sporozoites

Summary

Summary: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.

Top Publications

  1. Mikolajczak S, Silva Rivera H, Peng X, Tarun A, Camargo N, Jacobs Lorena V, et al. Distinct malaria parasite sporozoites reveal transcriptional changes that cause differential tissue infection competence in the mosquito vector and mammalian host. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6196-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkable changes in tissue infection competence are observed as the sporozoites transit from the midgut oocysts to the salivary glands...
  2. Mishra S, Rai U, Shiratsuchi T, Li X, Vanloubbeeck Y, Cohen J, et al. Identification of non-CSP antigens bearing CD8 epitopes in mice immunized with irradiated sporozoites. Vaccine. 2011;29:7335-42 pubmed publisher
    Immunization of BALB/c mice with irradiated sporozoites (IrSp) of Plasmodium yoelii can lead to sterile immunity. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) plays a dominant role in protection...
  3. Sinden R, Dawes E, Alavi Y, Waldock J, Finney O, Mendoza J, et al. Progression of Plasmodium berghei through Anopheles stephensi is density-dependent. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e195 pubmed publisher
    ..berghei to examine how parasite density at each stage of development (gametocytes; ookinetes; oocysts and sporozoites) influences development to the ensuing stage in Anopheles stephensi, and thus the delivery of infectious ..
  4. Wang C, Mwakalinga S, Sutherland C, Schwank S, Sharp S, Hermsen C, et al. Identification of a major rif transcript common to gametocytes and sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J. 2010;9:147 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum parasite is transmitted in its sexual gametocyte stage from man to mosquito and as asexual sporozoites from mosquito to man...
  5. Annoura T, Chevalley S, Janse C, Franke Fayard B, Khan S. Quantitative analysis of Plasmodium berghei liver stages by bioluminescence imaging. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;923:429-43 pubmed
  6. Schmidt N, Butler N, Badovinac V, Harty J. Extreme CD8 T cell requirements for anti-malarial liver-stage immunity following immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000998 pubmed publisher
    Radiation-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites (RAS) are the only vaccine shown to induce sterilizing protection against malaria in both humans and rodents...
  7. Seder R, Chang L, Enama M, Zephir K, Sarwar U, Gordon I, et al. Protection against malaria by intravenous immunization with a nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine. Science. 2013;341:1359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..protection against human malaria has only been achieved by inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ) by mosquito bites...
  8. Klotz C, Frevert U. Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites modulate cytokine profile and induce apoptosis in murine Kupffer cells. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1639-50 pubmed publisher
    Plasmodium sporozoites traverse Kupffer cells on their way into the liver...
  9. Srinivasan P, Fujioka H, Jacobs Lorena M. PbCap380, a novel oocyst capsule protein, is essential for malaria parasite survival in the mosquito. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, mosquitoes infected with PbCap380(-) parasites do not transmit malaria. Targeting of the oocyst capsule may provide a new strategy for malaria control. ..

More Information

Publications143 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tremp A, Dessens J. Malaria IMC1 membrane skeleton proteins operate autonomously and participate in motility independently of cell shape. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Family members IMC1a and IMC1b are differentially expressed in sporozoites and ookinetes, respectively, but have functionally equivalent roles affecting cell morphology, strength, ..
  2. Tse S, Cockburn I, Zhang H, Scott A, Zavala F. Unique transcriptional profile of liver-resident memory CD8+ T cells induced by immunization with malaria sporozoites. Genes Immun. 2013;14:302-9 pubmed publisher
    Sterile immunity against live Plasmodium infection can be achieved by immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites. This protection is known to be mediated in part by antigen-specific memory CD8(+) T cells, presumably those ..
  3. Kanoi B, Egwang T. New concepts in vaccine development in malaria. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007;20:311-6 pubmed
    ..is a renewed interest in whole attenuated sporozoite vaccines, either as irradiated or genetically modified sporozoites, because they consistently elicit solid protection against challenge infections...
  4. Kudryashev M, Lepper S, Stanway R, Bohn S, Baumeister W, Cyrklaff M, et al. Positioning of large organelles by a membrane- associated cytoskeleton in Plasmodium sporozoites. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:362-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that during fast, stop-and-go motion of Plasmodium sporozoites, all organelles stay largely fixed in respect to the moving parasite...
  5. Mauduit M, Tewari R, Depinay N, Kayibanda M, Lallemand E, Chavatte J, et al. Minimal role for the circumsporozoite protein in the induction of sterile immunity by vaccination with live rodent malaria sporozoites. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2182-8 pubmed publisher
    Immunization with live Plasmodium sporozoites under chloroquine prophylaxis (Spz plus CQ) induces sterile immunity against sporozoite challenge in rodents and, more importantly, in humans...
  6. Engelmann S, Silvie O, Matuschewski K. Disruption of Plasmodium sporozoite transmission by depletion of sporozoite invasion-associated protein 1. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:640-8 pubmed publisher
    Accumulation of infectious Plasmodium sporozoites in Anopheles spp. salivary glands marks the final step of the complex development of the malaria parasite in the insect vector...
  7. Song G, Koksal A, Lu C, Springer T. Shape change in the receptor for gliding motility in Plasmodium sporozoites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:21420-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insights into regulation of "stick-and-slip" parasite motility and for development of sporozoite subunit vaccines...
  8. Jobe O, Donofrio G, Sun G, Liepinsh D, Schwenk R, Krzych U. Immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites induces liver cCD8alpha+DC that activate CD8+T cells against liver-stage malaria. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5075 pubmed publisher
    Immunization with radiation (gamma)-attenuated Plasmodia sporozoites (gamma-spz) confers sterile and long-lasting immunity against malaria liver-stage infection. In the P...
  9. Vaughan A, Kappe S. Vaccination using radiation- or genetically attenuated live sporozoites. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;923:549-66 pubmed
    The attenuation of Plasmodium parasites by either radiation or targeted gene deletion can result in viable sporozoites that invade the liver and subsequently arrest...
  10. Belnoue E, Voza T, Costa F, Gruner A, Mauduit M, Rosa D, et al. Vaccination with live Plasmodium yoelii blood stage parasites under chloroquine cover induces cross-stage immunity against malaria liver stage. J Immunol. 2008;181:8552-8 pubmed
  11. King B, Hoefel D, Lim S, Robinson B, Monis P. Flow cytometric assessment of distinct physiological stages within Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites post-excystation. Parasitology. 2009;136:953-66 pubmed publisher
    ..provides an avenue for discrimination of distinct physiological events occurring within Cryptosporidium sporozoites post-excystation...
  12. Prudêncio M, Rodrigues C, Ataide R, Mota M. Dissecting in vitro host cell infection by Plasmodium sporozoites using flow cytometry. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:218-24 pubmed
    ..Here, we report on the use of flow cytometry, in conjunction with GFP-expressing Plasmodium sporozoites, to assess the various steps that constitute a successful malaria liver infection: cell traversal, hepatocyte ..
  13. Hoffman B, Chattopadhyay R. Plasmodium falciparum: effect of radiation on levels of gene transcripts in sporozoites. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:247-52 pubmed
    ..Radiation attenuates the sporozoites preventing them from fully developing and replicating in hepatocytes, but the effects of radiation on gene ..
  14. Amino R, Giovannini D, Thiberge S, Gueirard P, Boisson B, Dubremetz J, et al. Host cell traversal is important for progression of the malaria parasite through the dermis to the liver. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:88-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Motile sporozoites can invade host cells by disrupting their plasma membrane and migrating through them (termed cell traversal), ..
  15. Moreira C, Templeton T, Lavazec C, Hayward R, Hobbs C, Kroeze H, et al. The Plasmodium TRAP/MIC2 family member, TRAP-Like Protein (TLP), is involved in tissue traversal by sporozoites. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1505-16 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that TLP is predominantly expressed in salivary gland sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. berghei. Targeted disruption of P...
  16. Williams C, Azad A. Transcriptional analysis of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10267 pubmed publisher
    ..stages of Plasmodium, comparative transcriptional analysis was performed on radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS), wild type sporozoites (wtSPZ) and liver stage parasites collected either 24 hours (24hrLS) or 48 hours (..
  17. Inoue M, Culleton R. The intradermal route for inoculation of sporozoites of rodent malaria parasites for immunological studies. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..are commonly used for investigations into the immunology of pre-erythrocytic stage malaria infection, as sporozoites can be easily produced in the laboratory...
  18. Gomes Santos C, Braks J, Prudêncio M, Carret C, Gomes A, Pain A, et al. Transition of Plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein Pumilio. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002046 pubmed publisher
    ..non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from the ..
  19. Silvie O, Franetich J, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E, Mazier D. Alternative invasion pathways for Plasmodium berghei sporozoites. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:173-82 pubmed
    Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites is a prerequisite for establishment of a natural malaria infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying sporozoite invasion are largely unknown...
  20. Hermosilla C, Stamm I, Taubert A, Lutz K, Zahner H, Menge C. Fluorescent Eimeria bovis sporozoites and meront stages in vitro: a helpful tool to study parasite-host cell interactions. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:777-86 pubmed publisher
    A fluorescence-based technique was established to trace intracellular sporozoites of Eimeria bovis for tests on gliding motility, invasion, replication and quantification of infection rates in cultured bovine umbilical vein endothelial ..
  21. Ono T, Cabrita Santos L, Leitao R, Bettiol E, Purcell L, Diaz Pulido O, et al. Adenylyl cyclase alpha and cAMP signaling mediate Plasmodium sporozoite apical regulated exocytosis and hepatocyte infection. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000008 pubmed publisher
    Malaria starts with the infection of the liver of the host by Plasmodium sporozoites, the parasite form transmitted by infected mosquitoes...
  22. Silvie O, Goetz K, Matuschewski K. A sporozoite asparagine-rich protein controls initiation of Plasmodium liver stage development. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000086 pubmed publisher
    Plasmodium sporozoites invade host hepatocytes and develop as liver stages (LS) before the onset of erythrocytic infection and malaria symptoms...
  23. Cui L, Trongnipatt N, Sattabongkot J, Udomsangpetch R. Culture of exoerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;470:263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum and P. vivax. This technical advancement should be an important tool for directly studying developmental biology of the EE stages of the human malaria parasites and developing drugs against parasite liver stages. ..
  24. Vaughan A, Wang R, Kappe S. Genetically engineered, attenuated whole-cell vaccine approaches for malaria. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:107-13 pubmed
  25. Overstreet M, Chen Y, Cockburn I, Tse S, Zavala F. CD4+ T cells modulate expansion and survival but not functional properties of effector and memory CD8+ T cells induced by malaria sporozoites. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15948 pubmed publisher
    ..In response to immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites, CD8(+) T cells in BALB/c mice fail to generate large numbers of effector cells without help from CD4(+) T ..
  26. Weiss W, Jiang C. Protective CD8+ T lymphocytes in primates immunized with malaria sporozoites. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31247 pubmed publisher
    ..We immunized 9 rhesus monkeys with radiation attenuated Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites, and found that 5 did not develop blood stage infections after challenge with live sporozoites...
  27. Mikolajczak S, Kappe S. A clash to conquer: the malaria parasite liver infection. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1499-506 pubmed
    ..We also outline areas of liver stage research and technological development that provide promising foci to accelerate a better understanding of this most elusive of the parasites many life cycle stages. ..
  28. Sinnis P, Coppi A. A long and winding road: the Plasmodium sporozoite's journey in the mammalian host. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:171-8 pubmed
    ..Here we review our current knowledge of the molecular and cellular basis of this journey, which begins in the skin and ends in the hepatocyte. ..
  29. Hill A. Vaccines against malaria. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:2806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A protein in adjuvant vaccine, working through antibodies against sporozoites, and viral vector vaccines targeting the intracellular liver-stage parasite with cellular immunity show partial ..
  30. Overstreet M, Cockburn I, Chen Y, Zavala F. Protective CD8 T cells against Plasmodium liver stages: immunobiology of an 'unnatural' immune response. Immunol Rev. 2008;225:272-83 pubmed publisher
    Immunization with high doses of irradiated sporozoites delivered by the bites of infected mosquitoes has been shown to induce protective responses against malaria, mediated in part by CD8(+) T cells...
  31. Chatterjee A, Banerjee S, Steffen M, O Connor R, Ward H, Robbins P, et al. Evidence for mucin-like glycoproteins that tether sporozoites of Cryptosporidium parvum to the inner surface of the oocyst wall. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:84-96 pubmed publisher
    ..parvum oocysts, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, have a single, multilayered wall that surrounds four sporozoites, the invasive form. The C...
  32. Schmidt N, Butler N, Harty J. Plasmodium-host interactions directly influence the threshold of memory CD8 T cells required for protective immunity. J Immunol. 2011;186:5873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both Plasmodium species and strain-specific background genes in nonhematopoietic cells determine the threshold of memory CD8 T cells required for protection...
  33. Oliveira G, Kumar K, Calvo Calle J, Othoro C, Altszuler D, Nussenzweig V, et al. Class II-restricted protective immunity induced by malaria sporozoites. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1200-6 pubmed
    ..berghei sporozoites. Sterile immunity was obtained in the CD8+-T-cell-deficient mice immunized with either P. berghei or P...
  34. Yanow S, Purcell L, Pradel G, Sato A, Rodriguez A, Lee M, et al. Potent antimalarial and transmission-blocking activities of centanamycin, a novel DNA-binding agent. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that damage to parasite DNA during blood-stage infection persists from the vertebrate to the mosquito host and provides a novel biochemical strategy to block malaria transmission. ..
  35. Roestenberg M, McCall M, Hopman J, Wiersma J, Luty A, van Gemert G, et al. Protection against a malaria challenge by sporozoite inoculation. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:468-77 pubmed publisher
    ..and induction of protection in humans can be achieved artificially by the inoculation of radiation-attenuated sporozoites by means of more than 1000 infective mosquito bites...
  36. Butler N, Vaughan A, Harty J, Kappe S. Whole parasite vaccination approaches for prevention of malaria infection. Trends Immunol. 2012;33:247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..this, it has been known for more than 40 years that immunization with radiation-attenuated, whole Plasmodium sporozoites confers complete protection against malaria challenge...
  37. Spring M, Murphy J, Nielsen R, Dowler M, Bennett J, Zarling S, et al. First-in-human evaluation of genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by bite of Anopheles mosquitoes to adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2013;31:4975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A first generation Plasmodium falciparum GAP (Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP) was previously generated by deletion of two pre-erythrocytic stage-expressed genes (P52 and P36) in the NF54 strain...
  38. Mohanty A, Kar P, Mishra K, Singh D, Mohapatra N, Kar S, et al. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Anopheles fluviatilis species complex, human host preference, and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite presence, using a unique mosquito processing method. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:837-43 pubmed
    ..Human host preference was dominant in S type, of which 4% were P. falciparum sporozoite positive. This assay and processing method can also be used to evaluate vector competence of other anophelines. ..
  39. Okitsu S, Boato F, Mueller M, Li D, Vogel D, Westerfeld N, et al. Antibodies elicited by a virosomally formulated Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 derived peptide detect the processed 47 kDa fragment both in sporozoites and merozoites. Peptides. 2007;28:2051-60 pubmed
    ..Western blotting analysis proved for the first time the presence of SERA5 P47 in sporozoites. In immunofluorescence assays, the mAbs stained SERA5 in all its predicted localizations...
  40. Hutchings C, Birkett A, Moore A, Hill A. Combination of protein and viral vaccines induces potent cellular and humoral immune responses and enhanced protection from murine malaria challenge. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5819-26 pubmed
    ..Mice were then challenged with P. berghei sporozoites to determine the protective efficacies of different vaccine regimens...
  41. Purcell L, Yanow S, Lee M, Spithill T, Rodriguez A. Chemical attenuation of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites induces sterile immunity in mice. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1193-9 pubmed publisher
    Radiation and genetic attenuation of Plasmodium sporozoites are two approaches for whole-organism vaccines that protect against malaria. We evaluated chemical attenuation of sporozoites as an alternative vaccine strategy...
  42. Tan C, Vythilingam I, Matusop A, Chan S, Singh B. Bionomics of Anopheles latens in Kapit, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in relation to the transmission of zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Malar J. 2008;7:52 pubmed publisher
    ..A study was initiated to identify the vectors of malaria, to elucidate where transmission is taking place and to understand the bionomics of the vectors in Kapit...
  43. Blackman M. Malarial proteases and host cell egress: an 'emerging' cascade. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1925-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Egress of Plasmodium blood-stage merozoites, liver-stage merozoites and mosquito midgut sporozoites relies on protease activity, so the enzymes involved have potential as antimalarial drug targets...
  44. Butler N, Schmidt N, Vaughan A, Aly A, Kappe S, Harty J. Superior antimalarial immunity after vaccination with late liver stage-arresting genetically attenuated parasites. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:451-62 pubmed publisher
    While subunit vaccines have shown partial efficacy in clinical trials, radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) remain the "gold standard" for sterilizing protection against Plasmodium infection in human vaccinees...
  45. Kumar K, Garcia C, Chandran V, van Rooijen N, Zhou Y, Winzeler E, et al. Exposure of Plasmodium sporozoites to the intracellular concentration of potassium enhances infectivity and reduces cell passage activity. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;156:32-40 pubmed
    Malaria sporozoites migrate through several cells prior to a productive invasion that involves the formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) where sporozoites undergo transformation into Exo-erythorcytic forms (EEFs)...
  46. Bergmann Leitner E, Duncan E, Leitner W, Neutzner A, Savranskaya T, Angov E, et al. C3d-defined complement receptor-binding peptide p28 conjugated to circumsporozoite protein provides protection against Plasmodium berghei. Vaccine. 2007;25:7732-6 pubmed
    ..CSP-3p28-immunized mice were better protected against P. berghei sporozoites than CSP-immunized mice 6 weeks after the 2nd boost, produced sufficient IgG1 anti-CSP and CSP C-terminus ..
  47. Pinto S, Kafatos F, Michel K. The parasite invasion marker SRPN6 reduces sporozoite numbers in salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:891-8 pubmed
    For malaria transmission to occur, Plasmodium sporozoites must infect the salivary glands of their mosquito vectors...
  48. Lal K, Bromley E, Oakes R, Prieto J, Sanderson S, Kurian D, et al. Proteomic comparison of four Eimeria tenella life-cycle stages: unsporulated oocyst, sporulated oocyst, sporozoite and second-generation merozoite. Proteomics. 2009;9:4566-76 pubmed publisher
    ..were identified, with 630, 699, 845 and 1532 found in early oocysts (unsporulated), late oocysts (sporulated), sporozoites and second-generation merozoites, respectively...
  49. Butler N, Schmidt N, Harty J. Differential effector pathways regulate memory CD8 T cell immunity against Plasmodium berghei versus P. yoelii sporozoites. J Immunol. 2010;184:2528-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies also show that the effector pathways that memory CD8 T cells use to eliminate liver stage infection are, in part, Plasmodium species specific...
  50. Chatterjee S, Perignon J, Van Marck E, Druilhe P. How reliable are models for malaria vaccine development? Lessons from irradiated sporozoite immunizations. J Postgrad Med. 2006;52:321-4 pubmed
    ..In this context the analysis of natural host-parasite interactions between Plasmodium berghei and its mammalian host and reservoir, the tree rat Grammomys surdaster could ge of relevance in the study of host-parasite interactions. ..
  51. Raine J, Ecker A, Mendoza J, Tewari R, Stanway R, Sinden R. Female inheritance of malarial lap genes is essential for mosquito transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e30 pubmed
    ..in the production of heterokaryotic polyploid ookinetes and oocysts, and ultimately infective Deltapblap sporozoites, but not if the individual Deltapblap parasite lines were crossed amongst each other...
  52. Labaied M, Harupa A, Dumpit R, Coppens I, Mikolajczak S, Kappe S. Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites with simultaneous deletion of P52 and P36 are completely attenuated and confer sterile immunity against infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3758-68 pubmed
    Malaria infection starts when sporozoites are transmitted to the mammalian host during a mosquito bite. Sporozoites enter the blood circulation, reach the liver, and infect hepatocytes...
  53. Bongfen S, Balam S, Torgler R, Romero J, Corradin G. Processing of the circumsporozoite protein in infected hepatocytes is not dependent on aspartic proteases. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:375-8 pubmed publisher
  54. Renia L. Protective immunity against malaria liver stage after vaccination with live parasites. Parasite. 2008;15:379-83 pubmed
    ..Experimentally, induction of sterile immunity in humans after vaccination with attenuated sporozoites has been obtained...
  55. Friesen J, Matuschewski K. Comparative efficacy of pre-erythrocytic whole organism vaccine strategies against the malaria parasite. Vaccine. 2011;29:7002-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Irradiated sporozoites are the benchmark for an experimental live-attenuated malaria vaccine that induces potent protection against re-..
  56. Fritz H, Bowyer P, Bogyo M, Conrad P, Boothroyd J. Proteomic analysis of fractionated Toxoplasma oocysts reveals clues to their environmental resistance. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29955 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter are known from other systems to be key to enabling survival against desiccation...
  57. HILLYER J, Barreau C, Vernick K. Efficiency of salivary gland invasion by malaria sporozoites is controlled by rapid sporozoite destruction in the mosquito haemocoel. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:673-81 pubmed
    For successful transmission to the vertebrate host, malaria sporozoites must migrate from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands...
  58. Jin Y, Kebaier C, Vanderberg J. Direct microscopic quantification of dynamics of Plasmodium berghei sporozoite transmission from mosquitoes to mice. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5532-9 pubmed
    The number of malaria sporozoites delivered to a host by mosquitoes is thought to have a significant influence on the subsequent course of the infection in the mammalian host...
  59. Cunha Rodrigues M, Portugal S, Prudêncio M, Gonçalves L, Casalou C, Buger D, et al. Genistein-supplemented diet decreases malaria liver infection in mice and constitutes a potential prophylactic strategy. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2732 pubmed publisher
    ..Since genistein is a safe, low-cost, natural compound that can be used permanently in a diet, we propose its use as a prophylactic agent against malaria for endemic populations and long-time travelers. ..
  60. Ghosh A, Jacobs Lorena M. Plasmodium sporozoite invasion of the mosquito salivary gland. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review recent progress towards the elucidation of invasion mechanisms. ..
  61. Ganter M, Sch ler H, Matuschewski K. Vital role for the Plasmodium actin capping protein (CP) beta-subunit in motility of malaria sporozoites. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, due to reduced ookinete motility, mutant parasites form fewer oocysts and sporozoites in the Anopheles vector...
  62. Schmidt N, Butler N, Harty J. CD8 T cell immunity to Plasmodium permits generation of protective antibodies after repeated sporozoite challenge. Vaccine. 2009;27:6103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to repeated infections yet fail to develop sterilizing immunity, however, immunization of mice with attenuated sporozoites or subunit vaccines has shown the ability to protect mice against a sporozoite challenge...
  63. Mauduit M, Gruner A, Tewari R, Depinay N, Kayibanda M, Chavatte J, et al. A role for immune responses against non-CS components in the cross-species protection induced by immunization with irradiated malaria sporozoites. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7717 pubmed publisher
    Immunization with irradiated Plasmodium sporozoites induces sterile immunity in rodents, monkeys and humans...
  64. Hoffman S. Malaria: a protective paradox. Nature. 2006;444:824-7 pubmed
  65. Kumar K, Sano G, Boscardin S, Nussenzweig R, Nussenzweig M, Zavala F, et al. The circumsporozoite protein is an immunodominant protective antigen in irradiated sporozoites. Nature. 2006;444:937-40 pubmed
    Malaria infection starts when mosquitoes inject sporozoites into the skin. The parasites enter the blood stream and make their way to the liver where they develop into the exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs)...
  66. Labaied M, Camargo N, Kappe S. Depletion of the Plasmodium berghei thrombospondin-related sporozoite protein reveals a role in host cell entry by sporozoites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;153:158-66 pubmed
    ..b>Sporozoites engage in multiple interactions with vector and host tissue on the journey from their oocyst origin to their ..
  67. Jobe O, Lumsden J, Mueller A, Williams J, Silva Rivera H, Kappe S, et al. Genetically attenuated Plasmodium berghei liver stages induce sterile protracted protection that is mediated by major histocompatibility complex Class I-dependent interferon-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:599-607 pubmed
    At present, radiation-attenuated plasmodia sporozoites ( gamma -spz) is the only vaccine that induces sterile and lasting protection in malaria-naive humans and laboratory rodents. However, gamma -spz are not without risks...
  68. Ghosh A, Devenport M, Jethwaney D, Kalume D, Pandey A, Anderson V, et al. Malaria parasite invasion of the mosquito salivary gland requires interaction between the Plasmodium TRAP and the Anopheles saglin proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000265 pubmed publisher
    ..peptide that binds tightly to the Anopheles salivary gland and inhibits its invasion by Plasmodium sporozoites. By use of UV-crosslinking experiments between the peptide and its salivary gland target protein, we have ..
  69. Rennenberg A, Lehmann C, Heitmann A, Witt T, Hansen G, Nagarajan K, et al. Exoerythrocytic Plasmodium parasites secrete a cysteine protease inhibitor involved in sporozoite invasion and capable of blocking cell death of host hepatocytes. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000825 pubmed publisher
    Plasmodium parasites must control cysteine protease activity that is critical for hepatocyte invasion by sporozoites, liver stage development, host cell survival and merozoite liberation. Here we show that exoerythrocytic P...
  70. Volkmann K, Pfander C, Burstroem C, Ahras M, Goulding D, Rayner J, et al. The alveolin IMC1h is required for normal ookinete and sporozoite motility behaviour and host colonisation in Plasmodium berghei. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41409 pubmed publisher
    ..alveolins, IMC1a, b, and h, each resulted in reduced mechanical strength and gliding velocity of ookinetes or sporozoites. Using time lapse imaging, we show here that deletion of IMC1h (PBANKA_143660) also has an impact on the ..
  71. Tavares J, Formaglio P, Medvinsky A, Menard R, Amino R. Imaging sporozoite cell traversal in the liver of mice. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;923:401-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we present a basic protocol for imaging the sporozoite behavior in the liver, emphasizing the detection of the sporozoite's ability to traverse host cells. ..
  72. Hong Y, Lillehoj H, Siragusa G, Bannerman D, Lillehoj E. Antimicrobial activity of chicken NK-lysin against Eimeria sporozoites. Avian Dis. 2008;52:302-5 pubmed
    ..from the transfected cells both showed high cytotoxic activity against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima sporozoites. In contrast, no bactericidal activity was observed...
  73. Yuda M, Iwanaga S, Shigenobu S, Kato T, Kaneko I. Transcription factor AP2-Sp and its target genes in malarial sporozoites. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:854-63 pubmed publisher
    ..expression in this stage is regulated by an AP2-related transcription factor, designated AP2-Sp (APETALA2 in sporozoites), that is expressed from the late oocyst to the salivary gland sporozoite...
  74. Yadava A, Sattabongkot J, Washington M, Ware L, Majam V, Zheng H, et al. A novel chimeric Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein induces biologically functional antibodies that recognize both VK210 and VK247 sporozoites. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1177-85 pubmed
    ..vivax parasites. The circumsporozoite protein that covers the surface of Plasmodium sporozoites is one of the best-studied malarial antigens and the most promising vaccine in clinical trials...
  75. Sedegah M, Weiss W, Hoffman S. Cross-protection between attenuated Plasmodium berghei and P. yoelii sporozoites. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:559-65 pubmed
    ..Antibodies in sera of immunized mice only recognized homologous sporozoites and could not have mediated protection against heterologous challenge...
  76. Chattopadhyay R, Velmurugan S, Chakiath C, Andrews Donkor L, Milhous W, Barnwell J, et al. Establishment of an in vitro assay for assessing the effects of drugs on the liver stages of Plasmodium vivax malaria. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14275 pubmed publisher
    ..Pv has a unique feature in its life cycle. Uninucleate sporozoites (spz), after invasion of human hepatocytes, either proceed to develop into tens of thousands of merozoites ..
  77. Nganou Makamdop K, van Gemert G, Arens T, Hermsen C, Sauerwein R. Long term protection after immunization with P. berghei sporozoites correlates with sustained IFN? responses of hepatic CD8+ memory T cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36508 pubmed publisher
    ..berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis ..
  78. Yamauchi L, Coppi A, Snounou G, Sinnis P. Plasmodium sporozoites trickle out of the injection site. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:1215-22 pubmed
    Plasmodium sporozoites make a remarkable journey from the skin, where they are deposited by an infected Anopheline mosquito, to the liver, where they invade hepatocytes and develop into exoerythrocytic stages...
  79. Purcell L, Wong K, Yanow S, Lee M, Spithill T, Rodriguez A. Chemically attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites induce specific immune responses, sterile immunity and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccine. 2008;26:4880-4 pubmed publisher
    Vaccination with Plasmodium sporozoites attenuated by irradiation or genetic manipulation induces a protective immune response in rodent malaria models. Recently, vaccination with chemically attenuated P...
  80. Chattopadhyay R, De la Vega P, Paik S, Murata Y, Ferguson E, Richie T, et al. Early transcriptional responses of HepG2-A16 liver cells to infection by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26396-405 pubmed publisher
    Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites deposited by Anopheles mosquitoes, and their subsequent transformation into infective merozoites is an obligatory step in the initiation of malaria...
  81. Kaushansky A, Rezakhani N, Mann H, Kappe S. Development of a quantitative flow cytometry-based assay to assess infection by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;183:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This methodology will aid in assessing functional antibody responses to vaccination and novel drugs that prevent mosquito-to-man transmission of malaria...
  82. Bano N, Romano J, Jayabalasingham B, Coppens I. Cellular interactions of Plasmodium liver stage with its host mammalian cell. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1329-41 pubmed
  83. Druilhe P, Barnwell J. Pre-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccines: time for a change in path. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:371-8 pubmed
    ..promise as an effective intervention tool against malaria, as shown by immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites over four decades ago...
  84. Lacroix C, Menard R. TRAP-like protein of Plasmodium sporozoites: linking gliding motility to host-cell traversal. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:431-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the molecular bases of these behaviors are typically considered separately, two recent reports suggest the first molecular link between the two via a novel protein called 'TRAP-like protein'...
  85. Srinivasan P, Coppens I, Jacobs Lorena M. Distinct roles of Plasmodium rhomboid 1 in parasite development and malaria pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000262 pubmed publisher
    ..PbROM1 localizes to the surface of sporozoites after salivary gland invasion...
  86. Lindner S, Swearingen K, Harupa A, Vaughan A, Sinnis P, Moritz R, et al. Total and putative surface proteomics of malaria parasite salivary gland sporozoites. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:1127-43 pubmed publisher
    Malaria infections of mammals are initiated by the transmission of Plasmodium salivary gland sporozoites during an Anopheles mosquito vector bite...
  87. Vanderberg J. Imaging mosquito transmission of Plasmodium sporozoites into the mammalian host: immunological implications. Parasitol Int. 2014;63:150-64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sporozoites are injected into extravascular portions of the skin while the mosquito is probing for a blood source...
  88. Kebaier C, Voza T, Vanderberg J. Kinetics of mosquito-injected Plasmodium sporozoites in mice: fewer sporozoites are injected into sporozoite-immunized mice. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000399 pubmed publisher
    Malaria is initiated when the mosquito introduces sporozoites into the skin of a mammalian host. To successfully continue the infection, sporozoites must invade blood vessels in the dermis and be transported to the liver...
  89. Khalafalla R, Muller U, Shahiduzzaman M, Dyachenko V, Desouky A, Alber G, et al. Effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) on Eimeria tenella sporozoites in vitro. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:879-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Its effects were evaluated on Eimeria tenella sporozoites, including morphological alterations, sporozoite viability and infectivity to Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) ..
  90. Kudryashev M, Münter S, Lemgruber L, Montagna G, Stahlberg H, Matuschewski K, et al. Structural basis for chirality and directional motility of Plasmodium sporozoites. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1757-68 pubmed publisher
    Plasmodium sporozoites can move at high speed for several tens of minutes, which is essential for the initial stage of a malaria infection...
  91. Roestenberg M, Bijker E, Sim B, Billingsley P, James E, Bastiaens G, et al. Controlled human malaria infections by intradermal injection of cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:5-13 pubmed publisher
    Controlled human malaria infection with sporozoites is a standardized and powerful tool for evaluation of malaria vaccine and drug efficacy but so far only applied by exposure to bites of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-infected mosquitoes...
  92. Hegge S, Kudryashev M, Smith A, Frischknecht F. Automated classification of Plasmodium sporozoite movement patterns reveals a shift towards productive motility during salivary gland infection. Biotechnol J. 2009;4:903-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Sporozoite Tracking (ToAST) that allows the rapid simultaneous analysis of several hundred motile Plasmodium sporozoites, the stage of the malaria parasite transmitted by the mosquito...