oocysts

Summary

Summary: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.

Top Publications

  1. Kar S, Gawlowska S, Daugschies A, Bangoura B. Quantitative comparison of different purification and detection methods for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of C. parvum is mainly performed directly but purification of the oocysts is useful to increase sensitivity and to obtain oocyst material for further use...
  2. Jenkins M, O Brien C, Miska K, Schwarz R, Karns J, Santin M, et al. Gene expression during excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:509-13 pubmed publisher
    ..of mRNA from genes encoding metabolic or structural proteins during excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. RNA was harvested from C. parvum oocysts before excystation, and at 5, 10, and 15 min during excystation...
  3. Hughes G, Koga R, Xue P, Fukatsu T, Rasgon J. Wolbachia infections are virulent and inhibit the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles gambiae. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002043 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that if stable transinfections act in a similar manner to somatic infections, Wolbachia could potentially be used as part of a strategy to control the Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria...
  4. Mattos A, Martins Souza R, Kusel J, Coelho P. Interaction between primary and secondary sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni and the internal defence system of Biomphalaria resistant and susceptible to the parasite. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:424-32 pubmed
    ..tenagophila IDS cannot be confirmed by the transplantation experiments. These data suggest that there are additional mechanisms involved in the lower susceptibilty of B. tenagophila to S. mansoni infection...
  5. Martins Souza R, Pereira C, Rodrigues L, Araújo E, Coelho P, Correa A, et al. Participation of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine carbohydrate moieties in the recognition of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts by haemocytes of Biomphalaria tenagophila. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:884-91 pubmed
    ..mansoni by B. tenagophila Taim...
  6. Karanis P, Aldeyarbi H, Mirhashemi M, Khalil K. The impact of the waterborne transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and analysis efforts for water detection: an overview and update. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:86-99 pubmed publisher
    The ubiquitous protozoa Toxoplasma gondii is now the subject of renewed interest, due to the spread of oocysts via water causing waterborne outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in different parts of the world...
  7. Possenti A, Cherchi S, Bertuccini L, Pozio E, Dubey J, Spano F. Molecular characterisation of a novel family of cysteine-rich proteins of Toxoplasma gondii and ultrastructural evidence of oocyst wall localisation. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We analysed a cDNA library from partially sporulated oocysts of T...
  8. Shapiro K, Conrad P, Mazet J, Wallender W, Miller W, Largier J. Effect of estuarine wetland degradation on transport of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from land to sea. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6821-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surrogate particles that mimic the behavior of T. gondii oocysts in water were released in transport studies to evaluate if the loss of estuarine wetlands is contributing to an ..
  9. Lee M, Cho E, Lee J, Han S, Park Y. A survey of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies during a 10-year period (2000-2009) in Seoul. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:219-24 pubmed publisher
    This study has been conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies in the Metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea, for 10 years from 2000 to 2009...

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Soares R, Lopes E, Keid L, Sercundes M, Martins J, Richtzenhain L. Identification of Hammondia heydorni oocysts by a heminested-PCR (hnPCR-AP10) based on the H. heydorni RAPD fragment AP10. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:168-72 pubmed publisher
    ..They are closely related coccidians with similarly sized oocysts. Molecular diagnostic techniques, especially those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), can be successfully ..
  2. de Miranda R, de Castro J, Olegário M, Beletti M, Mundim A, O Dwyer L, et al. Oocysts of Hepatozoon canis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from a naturally infected dog. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper presents the first report of the presence of Hepatozoon canis oocysts in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from an infected dog.
  3. Du F, Feng H, Nie H, Tu P, Zhang Q, Hu M, et al. Survey on the contamination of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the soil of public parks of Wuhan, China. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first investigation on soil contamination of public parks in China by T. gondii oocysts. The results indicate that the soil of public parks contaminated with T...
  4. Fritz H, Bowyer P, Bogyo M, Conrad P, Boothroyd J. Proteomic analysis of fractionated Toxoplasma oocysts reveals clues to their environmental resistance. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29955 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the difficulty in producing and working with oocysts, relatively little is known about how this stage is able to resist extreme environmental stresses and how they ..
  5. Munoz Zanzi C, Fry P, Lesina B, Hill D. Toxoplasma gondii oocyst-specific antibodies and source of infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1591-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Because 43% had oocyst-specific antibodies, we conclude that contaminated meat remains the primary source of infection but that environmental sources also pose substantial risk...
  6. Usui M, Fukumoto S, Inoue N, Kawazu S. Improvement of the observational method for Plasmodium berghei oocysts in the midgut of mosquitoes. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:118 pubmed publisher
    There is a need for improving the method for counting oocysts of Plasmodium berghei in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes...
  7. Mai K, Smith N, Feng Z, Katrib M, Slapeta J, Slapetova I, et al. Peroxidase catalysed cross-linking of an intrinsically unstructured protein via dityrosine bonds in the oocyst wall of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria maxima. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:1157-64 pubmed publisher
  8. Xiao S, An W, Chen Z, Zhang D, Yu J, Yang M. Occurrences and genotypes of Cryptosporidium oocysts in river network of southern-eastern China. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1701-9 pubmed publisher
    Transportation of Cryptosporidium oocysts in river type source water is of great concern in an area where extensive human activities exist...
  9. Boyer K, Hill D, Mui E, Wroblewski K, Karrison T, Dubey J, et al. Unrecognized ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts leads to congenital toxoplasmosis and causes epidemics in North America. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:1081-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A new test detecting antibodies to sporozoites demonstrated that oocysts were the predominant source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 4 North American epidemics and in mothers of ..
  10. Herrmann D, Maksimov A, Pantchev N, Vrhovec M, Conraths F, Schares G. Comparison of different commercial DNA extraction kits to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in cat faeces. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011;124:497-502 pubmed
    ..gondii and H. hammondi was spiked with 10(4), 10(3), 10(2), 50 and 10 H. hammondi oocysts. Several ready-to-use stool or soil kits and an in-house method were then used to extract parasite DNA from these ..
  11. Du F, Zhang Q, Yu Q, Hu M, Zhou Y, Zhao J. Soil contamination of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in pig farms in central China. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:53-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Most pigs become infected by ingestion of oocysts from contaminated environment (soil, water and feed) or infected animal tissues postnatally...
  12. Nguyen S, Honma H, Geurden T, Ikarash M, Fukuda Y, Huynh V, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium oocysts shedding in pigs in Central Vietnam. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:848-52 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium oocysts shedding in pigs in Central Vietnam...
  13. Mohanram A, Ray C, Harvey R, Metge D, Ryan J, Chorover J, et al. Comparison of transport and attachment behaviors of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized microspheres being advected through three minerologically different granular porous media. Water Res. 2010;44:5334-44 pubmed publisher
    In order to gain more information about the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in tropical volcanic soils, the transport and attachment behaviors of oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres were studied in the presence of ..
  14. Costa G, da Costa A, Lopes W, Bresciani K, dos Santos T, Esper C, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: infection natural congenital in cattle and an experimental inoculation of gestating cows with oocysts. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:277-81 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii: GI consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their first trimester of gestation; GII consisted of three cows inoculated with 1...
  15. Wang R, Ma G, Zhao J, Lu Q, Wang H, Zhang L, et al. Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult dairy cattle in China. Parasitol Int. 2011;60:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..from 22 dairy cattle farms in ten prefectures in Henan Province were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 7.9%, with the highest infection rate (11...
  16. Remmal A, Achahbar S, Bouddine L, Chami N, Chami F. In vitro destruction of Eimeria oocysts by essential oils. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were obtained after approximately three hours contact. Four EOs were proven to destroy Eimeria oocysts in a few hours at low concentration. This destructive effect is a consequence of their lysis...
  17. Fritz H, Barr B, Packham A, Melli A, Conrad P. Methods to produce and safely work with large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and bradyzoite cysts. J Microbiol Methods. 2012;88:47-52 pubmed publisher
    Two major obstacles to conducting studies with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are the difficulty in reliably producing large numbers of this life stage and safety concerns because the oocyst is the most environmentally resistant stage of this ..
  18. Fritz H, Buchholz K, Chen X, Durbin Johnson B, Rocke D, Conrad P, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of toxoplasma development reveals many novel functions and structures specific to sporozoites and oocysts. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29998 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting immature oocysts are excreted into the environment during defecation, where in the days following, they undergo a complex ..
  19. Petersen H, Enemark H, Olsen A, Amin M, Dalsgaard A. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5994-6000 pubmed publisher
    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry...
  20. Zhang H, Guo F, Zhou H, Zhu G. Transcriptome analysis reveals unique metabolic features in the Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts associated with environmental survival and stresses. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:647 pubmed publisher
    ..Global transcriptome analysis using CpArray15K coupled with real-time qRT-PCR uncovered a number of unique metabolic features in oocysts, the infectious and environmental stage of the parasite.
  21. Berger Schoch A, Herrmann D, Schares G, Muller N, Bernet D, Gottstein B, et al. Prevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in feline faeces (oocysts) and meat from sheep, cattle and pigs in Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:290-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-natal infection in humans is acquired through oral uptake of sporulated T. gondii oocysts or by ingestion of parasite tissue cysts upon consumption of raw or undercooked meat...
  22. Harris C, Morlais I, Churcher T, Awono Ambene P, Gouagna L, Dabire R, et al. Plasmodium falciparum produce lower infection intensities in local versus foreign Anopheles gambiae populations. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30849 pubmed publisher
    ..Sympatric infections were found to produce 25% fewer oocysts per midgut than allopatric infections, while prevalence was not affected by local/foreign interactions...
  23. Lelu M, Villena I, Dardé M, Aubert D, Geers R, Dupuis E, et al. Quantitative estimation of the viability of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5127-32 pubmed publisher
    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts spread in the environment are an important source of toxoplasmosis for humans and animal species...
  24. Vanwormer E, Fritz H, Shapiro K, Mazet J, Conrad P. Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;36:217-31 pubmed publisher
    Environmental transmission of extremely resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has resulted in infection of diverse species around the world, leading to severe disease and deaths in human and animal populations. This review explores T...
  25. Torrey E, Yolken R. Toxoplasma oocysts as a public health problem. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:380-4 pubmed publisher
    Waterborne outbreaks of Toxoplasma gondii have focused attention on the importance of oocysts shed in the feces of infected cats. Cat feces deposited annually into the environment in the United States total approximately 1...
  26. Noden B, Vaughan J, Pumpuni C, Beier J. Mosquito ingestion of antibodies against mosquito midgut microbiota improves conversion of ookinetes to oocysts for Plasmodium falciparum, but not P. yoelii. Parasitol Int. 2011;60:440-6 pubmed publisher
    ..rates occurred at some stage between the ookinete and oocyst stage and was associated with greater numbers of oocysts in mosquitoes fed on immune sera. The same immune sera did not affect the sporogonic development of P...
  27. Baton L, Ranford Cartwright L. Ookinete destruction within the mosquito midgut lumen explains Anopheles albimanus refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum (3D7A) oocyst infection. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In 22 independent paired experimental feeds, no mature oocysts were observed on the midguts of A. albimanus 10days after bloodfeeding...
  28. Simon A, Poulin M, Rousseau A, Ogden N. Fate and transport of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in seasonally snow covered watersheds: a conceptual framework from a melting snowpack to the Canadian arctic coasts. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:994-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explore the hypothesis that T. gondii oocysts contaminate the coastal marine environment via surface runoff from across the boreal watershed, particularly ..
  29. Cheun H, Choi T, Chung G, Cho S, Lee Y, Kimata I, et al. Genotypic characterization of cryptosporidium oocysts isolated from healthy people in three different counties of Korea. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:1099-101 pubmed
    ..In 12 of 150 samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by means of modified acid-fast staining...
  30. Grigg M, Sundar N. Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma's current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer. ..
  31. Mai K, Sharman P, Walker R, Katrib M, De Souza D, McConville M, et al. Oocyst wall formation and composition in coccidian parasites. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:281-9 pubmed
    ..This resilience allows oocysts to survive for long periods, facilitating transmission from host to host...
  32. Wolyniak E, Hargreaves B, Jellison K. Retention and release of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by experimental biofilms composed of a natural stream microbial community. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4624-6 pubmed publisher
    Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts accumulate on biofilm surfaces...
  33. Razawi S, Oryan A, Bahrami S, Mohammadalipour A, Gowhari M. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in a slaughterhouse in Iran. Trop Biomed. 2009;26:267-73 pubmed
    ..9%) were found positive for oocysts. No significant differences were observed between males and females, and among different age groups...
  34. Mahairaki V, Lycett G, Siden Kiamos I, Sinden R, Louis C. Close association of invading Plasmodium berghei and beta integrin in the Anopheles gambiae midgut. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;60:13-9 pubmed
    ..This intimate association suggests a specific role of beta integrin in the invasion process. ..
  35. Hussein E, El Moamly A, Dawoud H, Fahmy H, El Shal H, Sabek N. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry in detection of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatrics patients. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2007;37:151-70 pubmed
    The magnitude of Cyclospora oocysts excretion in relation to infection intensity among cyclosporiasis patients was assessed using flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Oocysts from stool samples of 25 (14...
  36. Mzilahowa T, McCall P, Hastings I. "Sexual" population structure and genetics of the malaria agent P. falciparum. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e613 pubmed
    ..Seven thousand mosquitoes were collected and dissected, and genetic data were obtained on 190 oocysts from 56 infected midguts. The oocysts were genotyped at three microsatellite loci and the MSP1 locus...
  37. Wu X, Sabat G, Brown J, Zhang M, Taft A, Peterson N, et al. Proteomic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni proteins released during in vitro miracidium-to-sporocyst transformation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;164:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..g., those involved in stress responses, proteolysis/inhibition, antioxidant and detoxication, and immune modulation, that may play a parasite protective role during this crucial period of transition. ..
  38. Karanis P, Thekisoe O, Kiouptsi K, Ongerth J, Igarashi I, Inoue N. Development and preliminary evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure for sensitive detection of cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal and water samples. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5660-2 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of LAMP applied to detection of Cryptosporidium. Due to its specificity and simplicity, the method could become a useful diagnostic tool for epidemiologic studies of Cryptosporidium presence. ..
  39. Cook N, Nichols R, Wilkinson N, Paton C, Barker K, Smith H. Development of a method for detection of Giardia duodenalis cysts on lettuce and for simultaneous analysis of salad products for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7388-91 pubmed
    ..which we subsequently use to examine salad products for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The method is based on four basic steps: extraction of cysts from the foodstuffs, concentration of the extract ..
  40. Moon E, Chung D, Hong Y, Ahn T, Kong H. Acanthamoeba castellanii: gene profile of encystation by ESTs analysis and KOG assignment. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Five kinds of proteinase genes were detected in cyst ESTs. The information of the genes expressed during encystation may open the way to further study on differentiation and resistance of cyst-forming pathogenic protozoa. ..
  41. Miller M, Miller W, Conrad P, James E, Melli A, Leutenegger C, et al. Type X Toxoplasma gondii in a wild mussel and terrestrial carnivores from coastal California: new linkages between terrestrial mammals, runoff and toxoplasmosis of sea otters. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii archetypal I, II, III and Type X genotypes. Marine bivalves have been shown to concentrate T. gondii oocysts in the laboratory, but a comprehensive survey of wild invertebrates has not been reported...
  42. Czesny B, Goshu S, Cook J, Williamson K. The proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin has potent Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocidal activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide strong support for the further development of proteasome inhibitors as antimalaria agents that are effective against asexual, sexual, and mosquito midgut stages of P. falciparum. ..
  43. Abudalo R, Ryan J, Harvey R, Metge D, Landkamer L. Influence of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a ferric oxyhydroxide-coated quartz sand saturated porous medium. Water Res. 2010;44:1104-13 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effect of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a geochemically heterogeneous saturated porous medium, we measured the breakthrough and collision efficiencies of oocysts as a function of ..
  44. Cirimotich C, Dong Y, Garver L, Sim S, Dimopoulos G. Mosquito immune defenses against Plasmodium infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:387-95 pubmed publisher
  45. Atwill E, Pereira M, Alonso L, Elmi C, Epperson W, Smith R, et al. Environmental load of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from cattle manure in feedlots from the central and western United States. J Environ Qual. 2006;35:200-6 pubmed
    The first step in assessing the risk of water contamination by Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from feedlot cattle (Bos taurus) production systems is to quantify the number of C...
  46. Blake D, Hesketh P, Archer A, Shirley M, Smith A. Eimeria maxima: the influence of host genotype on parasite reproduction as revealed by quantitative real-time PCR. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:97-105 pubmed
    ..Parasite DNA remained detectable up to 20 days post-infection; 11 days after the last oocysts had been detected leaving the host.
  47. Belli S, Smith N, Ferguson D. The coccidian oocyst: a tough nut to crack!. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:416-23 pubmed
    Coccidian parasites are transmitted between hosts by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts, followed by the release of infectious sporozoites and invasion of the gastro-intestinal tract...
  48. Vermeire J, Yoshino T. Antioxidant gene expression and function in in vitro-developing Schistosoma mansoni mother sporocysts: possible role in self-protection. Parasitology. 2007;134:1369-78 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that Prx1 and Prx2 may function in the protection of S. mansoni sporocysts during the early stages of infection. ..
  49. Carter V, Nacer A, Underhill A, Sinden R, Hurd H. Minimum requirements for ookinete to oocyst transformation in Plasmodium. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1221-32 pubmed
    ..8 to 11.4microm by day 5 with 84% viability. We conclude that ookinete transformation is mediated by bicarbonate and occurs in a similar manner to the differentiation of sporozoite to the hepatic stage. ..
  50. Lass A, Pietkiewicz H, Modzelewska E, Dumètre A, Szostakowska B, Myjak P. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental soil samples using molecular methods. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, there is no sufficient information concerning T. gondii oocysts prevalence in the environment, especially in soil...
  51. Innes E, Bartley P, Buxton D, Katzer F. Ovine toxoplasmosis. Parasitology. 2009;136:1887-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The cat is the definitive host of the parasite, and infected cats may shed millions of oocysts in their faeces resulting in extensive environmental contamination and an important source of infection for ..
  52. Lee S, Lillehoj H, Dalloul R, Park D, Hong Y, Lin J. Influence of Pediococcus-based probiotic on coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2007;86:63-6 pubmed
    ..1% (MG 0.1) or 0.2% MitoGrow. Chicks were orally challenged with 5,000 or 10,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina or with 5,000 Eimeria tenella oocysts on d 10 or 12 of age, respectively. In E...
  53. Reinoso R, Becares E, Smith H. Effect of various environmental factors on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:980-6 pubmed
    ..ammonia (5 and 50 mg l(-1)) and exposure time (1, 2, 4 and 6 days) on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water...
  54. Gupta L, Molina Cruz A, Kumar S, Rodrigues J, Dixit R, Zamora R, et al. The STAT pathway mediates late-phase immunity against Plasmodium in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..AgSTAT-A silencing reduces the number of early Plasmodium oocysts in the midgut, but nevertheless enhances the overall infection by increasing oocyst survival...
  55. Conrad P, Miller M, Kreuder C, James E, Mazet J, Dabritz H, et al. Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1155-68 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the most likely source of infection is by infectious, environmentally resistant oocysts that are shed in the feces of felids and transported via freshwater runoff into the marine ecosystem...
  56. Lee S, Joung M, Nam T, Park W, Yu J. Quantitative evaluation of infectivity change of Cryptosporidium parvum after gamma irradiation. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:7-11 pubmed publisher
    ..parvum after gamma irradiation and repair of the infectivity during incubation time after irradiation. C. parvum oocysts were subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses (1, 5, 10, and 25 kGy), and the in vitro infectivity was ..
  57. Votypka J, Lantová L, Ghosh K, Braig H, Volf P. Molecular characterization of gregarines from sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and description of Psychodiella n. g. (Apicomplexa: Gregarinida). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2009;56:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..genus Psychodiella is distinguished from all other related gregarine genera by the characteristic localization of oocysts in accessory glands of female hosts, distinctive nucleotide sequences of the small subunit rDNA, and host ..
  58. Aly A, Matuschewski K. A malarial cysteine protease is necessary for Plasmodium sporozoite egress from oocysts. J Exp Med. 2005;202:225-30 pubmed
    ..Herein, we describe a complete arrest of Plasmodium sporozoite egress from Anopheles midgut oocysts by targeted disruption of a stage-specific cysteine protease...
  59. Hijnen W, Beerendonk E, Medema G. Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: a review. Water Res. 2006;40:3-22 pubmed
    ..For UV systems that are primarily dedicated to inactivate the more sensitive pathogens (Cryptosporidium, Giardia, pathogenic bacteria), additional model organisms are needed to serve as biodosimeter. ..
  60. Dabritz H, Miller M, Atwill E, Gardner I, Leutenegger C, Melli A, et al. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:1676-84 pubmed
    To estimate the analytic sensitivity of microscopic detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and the environmental loading of T gondii oocysts on the basis of prevalence of shedding by owned and unowned cats. Cross-sectional survey...
  61. Yanow S, Purcell L, Pradel G, Sato A, Rodriguez A, Lee M, et al. Potent antimalarial and transmission-blocking activities of centanamycin, a novel DNA-binding agent. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that damage to parasite DNA during blood-stage infection persists from the vertebrate to the mosquito host and provides a novel biochemical strategy to block malaria transmission. ..
  62. Han H, Lin J, Zhao Q, Dong H, Jiang L, Xu M, et al. Identification of differentially expressed genes in early stages of Eimeria tenella by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray. J Parasitol. 2010;96:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Three subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed for 3 stages of E. tenella including unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and sporozoites...
  63. Dubey J. Comparative infectivity of oocysts and bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii for intermediate (mice) and definitive (cats) hosts. Vet Parasitol. 2006;140:69-75 pubmed
    Tachyzoites, bradyzoites (in tissue cysts), and sporozoites (in oocysts) are the three infectious stages of Toxoplasma gondii. The prepatent period (time to shedding of oocysts after primary infection) varies with the stage of T...
  64. Dubey J, Sundar N, Pineda N, Kyvsgaard N, Luna L, Rimbaud E, et al. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America. Vet Parasitol. 2006;142:47-53 pubmed
    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T...
  65. Schares G, Vrhovec M, Pantchev N, Herrmann D, Conraths F. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Hammondia hammondi oocysts in the faeces of cats from Germany and other European countries. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:34-45 pubmed publisher
    ..2004 and November 2006 to estimate the prevalence of animals shedding Toxoplasma gondii or Hammondia hammondi oocysts. Oocysts of 9-15 microm size with a morphology similar to that of H. hammondi and T...
  66. Mendes A, Schlegelmilch T, Cohuet A, Awono Ambene P, De Iorio M, Fontenille D, et al. Conserved mosquito/parasite interactions affect development of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000069 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists...
  67. Majewska A, Graczyk T, Słodkowicz Kowalska A, Tamang L, Jedrzejewski S, Zduniak P, et al. The role of free-ranging, captive, and domestic birds of Western Poland in environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:1093-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-six (5.2%) tested positive for G. lamblia cysts and 19 (3.8%) for C. parvum oocysts. A bird total of 23 (7.5%) free-ranging, two (2.2%) captive, and one (0...
  68. Pereira C, Martins Souza R, Correa A, Coelho P, Negrão Corrêa D. Participation of cell-free haemolymph of Biomphalaria tenagophila in the defence mechanism against Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mansoni sporocysts. The results also suggest that cell-free haemolymph indirectly increases parasite recognition by the circulating granulocytes and it is species specific. ..
  69. Liu Y, Janjaroen D, Kuhlenschmidt M, Kuhlenschmidt T, Nguyen T. Deposition of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts on natural organic matter surfaces: microscopic evidence for secondary minimum deposition in a radial stagnation point flow cell. Langmuir. 2009;25:1594-605 pubmed publisher
    ..RSPF) system combined with a microscope was used to determine the deposition kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts on quartz surfaces and silica surfaces coated with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) in solutions ..
  70. Dabritz H, Conrad P. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:34-52 pubmed publisher
    ..do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg...
  71. BAJSZAR G, Dekonenko A. Stress-induced Hsp70 gene expression and inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by chlorine-based oxidants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1732-9 pubmed publisher
    Our research on the mechanisms of action of chlorine-based oxidants on Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water revealed a dual-phase effect: (i) response to oxidative stress, which was demonstrated by induced expression of the Hsp70 heat ..
  72. Dubey J, Schares G, Ortega Mora L. Epidemiology and control of neosporosis and Neospora caninum. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20:323-67 pubmed
    ..caninum in animals and humans are tabulated. The role of wildlife in the life cycle of N. caninum and strategies for the control of neosporosis in cattle are discussed. ..
  73. Wainwright K, Lagunas Solar M, Miller M, Barr B, Gardner I, Pina C, et al. Physical inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5663-6 pubmed
    Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts occurred with exposure to pulsed and continuous UV radiation, as evidenced by mouse bioassay. Even at doses of >or=500 mJ/cm2, some oocysts retained their viability.
  74. Kaya G, Dale C, Maudlin I, Morgan K. A novel procedure for total nucleic acid extraction from small numbers of Eimeria species oocysts. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2007;31:180-3 pubmed
    A series of experiments were performed in an attempt to extract genomic DNA from a small number of Eimerian oocysts. Sonication, ammonia, ethanol and lysozyme were all found to be unsuitable for the digestion of Eimeria oocysts...
  75. Sinden R, Dawes E, Alavi Y, Waldock J, Finney O, Mendoza J, et al. Progression of Plasmodium berghei through Anopheles stephensi is density-dependent. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e195 pubmed publisher
    ..parasite Plasmodium berghei to examine how parasite density at each stage of development (gametocytes; ookinetes; oocysts and sporozoites) influences development to the ensuing stage in Anopheles stephensi, and thus the delivery of ..
  76. Lasonder E, Janse C, van Gemert G, Mair G, Vermunt A, Douradinha B, et al. Proteomic profiling of Plasmodium sporozoite maturation identifies new proteins essential for parasite development and infectivity. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000195 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the first proteomic comparison of different parasite stages from the mosquito -- early and late oocysts containing midgut sporozoites, and the mature, infectious salivary gland sporozoites...
  77. Lal K, Delves M, Bromley E, Wastling J, Tomley F, Sinden R. Plasmodium male development gene-1 (mdv-1) is important for female sexual development and identifies a polarised plasma membrane during zygote development. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the fully developed ookinete MDV-1 is localised to the posterior pole. In vivo, the knock-out parasites demonstrate a phenotype in which there is a 90% reduction of parasite transmission to oocysts in mosquitoes.
  78. Pan Y, Cho C, Kao Y, Sun C. A novel WRKY-like protein involved in transcriptional activation of cyst wall protein genes in Giardia lamblia. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17975-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the WRKY family has been conserved during evolution and that WRKY is an important transactivator of the cwp1-2 genes during G. lamblia differentiation into dormant cysts. ..
  79. Belli S, Ferguson D, Katrib M, Slapetova I, Mai K, Slapeta J, et al. Conservation of proteins involved in oocyst wall formation in Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1063-70 pubmed publisher
    ..maxima cross-react with homologous proteins in other species, helping to explain cross-species maternal immunity...
  80. Wolyniak E, Hargreaves B, Jellison K. Seasonal retention and release of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by environmental biofilms in the laboratory. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1021-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For each seasonal biofilm, oocysts attached to the biofilm quickly during oocyst dosing...
  81. Cheru L, Wu Y, Diouf A, Moretz S, Muratova O, Song G, et al. The IC(50) of anti-Pfs25 antibody in membrane-feeding assay varies among species. Vaccine. 2010;28:4423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-Pfs25 antibodies block the development of oocysts in membrane-feeding assays and we have shown the activity correlates with antibody titer...
  82. Amorós I, Alonso J, Cuesta G. Cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts on salad products irrigated with contaminated water. J Food Prot. 2010;73:1138-40 pubmed
    ..In this study, vegetables were analyzed using a recently reported method for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on salad products. The waters tested were positive for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia...
  83. Giangaspero A, Molini U, Iorio R, Traversa D, Paoletti B, Giansante C. Cryptosporidiumparvum oocysts in seawater clams (Chameleagallina) in Italy. Prev Vet Med. 2005;69:203-12 pubmed
    ..in clams from the Adriatic coast (Abruzzo region) and genetically characterize the oocysts isolated from the clams...
  84. Ederli B, Rodrigues M, Carvalho C. [Oocysts of the genus Cryptosporidium in domiciliated dogs from the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, the State of Rio de Janeiro]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2005;14:129-31 pubmed
    This study had the objective of determining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in domiciliated dogs from Campos dos Goytacazes City on Rio de Janeiro State...
  85. Grieco J, Achee N, Roberts D, Andre R. Comparative susceptibility of three species of Anopheles from Belize, Central America, to Plasmodium falciparum (NF-54). J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2005;21:279-90 pubmed
    ..2% salivary gland infection rate and a 21.5% midgut infection rate. Oocysts in An. stephensi increased in size by 20% after day 10...
  86. Tanriverdi S, Widmer G. Differential evolution of repetitive sequences in Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:113-22 pubmed
    ..parvum and C. hominis repeats did not overlap. Assuming that C. parvum and C. hominis evolved from a common ancestor, these observations suggest a differential evolution of repeat length at these loci...
  87. Carter V, Shimizu S, Arai M, Dessens J. PbSR is synthesized in macrogametocytes and involved in formation of the malaria crystalloids. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1560-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is essential for mosquito-to-host transmission of the parasite: PbSR knockout parasites produce normal numbers of oocysts that fail to form sporozoites, pointing to a role for PbSR in the oocyst during sporogony...
  88. VEGA RODRIGUEZ J, Franke Fayard B, Dinglasan R, Janse C, Pastrana Mena R, Waters A, et al. The glutathione biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium is essential for mosquito transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000302 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection of mosquitoes with pbggcs(-) parasites resulted in reduced numbers of stunted oocysts that did not produce sporozoites...
  89. Delves M, Sinden R. A semi-automated method for counting fluorescent malaria oocysts increases the throughput of transmission blocking studies. Malar J. 2010;9:35 pubmed publisher
    ..is important for many of assays investigating transmission. However, current assays are very time-consuming, manually demanding and patently subject to observer-observer variation...
  90. Meamar A, Rezaian M, Rezaie S, Mohraz M, Kia E, Houpt E, et al. Cryptosporidium parvum bovine genotype oocysts in the respiratory samples of an AIDS patient: efficacy of treatment with a combination of azithromycin and paromomycin. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:593-5 pubmed
    ..In the present case, oocysts of zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum were detected in the sputum and stool samples of an AIDS patient with a 3-..
  91. Abdul Hafeez M, Akhtar M, Hussain I. Protective effect of egg-propagated Eimeria tenella (local isolates) gametocytes as vaccine(s) against mixed species of coccidia in chickens. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:539-44 pubmed
    ..42%) followed by group C (63.63%), B (59.09%), and group D (54.54). Significantly higher (P<0.05) oocysts per gram (OPG) of droppings was observed in the control groups compared to the vaccinated chickens...
  92. Snelling W, Lin Q, Moore J, Millar B, Tosini F, Pozio E, et al. Proteomics analysis and protein expression during sporozoite excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum (Coccidia, Apicomplexa). Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:346-55 pubmed
    ..e. sporozoites both inside and outside oocysts were examined. Sporozoites are the infective stage that penetrates small intestinal enterocytes...