarctica
    Veneta Ivanova
    The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol 37:161-8. 2007
    ..The organism was isolated from penguin excrements collected on the Antarctic Livingston Island. The structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments and mass spectrometric investigations...
  74. ncbi Liver and heart mitochondria obtained from Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) offers high resistance to lipid peroxidation
    Mariana Gavazza
    Cátedra Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
    Acta Biol Hung 59:185-94. 2008
    ..73 and 100.09 +/- 3.07, respectively. Light emission originating from these organelles showed no statistically significant differences and the polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles did not change during the lipid peroxidation process...
  75. pmc Environmental forcing and Southern Ocean marine predator populations: effects of climate change and variability
    P N Trathan
    British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Cambridge, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:2351-65. 2007
    ..Where species occupy different positions in different regional food webs, there is the potential to make predictions about future change scenarios...
  76. ncbi DDT levels in Antarctic penguins present a complex mystery
    Naomi Lubick
    Environ Sci Technol 42:3909. 2008
  77. pmc Holocene elephant seal distribution implies warmer-than-present climate in the Ross Sea
    B L Hall
    Climate Change Institute and Department of Earth Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10213-7. 2006
    ..If, as proposed in the literature, the ice shelf survived this period, it would have been exposed to environments substantially warmer than present...
  78. ncbi Aerobic dive limit. What is it and is it always used appropriately?
    Patrick J Butler
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 145:1-6. 2006
    ..Possible explanations of how some species routinely dive beyond their cADL are also discussed...
  79. ncbi Estimating the rate of oxygen consumption during submersion from the heart rate of diving animals
    J A Green
    Dept of Zoology, La Trobe Univ, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R2028-38. 2007
    ..6 ml.min(-1).kg(-1)) and occasionally lower than that while resting in air (10.3 ml.min(-1).kg(-1))...
  80. ncbi Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?
    Alexander Schmidt
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7178, Departement d Ecologie, Physiologie, et Ethologie, Universite Henri Poincare, Strasbourg, France
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R608-18. 2006
    ..These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea...
  81. pmc Pathotypical characterization and molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different hosts in China from 1996 to 2005
    Zhuo ming Qin
    Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
    J Clin Microbiol 46:601-11. 2008
    ....
  82. ncbi Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine
    Danelle M Okeson
    Center for Conservation and Research, Henry Doorly Zoo, 3701 South Tenth Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68107, USA
    J Zoo Wildl Med 38:240-4. 2007
    ..Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species...
  83. ncbi Microfilariae in Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi): genetics, morphology, and prevalence
    Jane Merkel
    University of Missouri St Louis, Department of Biology, 223 Research Building, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St Louis, Missouri 63121, USA
    J Parasitol 93:495-503. 2007
    ....
  84. ncbi Leucocytozoon in captive penguins
    M A Peirce
    Vet Rec 157:819-20. 2005
  85. pmc Isolation and characterization of Mycoplasma sphenisci sp. nov. from the choana of an aquarium-reared jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus)
    Salvatore Frasca
    Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, Unit 3089, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269 3089, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2976-9. 2005
    ..Isolation of this mycoplasma expands the known range of species hosting mycoplasmas. The name Mycoplasma sphenisci sp. nov. is proposed for this new species, for which strain UCMJ is the type strain...
  86. ncbi Neuronal storage disease in a group of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)
    A Wunschmann
    Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Vet Pathol 43:1029-33. 2006
    ..Circumstantial evidence implicates chloroquine therapy as the possible cause of the storage disease...
  87. ncbi Physiological response to feeding in little penguins
    J A Green
    Adaptive and Evolutionary Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia
    Physiol Biochem Zool 79:1088-97. 2006
    ....
  88. ncbi Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear
    Jacob Sadé
    Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Acta Otolaryngol 128:18-21. 2008
    ..A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles...
  89. ncbi Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins
    Jessica U Meir
    Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0204, USA
    J Exp Biol 211:1169-79. 2008
    ..The classic Scholander-Irving dive response in these emperor penguins contrasts with the absence of true bradycardia in diving ducks, cormorants, and other penguin species...
  90. ncbi The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus)
    Christiaan Labuschagne
    Department of Genetics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa Inqaba Biotechnical Industries Pty Ltd, P O Box 14356, Hatfield 0028, South Africa Electronic address
    Gene 534:113-8. 2014
    ..demersus. These results can be subsequently used to provide information for penguin phylogenetic studies and insights into the evolution of genomes...
  91. ncbi Two different avipoxviruses associated with pox disease in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) along the Brazilian coast
    Claudia Niemeyer
    a Laboratório de Patologia Comparada de Animais Selvagens, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Avian Pathol 42:546-51. 2013
    ....
  92. pmc Impact of small-scale environmental perturbations on local marine food resources: a case study of a predator, the little penguin
    Yan Ropert-Coudert
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien UMR7178 CNRS, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
    Proc Biol Sci 276:4105-9. 2009
    ..Mixed water regimes resulting from storms are currently unusual during the breeding period of these birds, but are expected to become more frequent due to climate change...
  93. ncbi Foraging by deep-diving birds is not constrained by an aerobic diving limit: a model of avian depth-dependent diving metabolic rate
    Erpur Snaer Hansen
    Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St Louis, Missouri 63121, USA
    Am Nat 163:358-74. 2004
    ..These data suggest that, for both small and large species, deep diving birds rarely if ever exceed tADL(d)...
  94. ncbi Air sac PO2 and oxygen depletion during dives of emperor penguins
    T Knower Stockard
    Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0204, USA
    J Exp Biol 208:2973-80. 2005
    ..These findings are consistent with a low total body metabolic rate during the dive...
  95. ncbi Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula
    Rebecka L Brasso
    University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
    Sci Total Environ 439:165-71. 2012
    ....
  96. pmc Mutation and evolutionary rates in adélie penguins from the antarctic
    Craig D Millar
    Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000209. 2008
    ..53 and 1.17). Importantly, the latter rate is not statistically different from our estimate of the mutation rate. These results are in contrast to the view that molecular rates are time dependent...
  97. ncbi A new location-scale test based on a combination of the ideas of Levene and Lepage
    Markus Neuhauser
    Department of Mathematics and Technology, RheinAhrCampus, Koblenz University of Applied Sciences, Remagen, Germany
    Biom J 53:525-34. 2011
    ..The new test is illustrated using real data about colony sizes of yellow-eyed penguins and an SAS program to perform the test is freely available...
  98. ncbi Should I stay or should I go? Hormonal control of nest abandonment in a long-lived bird, the Adélie penguin
    Marion Spée
    Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien IPHC, Departement d Ecologie, Physiologie, Ethologie DEPE, UMR 7178 CNRS UDS, 23 rue Becquerel, Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
    Horm Behav 58:762-8. 2010
    ..We provide insights into time-course changes of the endocrine profile as PIII proceeds and report that reaching proteolytic late fasting is not sufficient to induce nest abandonment in a long-lived bird...
  99. pmc Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 detected in rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands
    Patti J Miller
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    J Virol 84:11496-504. 2010
    ....
  100. pmc Application of in-situ hybridization for the detection and identification of avian malaria parasites in paraffin wax-embedded tissues from captive penguins
    Nora Dinhopl
    Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinarplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria
    Avian Pathol 40:315-20. 2011
    ..Thus, ISH proved to be a powerful, specific and sensitive tool for unambiguous detection of Plasmodium parasites in paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples...
  101. pmc Coping with continuous human disturbance in the wild: insights from penguin heart rate response to various stressors
    Vincent A Viblanc
    Departement Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Universite de Strasbourg, France
    BMC Ecol 12:10. 2012
    ..From a research perspective, identifying the effects of human disturbance caused by research-related activities is crucial in order to understand and account for potential biases and derive appropriate conclusions from the data...

Research Grants5

  1. REGULATION OF CYCLOOXGENASE GENES IN DEVELOPING LUNG
    Philip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies will provide fundamental new information about the regulation of pulmonary PGI/2 synthesis in the perinatal period, and about the roles of E/2 and ERs in vascular biology. ..
  2. Nitric Oxide in Lung Development and CLD
    Philip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will increase our knowledge of the role of NO in CLD and also test three novel, mechanistically-based therapies. ..
  3. Cholesterol and Endothelial NO Synthase
    Philip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will provide valuable new information about novel direct actions of HDL and SR-BI in endothelium, thereby expanding our knowledge of the role of HDL in vascular health and disease. ..
  4. Estrogen Modulation of Endothelial Cell Phenotype
    Philip W Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. CRP, eNOS and Endothelial Dysfunction
    Philip W Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed research program will determine how CRP and its cell surface receptors cause hypertension and insulin resistance. ..