xenopus laevis


Summary: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A selective block of nuclear actin export stabilizes the giant nuclei of Xenopus oocytes
    Markus T Bohnsack
    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg ZMBH, INF 282, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 8:257-63. 2006
  2. ncbi Expression of the genes GAD67 and Distal-less-4 in the forebrain of Xenopus laevis confirms a common pattern in tetrapods
    Aurora Brox
    Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 461:370-93. 2003
  3. ncbi Insect olfactory receptors are heteromeric ligand-gated ion channels
    Koji Sato
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277 8562, Japan
    Nature 452:1002-6. 2008
  4. pmc A gating charge transfer center in voltage sensors
    Xiao Tao
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 328:67-73. 2010
  5. ncbi Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication, is degraded during mitosis
    T J McGarry
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 93:1043-53. 1998
  6. ncbi Insect sex-pheromone signals mediated by specific combinations of olfactory receptors
    Takao Nakagawa
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277 8562, Japan
    Science 307:1638-42. 2005
  7. pmc Two separate interfaces between the voltage sensor and pore are required for the function of voltage-dependent K(+) channels
    Seok Yong Lee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
    PLoS Biol 7:e47. 2009
  8. pmc Endogenous DNA double-strand breaks: production, fidelity of repair, and induction of cancer
    Michael M Vilenchik
    The Sally Balin Medical Center, Media, PA 19063, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12871-6. 2003
  9. ncbi Interactions between S4-S5 linker and S6 transmembrane domain modulate gating of HERG K+ channels
    Martin Tristani-Firouzi
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:18994-9000. 2002
  10. pmc A forward chemical genetic screen reveals an inhibitor of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex
    Aude Dupré
    Columbia University, Institute for Cancer Genetics, Irving Cancer Research Center, 1130 St Nicholas Avenue, Room 602, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 4:119-25. 2008

Detail Information

Publications334 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A selective block of nuclear actin export stabilizes the giant nuclei of Xenopus oocytes
    Markus T Bohnsack
    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg ZMBH, INF 282, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 8:257-63. 2006
    ..Surprisingly however, microinjected actin was not exported from Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei, unless Exp6 was co-injected, indicating that the pathway is inactive in this cell type...
  2. ncbi Expression of the genes GAD67 and Distal-less-4 in the forebrain of Xenopus laevis confirms a common pattern in tetrapods
    Aurora Brox
    Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 461:370-93. 2003
    ..positionally with specific Dlx-expressing histogenetic territories in an anamniote tetrapod, the frog Xenopus laevis. To that end, we cloned a fragment of Xenopus GAD67 gene (xGAD67, expressed in GABAergic neurons) and compared ..
  3. ncbi Insect olfactory receptors are heteromeric ligand-gated ion channels
    Koji Sato
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277 8562, Japan
    Nature 452:1002-6. 2008
    ..The ligand-gated ion channel formed by an insect OR complex seems to be the basis for a unique strategy that insects have acquired to respond to the olfactory environment...
  4. pmc A gating charge transfer center in voltage sensors
    Xiao Tao
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 328:67-73. 2010
    ..By placing lysine at specific locations, the voltage sensor can be stabilized in different conformations, which enables a dissection of voltage sensor movements and their relation to ion channel opening...
  5. ncbi Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication, is degraded during mitosis
    T J McGarry
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 93:1043-53. 1998
    ..We propose that geminin inhibits DNA replication during S, G2, and M phases and that geminin destruction at the metaphase-anaphase transition permits replication in the succeeding cell cycle...
  6. ncbi Insect sex-pheromone signals mediated by specific combinations of olfactory receptors
    Takao Nakagawa
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277 8562, Japan
    Science 307:1638-42. 2005
    ..The same effects were also observed for general ORs. Both odorant and pheromone signaling pathways are mediated by means of a common mechanism in insects...
  7. pmc Two separate interfaces between the voltage sensor and pore are required for the function of voltage-dependent K(+) channels
    Seok Yong Lee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
    PLoS Biol 7:e47. 2009
    ..This second interface is well positioned to act as a second anchor point between the voltage sensor and the pore, thus allowing efficient transmission of conformational changes to the pore's gate...
  8. pmc Endogenous DNA double-strand breaks: production, fidelity of repair, and induction of cancer
    Michael M Vilenchik
    The Sally Balin Medical Center, Media, PA 19063, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12871-6. 2003
    ..We conclude that rates of production of EDSBs and of ensuing spontaneous mitotic recombination events can account for a substantial fraction of the earliest oncogenic events in human carcinomas...
  9. ncbi Interactions between S4-S5 linker and S6 transmembrane domain modulate gating of HERG K+ channels
    Martin Tristani-Firouzi
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:18994-9000. 2002
    ..Moreover, our findings suggest that the C-terminal ends of S4 and S6 are in close proximity at hyperpolarized membrane potentials...
  10. pmc A forward chemical genetic screen reveals an inhibitor of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex
    Aude Dupré
    Columbia University, Institute for Cancer Genetics, Irving Cancer Research Center, 1130 St Nicholas Avenue, Room 602, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 4:119-25. 2008
    ..Consistent with its ability to target the MRN complex, mirin abolishes the G2/M checkpoint and homology-dependent repair in mammalian cells...
  11. pmc A W-linked DM-domain gene, DM-W, participates in primary ovary development in Xenopus laevis
    Shin Yoshimoto
    Department of Bioscience, School of Science, Kitasato University, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2469-74. 2008
    ..However, the molecular mechanism of the ZZ/ZW-type system in vertebrates, including the clawed frog Xenopus laevis, is unknown. Here, we isolated an X...
  12. ncbi Chromosome-induced microtubule assembly mediated by TPX2 is required for spindle formation in HeLa cells
    Oliver J Gruss
    EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69 117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 4:871-9. 2002
    In Xenopus laevis egg extracts, TPX2 is required for the Ran-GTP-dependent assembly of microtubules around chromosomes...
  13. pmc CtIP links DNA double-strand break sensing to resection
    Zhongsheng You
    Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Cell 36:954-69. 2009
    ..Thus, CtIP facilitates the transition from DSB sensing to processing: it does so by binding to the DNA at DSBs after DSB sensing and ATM activation and then promoting DNA resection, leading to checkpoint activation and HR...
  14. pmc The low-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 is adapted to the export of lactate in highly glycolytic cells
    K S Dimmer
    Physiologisches Institut der Universitat, Gmelinstr 5, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Biochem J 350:219-27. 2000
    ..Chem. 273, 15920-15926]. To analyse the functional properties of this transporter, rat MCT4 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and transport activity was monitored by flux measurements with radioactive tracers and by changes of ..
  15. ncbi Characterization of nucleosome core particles containing histone proteins made in bacteria
    K Luger
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biophysik, ETH Honggerberg, Zurich, CH 8093, Switzerland
    J Mol Biol 272:301-11. 1997
    The four core histone proteins, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 of Xenopus laevis have been individually expressed in milligram quantities in Escherichia coli...
  16. ncbi TopBP1 activates the ATR-ATRIP complex
    Akiko Kumagai
    Division of Biology 216 76, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Cell 124:943-55. 2006
    ..These studies establish that activation of ATR by TopBP1 is a crucial step in the initiation of ATR-dependent signaling processes...
  17. pmc The M phase kinase Greatwall (Gwl) promotes inactivation of PP2A/B55delta, a phosphatase directed against CDK phosphosites
    Priscila V Castilho
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 20:4777-89. 2009
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that M phase requires not only high levels of MPF function, but also the suppression, through a Gwl-dependent mechanism, of phosphatase(s) that would otherwise remove MPF-driven phosphorylations...
  18. pmc Melanopsin: An opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye
    I Provencio
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:340-5. 1998
    We have identified an opsin, melanopsin, in photosensitive dermal melanophores of Xenopus laevis. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares greatest homology with cephalopod opsins...
  19. pmc The Fanconi anemia pathway promotes replication-dependent DNA interstrand cross-link repair
    Puck Knipscheer
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 326:1698-701. 2009
    ..Reversal of these defects requires ubiquitylated FANCI-FANCD2. Our results show that multiple steps of the essential S-phase ICL repair mechanism fail when the Fanconi anemia pathway is compromised...
  20. pmc Xenopus laevis Ctc1-Stn1-Ten1 (xCST) protein complex is involved in priming DNA synthesis on single-stranded DNA template in Xenopus egg extract
    Hidenori Nakaoka
    Laboratory of Cell Cycle Regulation, Department of Gene Mechanisms, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Biol Chem 287:619-27. 2012
    ..Here, we report the identification and characterization of Xenopus laevis CST complex (xCST). xCST showed ssDNA binding activity with moderate preference for G (guanine)-rich sequences...
  21. ncbi Methylated DNA and MeCP2 recruit histone deacetylase to repress transcription
    P L Jones
    Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 5431, USA
    Nat Genet 19:187-91. 1998
    ..Differences in DNA-methylation status are associated with imprinting phenomena and carcinogenesis. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, DNA methylation dominantly silences transcription through the assembly of a repressive nucleosomal ..
  22. ncbi Biochemical and cellular effects of roscovitine, a potent and selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases cdc2, cdk2 and cdk5
    L Meijer
    CNRS, Station Biologique, Roscoff, France
    Eur J Biochem 243:527-36. 1997
    ..Through its unique selectivity for some cyclin-dependent kinases, roscovitine provides a useful antimitotic reagent for cell cycle studies and may prove interesting to control cells with deregulated cdc2, cdk2 or cdk5 kinase activities...
  23. ncbi Crystal structure and functional analysis of the HERG potassium channel N terminus: a eukaryotic PAS domain
    J H Morais Cabral
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Cell 95:649-55. 1998
    ..The presence of the domain attached to the channel slows the rate of deactivation. Given the roles of PAS domains in biology, we propose that the HERG N-terminal domain has a regulatory function...
  24. pmc Posttranscriptional activation of gene expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes by microRNA-protein complexes (microRNPs)
    Richard D Mortensen
    Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:8281-6. 2011
    ..We report microRNA-mediated up-regulated expression of reporters in immature Xenopus laevis oocytes, dependent on Xenopus AGO or human AGO2 and on FXR1, as in mammalian cells...
  25. pmc CHD7 cooperates with PBAF to control multipotent neural crest formation
    Ruchi Bajpai
    Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 463:958-62. 2010
  26. pmc Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis)
    Tyrone B Hayes
    Laboratory for Integrative Studies in Amphibian Biology, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3140, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4612-7. 2010
    ..These data are consistent with effects of atrazine observed in other vertebrate classes. The present findings exemplify the role that atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides likely play in global amphibian declines...
  27. pmc Xenbase: a Xenopus biology and genomics resource
    Jeff B Bowes
    Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:D761-7. 2008
    ..org) is a model organism database integrating a diverse array of biological and genomic data on the frogs, Xenopus laevis and Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis...
  28. pmc Xenbase: gene expression and improved integration
    Jeff B Bowes
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:D607-12. 2010
    Xenbase (www.xenbase.org), the model organism database for Xenopus laevis and X. (Silurana) tropicalis, is the principal centralized resource of genomic, development data and community information for Xenopus research...
  29. pmc Histone chaperone FACT coordinates nucleosome interaction through multiple synergistic binding events
    Duane D Winkler
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 1870, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:41883-92. 2011
    ..Together, the data reveal that specific FACT subunits synchronize interactions with various target sites on individual nucleosomes to generate a high affinity binding event and promote reorganization...
  30. pmc Differentially altered Ca2+ regulation and Ca2+ permeability in Cx26 hemichannels formed by the A40V and G45E mutations that cause keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome
    Helmuth A Sánchez
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Gen Physiol 136:47-62. 2010
    ..A40V produces leaky hemichannels, whereas G45E provides a route for excessive entry of Ca(2+). These aberrant properties, alone or in combination, can severely compromise cell integrity and lead to increased cell death...
  31. pmc Regulated activity of PP2A-B55 delta is crucial for controlling entry into and exit from mitosis in Xenopus egg extracts
    Satoru Mochida
    Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, Clare Hall Laboratories, South Mimms, Herts, UK
    EMBO J 28:2777-85. 2009
    ..Increasing the concentration of PP2A-B55 delta in extracts by adding recombinant enzyme inhibited the entry into mitosis. This form of PP2A seems to be a key regulator of entry into and exit from mitosis...
  32. pmc A new sea anemone peptide, APETx2, inhibits ASIC3, a major acid-sensitive channel in sensory neurons
    Sylvie Diochot
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Paul Hamel, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France
    EMBO J 23:1516-25. 2004
    ..The ASIC3-like current in primary cultured sensory neurons is partly and reversibly inhibited by APETx2 with an IC50 of 216 nM, probably due to the mixed inhibitions of various co-expressed ASIC3-containing channels...
  33. pmc Active liquid-like behavior of nucleoli determines their size and shape in Xenopus laevis oocytes
    Clifford P Brangwynne
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4334-9. 2011
    ..These results have implications for the function of nucleoli in ribosome subunit processing and provide a physical link between activity within a macromolecular assembly and its physical properties on larger length scales...
  34. pmc Crystal structure of the eukaryotic strong inward-rectifier K+ channel Kir2.2 at 3.1 A resolution
    Xiao Tao
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics, Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 326:1668-74. 2009
    ..These same surface features also suggest a possible approach to the development of inhibitory agents specific to each member of the inward-rectifier K+ channel family...
  35. pmc Expression of functional human α6β2β3* acetylcholine receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes achieved through subunit chimeras and concatamers
    Alexandre Kuryatov
    Department of Neuroscience, Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 79:126-40. 2011
    ..For the first time, these concatamers allow analysis of functional properties of α6β2β3* AChRs. These concatamers should enable selection of drugs specific for α6β2β3* AChRs...
  36. pmc The S4-S5 linker couples voltage sensing and activation of pacemaker channels
    J Chen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Eccles Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Utah, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, 15 N 2030 E, Room 4220, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11277-82. 2001
    ..Our findings also suggest that opening of HCN and related channels corresponds to activation of a gate located near the inner pore, rather than recovery of channels from a C-type inactivated state...
  37. ncbi Control of beta-catenin phosphorylation/degradation by a dual-kinase mechanism
    Chunming Liu
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 108:837-47. 2002
    ..Our study uncovers distinct roles and steps of beta-catenin phosphorylation, identifies CKIalpha as a component in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, and has implications to pathogenesis/therapeutics of human cancers and diabetes...
  38. ncbi Simple, realistic models of complex biological processes: positive feedback and bistability in a cell fate switch and a cell cycle oscillator
    James E Ferrell
    Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5174, USA
    FEBS Lett 583:3999-4005. 2009
    ..We believe that this type of reductionistic systems biology holds great promise for understanding complicated biochemical processes in simpler terms...
  39. ncbi The 5-HT3B subunit is a major determinant of serotonin-receptor function
    P A Davies
    Department of Pharmacology, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    Nature 397:359-63. 1999
    ..In addition to providing a new target for therapeutic agents, the 5-HT3B subunit will be a valuable resource for defining the molecular mechanisms of ion-channel function...
  40. pmc MCM2-7 form double hexamers at licensed origins in Xenopus egg extract
    Agnieszka Gambus
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 286:11855-64. 2011
    ..The CMG proteins also associate less strongly with other replication proteins, consistent with the idea that a single CMG complex forms the core of the replisome...
  41. pmc Nuclear size is regulated by importin α and Ntf2 in Xenopus
    Daniel L Levy
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3200, USA
    Cell 143:288-98. 2010
    ..We investigated nuclear scaling in the pseudotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis and its smaller diploid relative Xenopus tropicalis, which contains smaller cells and nuclei...
  42. pmc Immune defenses against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a fungus linked to global amphibian declines, in the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis
    Jeremy P Ramsey
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, A 5301 Medical Center North, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Infect Immun 78:3981-92. 2010
    ..dendrobatidis. We show here that the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is a suitable model for investigating immunity to this pathogen...
  43. pmc Identification of an outer segment targeting signal in the COOH terminus of rhodopsin using transgenic Xenopus laevis
    B M Tam
    Program in Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA
    J Cell Biol 151:1369-80. 2000
    ..COOH-terminal fusion proteins were expressed specifically in the major red rod photoreceptors of transgenic Xenopus laevis under the control of the Xenopus opsin promoter...
  44. ncbi A minimal midzone protein module controls formation and length of antiparallel microtubule overlaps
    Peter Bieling
    Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 142:420-32. 2010
    ..Our results mechanistically explain how the two conserved, essential midzone proteins PRC1 and Xklp1 cooperate to constitute a minimal protein module capable of dynamically organizing the core structure of the central anaphase spindle...
  45. pmc The C. elegans ric-3 gene is required for maturation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Sarah Halevi
    Department of Physiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    EMBO J 21:1012-20. 2002
    ..Moreover, co-expression of ric-3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes enhances the activity of the C.elegans DEG-3/DES-2 and of the rat alpha-7 acetylcholine receptors...
  46. ncbi A multiple subunit Mi-2 histone deacetylase from Xenopus laevis cofractionates with an associated Snf2 superfamily ATPase
    P A Wade
    Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Curr Biol 8:843-6. 1998
    ..We purified a multi-subunit complex from Xenopus laevis eggs which contains six putative subunits including the known deacetylase subunits Rpd3 and RbAp48/p46 [8] as ..
  47. pmc Limiting Ago protein restricts RNAi and microRNA biogenesis during early development in Xenopus laevis
    Elsebet Lund
    Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, USA
    Genes Dev 25:1121-31. 2011
    We show that, in Xenopus laevis oocytes and early embryos, double-stranded exogenous siRNAs cannot function as microRNA (miRNA) mimics in either deadenylation or guided mRNA cleavage (RNAi)...
  48. pmc hERG potassium channel gating is mediated by N- and C-terminal region interactions
    Ahleah S Gustina
    Program in Neuroscience and 2 Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Gen Physiol 137:315-25. 2011
    ..Together, these data suggest that the mechanism for regulation of slow deactivation in hERG channels is an interaction between the N-terminal PAS domain and the C-terminal CNBD...
  49. pmc Mutations in the K+ channel signature sequence
    L Heginbotham
    Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Biophys J 66:1061-7. 1994
    ..Furthermore, the results illustrate that the hydroxyl groups at the third and fourth positions, and the aromatic group at position seven, are not essential in determining K+ selectivity...
  50. ncbi Depolarizing GABAergic conductances regulate the balance of excitation to inhibition in the developing retinotectal circuit in vivo
    Colin J Akerman
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    J Neurosci 26:5117-30. 2006
    ..Therefore, depolarizing GABAergic transmission plays a pivotal role in the maturation of excitatory transmission and controls the balance of excitation and inhibition in the developing retinotectal circuit...
  51. ncbi Identification of a cold receptor reveals a general role for TRP channels in thermosensation
    David D McKemy
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0450, USA
    Nature 416:52-8. 2002
  52. pmc Expression cloning of TMEM16A as a calcium-activated chloride channel subunit
    Björn Christian Schroeder
    Department of Physiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 134:1019-29. 2008
    ..The identification of this new family of ion channels may help the development of CaCC modulators for treating diseases including hypertension and cystic fibrosis...
  53. pmc Salt bridges and gating in the COOH-terminal region of HCN2 and CNGA1 channels
    Kimberley B Craven
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7290, USA
    J Gen Physiol 124:663-77. 2004
    ..Discovering that one portion of the COOH terminus, the CNBD, can be in the activated configuration while the other portion, the C-linker, is not activated has lead us to suggest a novel modular gating scheme for HCN and CNG channels...
  54. pmc Functional and morphological correlates of connexin50 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes
    G A Zampighi
    Department of Neurobiology, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Gen Physiol 113:507-24. 1999
    Electrophysiological and morphological methods were used to study connexin50 (Cx50) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Oocytes expressing Cx50 exhibited a new population of intramembrane particles (9...
  55. pmc Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A
    Suzanne Vigneron
    Centre de Recherche de Biochimie Macromoleculaire, CNRS UMR 5237, IFR 122, Labellisée Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, Universités Montpellier 2 et 1, Montpellier, France
    EMBO J 28:2786-93. 2009
    ..These results suggest that mitotic entry and maintenance is not only mediated by the activation of cyclin B-Cdc2 but also by the regulation of PP2A by GW...
  56. ncbi Evolution by recombination and transspecies polymorphism in the MHC class I gene of Xenopus laevis
    David H Bos
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Mol Biol Evol 23:137-43. 2006
    ..Here we characterize patterns of evolution in the MHC class Ia gene of Xenopus laevis in terms of polymorphism, recombination, and extent of transspecies polymorphism...
  57. ncbi Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter
    Edith C H Friesema
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam 3015 GE, The Netherlands
    J Biol Chem 278:40128-35. 2003
    ..Therefore, we cloned rat MCT8 and tested it for thyroid hormone transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  58. ncbi Wnt-11 activation of a non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is required for cardiogenesis
    Petra Pandur
    1 Abt Entwicklungsbiochemie, Junior Group SFB 271, Universitat Gottingen, Humboldtallee 23, D 37073 Gottingen, Germany 2 Abt Biochemie, Universitat Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Nature 418:636-41. 2002
    ..In Xenopus laevis, cardiac specification occurs during gastrulation and requires signals from the dorsal lip and underlying ..
  59. ncbi The Xenopus MEF2 gene family: evidence of a role for XMEF2C in larval tendon development
    Bruno Della Gaspera
    UMR 7060 CNRS, Equipe Biologie du Développement et de la Différenciation Neuromusculaire, Centre Universitaire des Saints Peres, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Universite Paris Descartes, F 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
    Dev Biol 328:392-402. 2009
  60. pmc Transit defect of potassium-chloride Co-transporter 3 is a major pathogenic mechanism in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum
    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel
    Centre of Excellence in Neuromics, University of Montreal, Centre Hospitalier de L Universite de Montreal Research Center, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1, Canada
    J Biol Chem 286:28456-65. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that mis-trafficking of mutant protein is an important pathophysiological feature of HMSN/ACC causative KCC3 mutations...
  61. pmc Preparation and use of Xenopus egg extracts to study DNA replication and chromatin associated proteins
    Peter J Gillespie
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    Methods 57:203-13. 2012
    The use of cell-free extracts prepared from eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, has led to many important discoveries in cell cycle research...
  62. pmc Control of local Rho GTPase crosstalk by Abr
    Emily M Vaughan
    Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1117 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Curr Biol 21:270-7. 2011
  63. pmc From expression cloning to gene modeling: the development of Xenopus gene sequence resources
    Michael J Gilchrist
    Division of Systems Biology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, United Kingdom
    Genesis 50:143-54. 2012
    ..clones for about 35% of the genes in Xenopus tropicalis, and similar numbers but a smaller proportion for Xenopus laevis. In addition, I demonstrate that the gaps in the current genome assembly create problems for the computational ..
  64. pmc Control of a final gating charge transition by a hydrophobic residue in the S2 segment of a K+ channel voltage sensor
    Jérôme J Lacroix
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Gordon Center for Integrative Sciences W244, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:6444-9. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that F(290) controls the transfer of R(371), the fourth gating charge, during gating while not affecting the movement of the other three gating arginines...
  65. ncbi Peter Pan functions independently of its role in ribosome biogenesis during early eye and craniofacial cartilage development in Xenopus laevis
    Verena Bugner
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Development 138:2369-78. 2011
    ..that PPan is expressed maternally as well as in the eye and cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) during early Xenopus laevis development...
  66. ncbi The S4-S5 linker directly couples voltage sensor movement to the activation gate in the human ether-a'-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channel
    Tania Ferrer
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 94113, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:12858-64. 2006
    ..Moreover, rather than functioning simply as a mechanical lever, these findings imply that specific interactions between the S4-S5 linker and the activation gate stabilize the closed channel conformation...
  67. ncbi Differential expression of the Brunol/CELF family genes during Xenopus laevis early development
    Jingyang Wu
    CAS Max Planck Junior Scientist Group, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    Int J Dev Biol 54:209-14. 2010
    ..In this study, we describe the cloning and expression patterns of five Brunol genes in Xenopus laevis. Among them, only Brunol2 is maternally expressed and the zygotic expression of the other four Brunol genes ..
  68. pmc The structural determinants of checkpoint activation
    Christina A MacDougall
    Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Genes Dev 21:898-903. 2007
    ..These observations define the minimal DNA requirements for checkpoint activation and suggest that primed ssDNA represents a common checkpoint activating-structure formed following many types of damage...
  69. ncbi Systems-level dissection of the cell-cycle oscillator: bypassing positive feedback produces damped oscillations
    Joseph R Pomerening
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Cell 122:565-78. 2005
    ..This work also underscores the fundamental similarity of cell-cycle oscillations in embryos to repetitive action potentials in pacemaker neurons, with both systems relying on a combination of negative and positive-feedback loops...
  70. pmc The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex functions in resection-based DNA end joining in Xenopus laevis
    Elaine M Taylor
    Divisions of Medicine and Biomedical and Life Sciences, School of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:441-54. 2010
    ..Here we demonstrate that in Xenopus laevis egg extracts, the MRN complex is not required for classical DNA-PK-dependent NHEJ...
  71. pmc Atomic force microscope imaging of chromatin assembled in Xenopus laevis egg extract
    Hongxia Fu
    Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore
    Chromosoma 120:245-54. 2011
    ..Due to the capability of controlling chromatin assembly conditions, we believe these methods have broad potential for studying physiologically relevant chromatin structures...
  72. ncbi Initiation of DNA replication requires the RECQL4 protein mutated in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome
    Mahesh N Sangrithi
    Cancer Research UK Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Hutchison MRC Research Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XZ, United Kingdom
    Cell 121:887-98. 2005
    ..Here, we implicate in this process the Xenopus laevis homolog (xRTS) of the RECQL4 helicase mutated in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome...
  73. pmc An ontology for Xenopus anatomy and development
    Erik Segerdell
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    BMC Dev Biol 8:92. 2008
    The frogs Xenopus laevis and Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis are model systems that have produced a wealth of genetic, genomic, and developmental information...
  74. ncbi Structural basis of open channel block in a prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channel
    Ricarda J C Hilf
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:1330-6. 2010
    ..The results provide a structural foundation for understanding the interactions of the channel with inhibitors that is relevant for the entire family...
  75. ncbi Homooligomeric and heterooligomeric associations between K+-Cl- cotransporter isoforms and between K+-Cl- and Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporters
    Charles F Simard
    Nephrology Research Group, L Hôtel Dieu de Québec Research Institution, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6, Canada
    J Biol Chem 282:18083-93. 2007
    ..used as both bait and prey and 2) coimmunoprecipitation and functional studies of intact CCCs coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  76. ncbi An ATR- and Cdc7-dependent DNA damage checkpoint that inhibits initiation of DNA replication
    Vincenzo Costanzo
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Mol Cell 11:203-13. 2003
    ..The checkpoint does not require pre-RC assembly but requires loading of the single-strand binding protein, RPA, on chromatin. This is the biochemical demonstration of a DNA damage checkpoint that targets Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase...
  77. pmc Deadenylation of maternal mRNAs mediated by miR-427 in Xenopus laevis embryos
    Elsebet Lund
    Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    RNA 15:2351-63. 2009
    ..miR-427) mediates the rapid deadenylation of maternal mRNAs after the midblastula transition (MBT) of Xenopus laevis embryogenesis...
  78. ncbi Beyond early development: Xenopus as an emerging model for the study of regenerative mechanisms
    Caroline W Beck
    Department of Zoology and Genetics Otago, University of Otago, New Zealand
    Dev Dyn 238:1226-48. 2009
    ..As an anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis can regenerate the larval tail and limb by means of the formation of a proliferating blastema, the lens of the ..
  79. pmc Diversity in expression patterns and functional properties in the rice HKT transporter family
    Mehdi Jabnoune
    Biochimie et Physiologie Moleculaire des Plantes, UMR 5004 CNRS INRA SupAgro M UM2, Campus SupAgro M INRA, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
    Plant Physiol 150:1955-71. 2009
    ..Functional analyses in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed striking diversity...
  80. ncbi Cytosolic pH regulates root water transport during anoxic stress through gating of aquaporins
    Colette Tournaire-Roux
    Biochimie et Physiologie Moleculaire des Plantes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 5004, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Université Montpellier 2 et Ecole Nationale d Agronomie, Montpellier, France
    Nature 425:393-7. 2003
    ..More generally, our work opens new routes to explore pH-dependent cell signalling processes leading to regulation of water transport in plant tissues or in animal epithelia...
  81. ncbi Exporting actin
    Joseph G Gall
    Nat Cell Biol 8:205-7. 2006
  82. pmc Repression of origin assembly in metaphase depends on inhibition of RLF-B/Cdt1 by geminin
    S Tada
    CRC Chromosome Replication Research Group, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, Dow Street University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    Nat Cell Biol 3:107-13. 2001
    ..These experiments suggest that geminin-mediated inhibition of RLF-B/Cdt1 is essential for repressing origin assembly late in the cell cycle of higher eukaryotes...
  83. ncbi Putting RNAs in the right place at the right time: RNA localization in the frog oocyte
    Mary Lou King
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1011 NW 15th St, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Biol Cell 97:19-33. 2005
    ..Prominent examples of this phenomenon are found in Xenopus laevis, where localized maternal mRNAs generate developmental polarity along the animal/vegetal axis...
  84. pmc A conserved double-stranded RNA-binding domain
    D St Johnston
    Wellcome Cancer Research Campaign Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:10979-83. 1992
    ..On the basis of the binding studies and computer analysis, we have derived a consensus sequence that defines a 65- to 68-amino acid dsRNA-binding domain...
  85. ncbi Mutant potassium channels with altered binding of charybdotoxin, a pore-blocking peptide inhibitor
    R MacKinnon
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254
    Science 245:1382-5. 1989
  86. pmc Induction of vertebrate regeneration by a transient sodium current
    Ai Sun Tseng
    Department of Biology and Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, USA
    J Neurosci 30:13192-200. 2010
    ..2. A local, early increase in intracellular sodium is required for initiating regeneration following Xenopus laevis tail amputation, and molecular and pharmacological inhibition of sodium transport causes regenerative failure...
  87. pmc PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of phosphoproteins at mitotic exit is controlled by inhibitor-1 and PP1 phosphorylation
    Judy Qiju Wu
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 11:644-51. 2009
    ..Thus, Cdc2 both phosphorylates multiple mitotic substrates and inhibits their PP1-mediated dephosphorylation...
  88. pmc The Arabidopsis HKT1 gene homolog mediates inward Na(+) currents in xenopus laevis oocytes and Na(+) uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    N Uozumi
    BioScience Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464 8601, Japan
    Plant Physiol 122:1249-59. 2000
    ..As detected by electrophysiological measurements, AtHKT1 functioned as a selective Na(+) uptake transporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the presence of external K(+) did not affect the AtHKT1-mediated ion conductance (unlike that of ..
  89. pmc Ryk cooperates with Frizzled 7 to promote Wnt11-mediated endocytosis and is essential for Xenopus laevis convergent extension movements
    Gun Hwa Kim
    Department of Life Science, Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Hyoja Dong, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790 784, Republic of Korea
    J Cell Biol 182:1073-82. 2008
    ..Here, we report that Ryk regulates Xenopus laevis convergent extension (CE) movements via the beta-arrestin 2 (betaarr2)-dependent endocytic process triggered ..
  90. pmc Dual functions of thyroid hormone receptors in vertebrate development: the roles of histone-modifying cofactor complexes
    Yun Bo Shi
    Section on Molecular Morphogenesis, Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, Program on Cell Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Thyroid 19:987-99. 2009
    ..We have previously proposed a dual function model for TR in the development of the anuran Xenopus laevis. That is, unliganded TR recruits corepressors to TH-inducible genes in premetamorphic tadpoles to repress ..
  91. ncbi Rice OsYSL15 is an iron-regulated iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid transporter expressed in the roots and is essential for iron uptake in early growth of the seedlings
    Haruhiko Inoue
    Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    J Biol Chem 284:3470-9. 2009
    ..in iron uptake when supplied with iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid and transported iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  92. ncbi Activity-dependent regulation of HCN pacemaker channels by cyclic AMP: signaling through dynamic allosteric coupling
    Jing Wang
    Integrated Program in Cellular, Molecular, and Biophysical Studies, Columbia University, 722 West 168 Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuron 36:451-61. 2002
    ..These changes in ligand binding produce long-lasting changes in channel function which can contribute to the regulation of rhythmic firing patterns...
  93. pmc Differential effects of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits on BK channel activity
    Patricio Orio
    Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Valdivia, Chile
    J Gen Physiol 125:395-411. 2005
    ..All allosteric coupling factors need to be increased in order to explain the observed effects when the alpha subunit is coexpressed with the beta2IR subunit...
  94. ncbi Voltage-sensing mechanism is conserved among ion channels gated by opposite voltages
    Roope Mannikko
    Department of Neuroscience, The Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nature 419:837-41. 2002
  95. ncbi Serotonin transporter function is an early step in left-right patterning in chick and frog embryos
    Takahiro Fukumoto
    Cytokine Biology Department, The Forsyth Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA
    Dev Neurosci 27:349-63. 2005
    ..Taken together our data characterize two new right-sided markers in chick gastrulation, identify a novel, early component of the left-right pathway in two vertebrate species, and reveal a new biological role for serotonin transport...
  96. pmc Stable magnetic field gradient levitation of Xenopus laevis: toward low-gravity simulation
    J M Valles
    Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Biophys J 73:1130-3. 1997
    We have levitated, for the first time, living biological specimens, embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis, using a large inhomogeneous magnetic field...
  97. ncbi Desensitization of the P2X(2) receptor controlled by alternative splicing
    U Brandle
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    FEBS Lett 404:294-8. 1997
    ..These results imply functional differences between cells differentially expressing these P2X(2) isoforms...
  98. pmc Transmembrane voltage potential controls embryonic eye patterning in Xenopus laevis
    Vaibhav P Pai
    Department of Biology and Tufts Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Development 139:313-23. 2012
    ..change in transmembrane voltage potential (V(mem)) as a novel biophysical signal for eye induction in Xenopus laevis. During normal embryogenesis, a striking hyperpolarization demarcates a specific cluster of cells in the ..
  99. pmc Robust, tunable biological oscillations from interlinked positive and negative feedback loops
    Tony Yu Chen Tsai
    Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5174, USA
    Science 321:126-9. 2008
    ..Positive-plus-negative oscillators also appear to be more robust and easier to evolve, rationalizing why they are found in contexts where an adjustable frequency is unimportant...
  100. pmc Acetylation mimics within individual core histone tail domains indicate distinct roles in regulating the stability of higher-order chromatin structure
    Xiaodong Wang
    Box 712, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 28:227-36. 2008
    ..Our results indicate that acetylation of specific tail domains plays distinct roles in the regulation of chromatin structure...
  101. pmc Potentiation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site
    Gareth T Young
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14686-91. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that this is a conserved modulatory allosteric site within neurotransmitter-gated ion channels...

Research Grants68

  1. Using Chemical Biology to Study the Small GTPase Ra(RMI)
    Karsten Weis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..growing body of evidence to support this hypothesis from experiments performed using extracts from the eggs of Xenopus laevis, however the details of how this process works in living cells are poorly understood...
    Janet Heasman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..that the maternal cytoplasmic protein beta catenin plays a pivotal role in this process in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. In the absence of beta catenin, embryos gastrulate and form three germ layers but lack the dorsal derivatives ..
  3. Structure and function of urea transporters
    Ming Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have successfully expressed dvUT in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and found that it mediates urea flux through oocyte membrane...
  4. Effects of environmental thyroid hormone disrupting compounds on CNS development
    ..approach to studying molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern the development of the visual system in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, including in vivo time-lapse 2 photon imaging, in vivo electrophysiological recordings of visual ..
    Jacques Robert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Xenopus laevis is one of the best ectothermic vertebrate models for studying the phylogeny and ontogeny of the immune system. The evolutionary distance of X...
  6. Regulation Of Inorganic Phosphorus (Pi) Metabolism By Estrogen
    Hassane Amlal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which will examine the expression and transport activity of NaPi-IIa using proximal tubule suspensions, Xenopus Laevis oocytes and MDCK cells...
  7. Targets of a cytidine deaminase required for left-right axis in Xenopus
    Alin Vonica; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..subunit 2, XA2) in a genomic screen for factors regulated by nodal-type TGF-[unreadable] signaling in Xenopus laevis embryos...
  8. Low-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptors in the frog Xenopus laevis
    Wade H Powell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Frogs are extremely insensitive to TCDD toxicity, and AHRs from Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) bind TCDD with >20-fold lower affinity than the AHR from a highly sensitive mouse ..
  9. Using shared mechanisms of morphogenesis to study neural tube defects
    ..Molecular and cellular mechanisms will be dissected in C. elegans and in the frog, Xenopus laevis (X. laevis) using the complementary strengths of each model system...
  10. Control of embryonic development by CK2: CK2 as a core Wnt/beta-catenin component
    María Isabel Domínguez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The CK2 phosphorylation site on Dvl will be identified, and its function in Dvl regulation ascertained in Xenopus laevis embryos...
  11. Identification of Mechanically Sensitive Proteins in Early Development
    Douglas W DeSimone; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The mesendoderm of Xenopus laevis gastrula stage embryos undergoes a collective form of cell migration that requires both cell-cell cohesion and ..
  12. The biomechanics of morphogenesis in the frog
    Lance A Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will use an established toolkit consisting of three elements: 1) the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis for direct modulation of protein function and gene expression;2) high resolution confocal microscopy to ..
  13. Neural substrates for matching hearing to utterance
    Darcy B Kelley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..through exploration of a well-established model system: vocal communication in the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Many aspects of the neural circuitry underlying vocal production have been worked out and a reduced ..
  14. Lipid Signaling During Fertilization
    Bradley J Stith; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Today) suggests roles for phospholipase D and autotaxin in fertilization in an NIH-recognized model system (Xenopus laevis)...
  15. Mechanism of action of novel GluN2C NMDA receptor potentiators
    Alpa Khatri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..function and loss of function chimeras will be constructed between the GluN2A and Glun2C subunits expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  16. Modulation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel by Proteases and Peptide Inhibitors
    ..The Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system will be used for these studies...
  17. Automated Analysis of Learning and Memory for Neuro-Developmental Studies
    Michael Levin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Xenopus laevis is an extremely powerful system in which to study the genetics and biophysics of developmental morphogenesis...
  18. Studying Mitosis using Xenopus Egg Extracts
    Rebecca W Heald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To study mechanisms of mitosis we use assays based on cytoplasmic extracts prepared from eggs of the frog Xenopus laevis that can recapitulate mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome condensation and segregation in vitro...
  19. Novel Analgesics from Australian Funnel-Web Spider Venom
    MICHAEL NATHAN NITABACH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..terminals of nociceptors by screening atracotoxins against cloned nociceptor ion channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  20. Identification of Binding Proteins of the Xenopus Morphogenetic Factor Tumorhead
    Edwin E Traverso; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Binding Proteins of the Xenopus Morphogenetic Factor Tumorhead Tumorhead (TH) is a morphogenetic factor from Xenopus laevis that has been implicated in the regulation of the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation during ..
  21. Short-Chain Dehydrogenases in Retinol/Sterol Metabolism
    Natalia Y Kedishvili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2, that is highly active as an all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase and is critical for embryonic development in Xenopus laevis. Importantly, there appears to be a functional equivalent of the frog rdhe2 in mammals, which exhibits an all-..
  22. Systems Architecture And Dynamical Behaviors of the Kinases That Drive M-Phase
    ..oscillation of CDK1 activity, and identifying and testing the functional interactions between them using Xenopus laevis egg extracts...
    Hazel L Sive; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposal are to understand the mechanisms underlying formation of the vertebrate primary mouth, using the frog Xenopus laevis as a model...
  24. Cholinergic receptors on the nematode pharynx: an unexploited drug target
    Alan P Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3. Characterize the pharyngeal cholinergic receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes using voltage- &patch-clamp techniques...
  25. Development and Plasticity of a Retinotectal System
    Mu ming Poo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The retinotectal system of Xenopus laevis is used as a model system for studying the development of topographically ordered projections in the nervous system...
  26. Illuminating the process of rod outer segment morphogenesis
    Yoshikazu Imanishi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proteins in rod photoreceptors and track their movements via confocal and two-photon microscopy in living Xenopus laevis tadpoles. By using this method, we propose: Aim1...
  27. The role of Sox21 in neural development
    ELENA M CASEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..factors during vertebrate neurogenesis, we are characterizing the function of the SoxB2 protein, Sox21, in Xenopus laevis. The ease of manipulating the Xenopus embryo will be exploited to test our hypotheses...
  28. Structural mechanisms of Mcm10 in DNA replication
    Brandt F Eichman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Preliminary results from our laboratory have defined the overall domain architecture of Mcm10 from Xenopus laevis, and have identified the regions that interact with DNA and pol a...
  29. Roles of chromosomal factors in chromosome segregation
    Hironori Funabiki; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Chromatin binding is directly coupled to activation of the kinase activity of Aurora B. In Xenopus laevis egg extracts, this activation mechanism is critical for spindle assembly...
  30. Kinase modulation of Na+-dependent CI-coupled transporters in mouse kidney
    Paul A Welling; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The first two aims will involve functional studies using heterologous expression in both Xenopus laevis oocytes and mammalian kidney cells, as well as molecular studies involving protein-protein interaction both in ..
  31. Nkx2-5 and congenital heart defects in Xenopus
    Daniel L Weeks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have been studied to good advantage in a variety of system, including mouse, chicken, fly, fish and the frog Xenopus laevis. The regulatory division of labor in frog falls to three members of this family, Nkx2-5, Nkx2-3 and Nkx2-10 (..
  32. The Role of Planar Cell Polarity Signals in Shaping Kidney Tubules
    RACHEL KATHERINE MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using Xenopus laevis (frog) embryos, supplemented in some contexts with embryos of Danio rerio (zebrafish), this proposal first ..
  33. Mechanism of Activity of Lonidamine
    Jerry D Glickson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 2 we will directly measure the inhibitory effect of LND on MCT1 and MCT4 expressed in Xenopus laevis and will also evaluate the effect of LND on isolated liver and cardiac mitochondria and on permeabilized DB1 ..
  34. Mechanism for Regulating Kainate-Type Glutamate Receptor Activity
    Susumu Tomita; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also examine structure and functional analysis of NETO2 and kainate receptors using Xenopus laevis oocyte as a model system...
  35. Reprogramming Cells to Enable Limb Regeneration
    JONATHAN M SLACK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Tadpoles of the frog Xenopus laevis are normally able to regenerate their limbs following amputation at early developmental stages but not at ..
  36. Molecular Physiology of y-Aminobutyric Acid Transporters
    Sepehr Eskandari; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will express the GABA transporters in Xenopus laevis oocytes in order to address the following Specific Aims: (1) To combine electrophysiological and electron ..
  37. Stem cell fate and embryonic development
    Fei Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathway, thereby negatively regulating the BMP pathway, and is necessary for neural development of hESCs and Xenopus laevis. In this research plan, we aim to explore how this kinase controls proteasomal degradation of BMPR-Is in hESCs ..
  38. Wnt Signaling in Xenopus Embryonic Development
    Sergei Y Sokol; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This application concerns the analysis of molecular mechanisms of Wnt signaling in embryonic cells of Xenopus laevis. Wnt signaling pathways play a major role in the control of cell proliferation, cell polarity and cell fate ..
  39. Network-directed discovery of disease genes
    Edward M Marcotte; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tube defect genes, and Specific Aim 3 focused on the experimental testing in the model vertebrate animal Xenopus laevis of genes deemed most likely to be associated with human neural tube defects, using first studies of expression ..
  40. The transcriptional control and function of proton-secreting cells
    Ian K Quigley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application proposes to study a novel experimental model, the proton-secreting cells of the Xenopus laevis embryonic skin, which are thought to mediate pH homeostasis of the embryo...
  41. Studies with Nicotinic Null Mutant Mice
    Michael J Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..made towards understanding the structure and function of neuronal nAChRs using expression systems (cell lines, Xenopus laevis oocytes)...
  42. Transcellular Degradation of Mitochondria in the Central Nervous System
    ..The proposed studies will employ two vertebrate animal models, Mus musculus and Xenopus laevis, taking advantages of experimental approaches optimal in each, including live imaging in the latter...
  43. Exploring the role of the central amygdala in vocalization
    IAN CHRISTOPHER HALL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..I will study this problem in a powerful model system (Xenopus laevis) in which vocal communication is well understood and the hindbrain vocal pattern generating circuit is mapped;..
  44. Molecular mechanism of FSHD pathology
    Peter L Jones; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The system for these studies is the vertebrate developmental model organism, Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)...
  45. Role of Ubp-M and H2A deubiquitination in chromatin and cellular function
    Hengbin Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our preliminary studies indicate that Ubp-M regulates early embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis and is highly expressed in ovarian and breast cancer cells, underscoring the importance to determine the ..
  46. p120-catenin sub-family functions
    Pierre D McCrea; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For our studies, we will predominantly employ Xenopus laevis (frog) embryos...
  47. The Role of the Activity-Regulated GTPase Rem2 in Dendrite Development
    AMY ELIZABETH GHIRETTI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To explore the role of Rem2 in such activity-dependent changes in morphology in vivo, the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, a well-characterized experimental system, will be used to identify how Rem2 participates in the ..
  48. Regulation of ADAM13 function during cranial neural crest migration
    Genevieve Abbruzzese; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Xenopus laevis, CNC migration requires the cell surface metalloprotease ADAM13, which has a dual function in the CNC...
    Nikolai O Artemyev; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and lipid modifications in transducin targeting, membrane mobility and interdisc transfer using transgenic Xenopus laevis expressing mutant EGFP-fused Gat1 subunits in rod photoreceptors...
  50. Functional Analysis of the Bifunctional Ion Channel and Kinase TRPM7
    Loren W Runnels; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found in Xenopus Laevis that depletion of TRPM7, the first ion channel discovered to have its own kinase domain, results in embryos ..
  51. Mechanisms of signal-dependant photoreceptor protein localization transport
    PETER DEANE CALVERT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein probes or fusions of endogenous proteins in retinal photoreceptors will be expressed in transgenic Xenopus laevis or mouse photoreceptors...
  52. Development of Xenopus as a Model to Study Congenital Heart Disease
    Ann F Ramsdell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..achieve this, the candidate has established an experimentally-induced heterotaxy model in embryos of the frog, Xenopus laevis. The heterotaxy embryos exhibit abnormal cardiac and visceral organ L-R asymmetries that are accompanied by ..
  53. Identifying the molecular basis of the maternal to zygotic transition
    Aaron F Straight; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..nature of this inhibitory activity we replicated early studies, which had been performed in intact embryos, in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and showed similar DNA concentration dependent transcriptional repression...
    Susana Cohen-Cory; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the proposed studies real-time imaging of neurons in developing Xenopus laevis embryos and state-of-the-art gain- and loss-of-function approaches will be used chronically and acutely ..
  55. Connecting signaling with cytoskeleton: Abl and Arg in vertebrate gastrulation
    Chenbei Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this project, gastrulation movements in African clawed frog Xenopus laevis will be used as the model system to assess the roles of Abl and Arg in morphogenesis...
  56. Signaling Mechanisms Coordinating Cell Fate Determination and Morphogenesis
    Daniel Weinstein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this application, we propose studies in embryos of the frog, Xenopus laevis, to define the mechanisms underlying the regulation of these processes by Ctrl...
  57. Identify, Characterize &Regulate Intermediate Conductance K Channels in Kidney
    JOHN QIANG LENG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that coassemble with ROMK subunits to form an IK channel by using standard expression screening techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  58. Novel Mechanism of Induction of Eye Tissue: Katp Channel Modulation
    Michael Levin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..biology, biophysics, and functional physiology techniques in a number of tractable model systems such as Xenopus laevis. Through five aims that use established techniques and reagents to test molecular hypotheses about the ..
    Hans G Othmer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the wing disc of Drosophila, an (3) studies on dorsal-ventral patterning in the African frog Drosophila, Xenopus laevis. The aims under (1) are to further advance our understanding of the role of stochastic fluctuations and the ..
  60. A genome assembly for Xenopus laevis
    DANIEL SOLEYMAN ROKHSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..here to complement the genome assembly of Xenopus tropicalis with a gene and protein level genome assembly for Xenopus laevis. The allotetraploid Xenopus laevis is in wider use than the smaller, diploid Xenopus tropicalis, because of ..
  61. Plasticity and Regulation in Xenopus Anterior-Posterior Patterning
    Margaret S Saha; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Here we employ the classic amphibian embryological system of Xenopus laevis to examine regulative ability during early embryogenesis...
  62. Cellular basis of visually-guided behavior during development
    Carlos D Aizenman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our proposal focuses on the developing optic tectum of the Xenopus laevis tadpole as a model system to address these issues...
  63. Mechanism of the eukaryotic replicative DNA helicase
    Johannes Walter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of vertebrate DNA replication, the applicant's laboratory employs a soluble cell-free system derived from Xenopus laevis eggs...
  64. Stimulating Regeneration in Mouse Limbs
    Gufa Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In ongoing studies on limb regeneration in the anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis, we have successfully stimulated limb regenerate by transplantation of limb progenitor cells in a fibrin gel ..
    Randall Moon; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..is to use antisense RNA techniques to cause defects in alpha-fodrin during muscle development in the frog Xenopus laevis. This technique involves cloning an alpha-fodrin cDNA in an antisense orientation under control of one of ..
  66. Investigating the role of leptin in larval growth and limb development in Xenopus
    ERICA CRESPI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..developmental processes, including limb bud growth and differentiation, in the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)...
    Paul Huber; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Protein-nucleic acid interactions are the fundamental basis for the control of genetic expression. Xenopus laevis contains two 5S rRNA multigene families that provide a simple, tractable model for the de- velopmental regulation of ..
    JERRY HEDRICK; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In the mature Xenopus laevis oocyte, as in mammalian species, the inositol phospholipid cascade has been demonstrated to be the major ..