protozoan spores


Summary: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.

Top Publications

  1. Nylund A, Karlsbakk E, Saether P, Koren C, Larsen T, Nielsen B, et al. Parvicapsula pseudobranchicola (Myxosporea) in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Tissue distribution, diagnosis and phylogeny. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;63:197-204 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the sequence of the ssu rDNA from P. pseudobranchicola with that of other myxozoans shows that it groups closely together with P. unicornis and P. asymmetrica. The closest relative to this group is P. minibicornis. ..
  2. Schaap P, Winckler T, Nelson M, Alvarez Curto E, Elgie B, Hagiwara H, et al. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of morphology in the social amoebas. Science. 2006;314:661-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, the latter may be controlled by only a few genes, making their underlying mechanisms relatively easy to unravel...
  3. Santorelli L, Thompson C, Villegas E, Svetz J, Dinh C, Parikh A, et al. Facultative cheater mutants reveal the genetic complexity of cooperation in social amoebae. Nature. 2008;451:1107-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The opportunities for evolutionary moves and countermoves in such conflicts may select for the involvement of multiple pathways and numerous genes...
  4. Khare A, Santorelli L, Strassmann J, Queller D, Kuspa A, Shaulsky G. Cheater-resistance is not futile. Nature. 2009;461:980-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the evolution of resisters may be instrumental in preserving cooperative behaviour in the face of cheating...
  5. Queller D, Ponte E, Bozzaro S, Strassmann J. Single-gene greenbeard effects in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Science. 2003;299:105-6 pubmed
    ..Both properties derive directly from homophilic cell adhesion of the protein encoded by csA...
  6. Brock D, Gomer R. A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium. Development. 2005;132:4553-62 pubmed
    ..AprA may thus decrease the number of multinucleate cells and increase spore production. Together, the data suggest that AprA functions as part of a Dictyostelium chalone...
  7. Cabral M, Anjard C, Loomis W, Kuspa A. Genetic evidence that the acyl coenzyme A binding protein AcbA and the serine protease/ABC transporter TagA function together in Dictyostelium discoideum cell differentiation. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:2024-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the developmental program depends on TagA and AcbA working in concert with each other during cell type differentiation and suggest that TagA is required for normal SDF-2 signaling during spore encapsulation...
  8. Bakthavatsalam D, Brock D, Nikravan N, Houston K, Hatton R, Gomer R. The secreted Dictyostelium protein CfaD is a chalone. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that two interacting proteins may function together as a chalone signal in a negative feedback loop that slows Dictyostelium cell proliferation...
  9. Ostrowski E, Katoh M, Shaulsky G, Queller D, Strassmann J. Kin discrimination increases with genetic distance in a social amoeba. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e287 pubmed publisher
    ..discoideum cells co-aggregate more with genetically similar than dissimilar individuals, suggesting the existence of a mechanism that discerns the degree of genetic similarity between individuals in this social microorganism...

More Information

Publications190 found, 100 shown here

  1. Anjard C, Su Y, Loomis W. Steroids initiate a signaling cascade that triggers rapid sporulation in Dictyostelium. Development. 2009;136:803-12 pubmed publisher
    ..SDF-3 is at the head of the cascade that amplifies the signal for encapsulation to ensure the rapid, synchronous formation of spores...
  2. Levy M, Poore M, Colorni A, Noga E, Vandersea M, Litaker R. A highly specific PCR assay for detecting the fish ectoparasite Amyloodinium ocellatum. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;73:219-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings do not eliminate the possibility that different strains are in fact 'subspecies' or lower taxa, which may also differ in pathogenic and immunogenic characteristics, environmental tolerance, and other features...
  3. Hedrick R, Baxa D, de Kinkelin P, Okamura B. Malacosporean-like spores in urine of rainbow trout react with antibody and DNA probes to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Parasitol Res. 2004;92:81-8 pubmed
    ..Despite morphological differences, a relationship between the spores in the urine of rainbow trout and T. bryosalmonae was demonstrated by binding of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and DNA probes specific to T. bryosalmonae. ..
  4. Longshaw M, Frear P, Feist S. Myxobolus buckei sp. n. (Myxozoa), a new pathogenic parasite from the spinal column of three cyprinid fishes from the United Kingdom. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2003;50:251-62 pubmed
    ..The parasite is considered highly pathogenic to juvenile cyprinids. ..
  5. Kallert D, Eszterbauer E, Erséus C, El Matbouli M, Haas W. Life cycle studies of Myxobolus parviformis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from bream. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;66:233-43 pubmed
  6. Kawakami S, Hagiwara H. A taxonomic revision of two dictyostelid species, Polysphondylium pallidum and P. album. Mycologia. 2008;100:111-21 pubmed
    ..By comparison of the three mating groups with the type specimens of P. pallidum and P. album, two of them were identified as P. pallidum and P. album. Based on the examined isolates P. pallidum and P. album were redescribed in detail...
  7. Eiras J, Malta J, Varela A, Pavanelli G. Henneguya schizodon n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae), a parasite of the Amazonian teleost fish Schizodon fasciatus (Characiformes, Anostomidae). Parasite. 2004;11:169-73 pubmed
    ..This comparison allows to consider the materials as a new species, and the name Henneguya schizodon n. sp. is proposed. ..
  8. Browne R, Li H, Vaughan M. Sexually mediated shedding of Myxobolus fallax spores during spermiation of Litoria fallax (anura). Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;72:71-5 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results show that the shedding of M. fallax spores is sexually mediated through reproductive hormones without affecting fertility. ..
  9. Heiniger H, Gunter N, Adlard R. Relationships between four novel ceratomyxid parasites from the gall bladders of labrid fishes from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:158-65 pubmed publisher
  10. Prunescu C, Prunescu P, Pucek Z, Lom J. The first finding of myxosporean development from plasmodia to spores in terrestrial mammals: Soricimyxum fegati gen. et sp. n. (Myxozoa) from Sorex araneus (Soricomorpha). Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2007;54:159-64 pubmed
    ..Spores were of an ovoid shape, 7 microm long, 5.4 microm wide and about 3.5 microm thick. They had two shell valves and two equal polar capsules, located in opposite ends of the spore. ..
  11. Epstein J, Charoenvit Y, Kester K, Wang R, Newcomer R, Fitzpatrick S, et al. Safety, tolerability, and antibody responses in humans after sequential immunization with a PfCSP DNA vaccine followed by the recombinant protein vaccine RTS,S/AS02A. Vaccine. 2004;22:1592-603 pubmed
  12. Chen G, Kuspa A. Prespore cell fate bias in G1 phase of the cell cycle in Dictyostelium discoideum. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1755-64 pubmed
  13. Daszak P, Ball S, Jones C, Streicker D, Snow K. Six new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from endangered Phelsuma spp. geckoes (Sauria: Gekkonidae) of the Black River Gorges National Park, Mauritius. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2009;56:233-41 pubmed
    ..cepediana. These oocysts or sporocysts are significantly larger than the Cryptosporidium species so far described from reptiles, and likely represent excretion of spuriously ingested sporocysts of a Sarcocystis or Adelina coccidian...
  14. Beauchamp K, Gay M, Kelley G, El Matbouli M, Kathman R, Nehring R, et al. Prevalence and susceptibility of infection to Myxobolus cerebralis, and genetic differences among populations of Tubifex tubifex. Dis Aquat Organ. 2002;51:113-21 pubmed
    ..cerebralis. Although not a direct objective of this study, there was no evidence of M. cerebralis infections among any oligochaetes other than those that would be classified as T. tubifex by standard morphological characteristics. ..
  15. Del Cacho E, Gallego M, Pages M, Monteagudo L, Sanchez Acedo C. Effect of the quinolone coccidiostat decoquinate on the rearrangement of chromosomes of Eimeria tenella. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1515-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, the results reported provide new evidence of the inhibitory effect of quinolones on the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts, since sporocysts were not formed. ..
  16. Dörfler C, El Matbouli M. Isolation of a subtilisin-like serine protease gene (MyxSubtSP) from spores of Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;73:245-51 pubmed
    ..Rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RACE) was used to generate the full length (1385 bp) gene, with a 429 bp open reading frame. The gene encompasses coding regions for a catalytic triad formed by Asp-74, His-100 and Ser-110. ..
  17. Zheng X, Zhou Y, Huang B, Lu K, Huang X. [Study on the biology feature and pathogenicities to silkworm of a microsporidium isolated from Barathra brassicae L]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2000;40:540-4 pubmed
    ..b.. The rate of transovarian transmission was high. The initial conclusion was that Bab-M should be referred to as Nosema bombycis, but there was variation between them...
  18. Weiss L, Zhou G, Zhang H. Characterization of recombinant microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2003;50 Suppl:597-9 pubmed
  19. Køie M. Ellipsomyxa gobii gen. et sp. n. (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Denmark. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2003;50:269-71 pubmed
    ..The two spherical polar capsules open some distance from the sutural line on opposite sides. The new genus thereby differs from Leptotheca Thélohan, 1895. Ellipsomyxa gobii is tentatively placed in the Ceratomyxidae. ..
  20. Cho J, Kim K. Light- and electron-microscope description of Kudoa paralichthys n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) from the brain of cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Korea. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;55:59-63 pubmed
    ..The junctions of shell valves were L-shaped. The sutural planes converged at the anterior ends of the spores and were associated with 4 small apex prominences in the central meeting point of the spores. ..
  21. McGurk C, Morris D, Bron J, Adams A. The morphology of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) spores released from Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). J Fish Dis. 2005;28:307-12 pubmed
  22. Hosoi Tanabe S, Tomishima S, Nagai S, Sako Y. Identification of a gene induced in conjugation-promoted cells of toxic marine dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella using differential display analysis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;251:161-8 pubmed
    ..Characterization of the identified gene might help in understanding the mechanism of encystment. ..
  23. Dungan C, Reece K, Moss J, Hamilton R, Diggles B. Perkinsus olseni in vitro isolates from the New Zealand clam Austrovenus stutchburyi. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:263-70 pubmed
    ..All in vitro isolate cultures and their respective monoclonal derivative strains were cryopreserved and deposited for archiving and distribution by the American Type Culture Collection ( ..
  24. Dohle A, Schmahl G, Raether W, Schmidt H, Ritter G. Effects of orally administered chemotherapeutics (quinine, salinomycin) against Henneguya sp. Thelohán, 1892 (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill parasite in the tapir fish Gnathonemus petersii Günther, 1862 (Teleostei). Parasitol Res. 2002;88:861-7 pubmed
    ..After a 9-day treatment, the pansporoblasts were completely destroyed. Under the experimental conditions chosen, both compounds were very well tolerated by the fishes. ..
  25. Chen J, Snowden K, Mitchell F, Sokolova J, Fuxa J, Bradleigh Vinson S. Sources of spores for the possible horizontal transmission of Thelohania solenopsae (Microspora: Thelohaniidae) in the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta. J Invertebr Pathol. 2004;85:139-45 pubmed
  26. Down R, Bell H, Kirkbride Smith A, Edwards J. The pathogenicity of Vairimorpha necatrix (Microspora: Microsporidia) against the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential use for the control of lepidopteran glasshouse pests. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:755-64 pubmed
    ..Similarly, plants sprayed with V necatrix showed a reduction in damage of up to 45% compared with the control plants. ..
  27. Zhang H, G mez Garc a M, Brown M, Kornberg A. Inorganic polyphosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum: influence on development, sporulation, and predation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2731-5 pubmed publisher
    ..On Pseudomonas aeruginosa lawns, cleared plaques were observed with the bacterial PPK1 mutant but not with the WT P. aeruginosa. Thus, poly P is important in predation both for the predator and prey...
  28. Stine S, Vladich F, Pepper I, Gerba C. Development of a method for the concentration and recovery of microsporidia from tap water. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2005;40:913-25 pubmed
    ..1+/-13.4 compared to 25+/-13.8 for samples subjected to a density gradient purification step. ..
  29. Mungthin M, Subrungruang I, Naaglor T, Aimpun P, Areekul W, Leelayoova S. Spore shedding pattern of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in asymptomatic children. J Med Microbiol. 2005;54:473-6 pubmed
    ..This suggests that light microscopy may not detect low levels of spore shedding. Considering that the asymptomatic group are a potential source of infection, detection methods with a higher sensitivity should be used...
  30. Mandeel Q, Blackwell M. Rare or rarely collected? Comatricha mirabilis from the desert of Bahrain. Mycologia. 2008;100:742-5 pubmed
    ..Comatricha mirabilis is suggested to be a myxomycete that is more common in certain arid habitats than previously recognized. ..
  31. Veitch N, Johnson P, Trivedi U, Terry S, Wildridge D, MacLeod A. Digital gene expression analysis of two life cycle stages of the human-infective parasite, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense reveals differentially expressed clusters of co-regulated genes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:124 pubmed publisher
  32. Arango E, Londono B, Segura C, Solarte Y, Herrera S, Saez J, et al. Prevention of sporogony of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles albimanus by steroids of Solanum nudum Dunal (Solanaceae). Phytother Res. 2006;20:444-7 pubmed
    ..These data confirmed that the experimental steroid is capable of interrupting the sporogonic development of P. vivax in Anopheles albimanus. This experimental steroid has potential for transmission blocking in vivax malaria. ..
  33. De Roode J, Gold L, Altizer S. Virulence determinants in a natural butterfly-parasite system. Parasitology. 2007;134:657-68 pubmed
    ..These results have implications for virulence evolution and emphasize the need for a detailed understanding of specific host-parasite systems for addressing theory. ..
  34. Azevedo C, Casal G, Montes J. Ultrastructural developmental cycle of Haplosporidium montforti (phylum Haplosporidia) in its farmed abalone host, Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda). J Parasitol. 2008;94:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..During the final phase of the maturation process, the spores became gradually denser, and the endosporoplasmic structures were barely visible...
  35. Bearham D, Spiers Z, Raidal S, Jones J, Nicholls P. Spore ornamentation of Minchinia occulta n. sp. (Haplosporidia) in rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata (Born, 1778). Parasitology. 2008;135:1271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..0 microm x 3.5-4.1 microm in size. The nucleus of the sporoplasm measured 1.5-2.3 microm and was centrally located. The spores were covered in a branching network of microtubule-like structures that may degrade as the spore matures...
  36. Casal G, Costa G, Azevedo C. Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa tenuispora (Myxozoa), a parasite of the marine fish Aphanopus carbo (Trichiuridae), from the Atlantic coast of Madeira Island (Portugal). Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2007;54:165-71 pubmed
    ..A binucleate sporoplasm that contains several sporoplasmosomes and dense bodies fills the spore cavity and extends to the tails without penetrating them. ..
  37. Freeman M, Yokoyama H, Ogawa K. A microsporidian parasite of the genus Spraguea in the nervous tissues of the Japanese anglerfish Lophius litulon. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2004;51:167-76 pubmed
    ..This report of Spraguea americana is the first report of a Spraguea species from L. litulon and indeed from the Pacific water mass. ..
  38. Fetterer R, Miska K, Barfield R. Partial purification and characterization of an aminopeptidase from Eimeria tenella. J Parasitol. 2005;91:1280-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these results confirm the presence of a cytosolic AP related to AP N, which is expressed and active during sporulation of E. tenella oocysts...
  39. Kyei Poku G, Gauthier D, van Frankenhuyzen K. Molecular data and phylogeny of Nosema infecting lepidopteran forest defoliators in the genera Choristoneura and Malacosoma. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008;55:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The high sequence similarities, the reverse arrangement in the rRNA gene subunits, and the phylogenetic clustering suggest that these three species are closely related but separate species. ..
  40. Marwan W. Theory of time-resolved somatic complementation and its use to explore the sporulation control network in Physarum polycephalum. Genetics. 2003;164:105-15 pubmed
    ..The conclusions drawn are of general relevance in that they do not depend on the validity of the model from which they were derived...
  41. Canning E, Curry A. Further observations on the ultrastructure of Cystosporogenes operophterae (Canning, 1960) (phylum Microsporidia) parasitic in Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2004;87:1-7 pubmed
    ..The 'arms' extends back into the region of an elongate nucleus. The genera Cystosporogenes and Endoreticulatus were differentiated by their positions in a previously obtained 16S rDNA phylogeny and on the new ultrastructural data. ..
  42. Hallett S, Bartholomew J. Application of a real-time PCR assay to detect and quantify the myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta in river water samples. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;71:109-18 pubmed
    ..The water sampling and filtering protocol combined with the QPCR assay is a simple and relatively rapid method for detection and quantification of parasite levels in environmental water samples. ..
  43. Parodi E, Cáceres E, Westermeier R, Müller D. Secondary zoospores in the algal endoparasite Maullinia ectocarpii (Plasmodiophoromycota). Biocell. 2010;34:45-52 pubmed
    ..Sporogenic and sporangial plasmodia produce, respectively, primary zoospores with parallel flagella within thick walled resting sporangia, and secondary zoospores with opposite flagella within thin walled sporangia. ..
  44. Al Samman A, Molnar K, Székely C, Reiczigel J. Reno-, hepato- and splenomegaly of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L.) diseased in swimbladder inflammation caused by Sphaerospora renicola Dyková et Lom, 1982. Acta Vet Hung. 2003;51:321-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that in common carp fry with SBI the swimbladder changes are accompanied by reno-, hepato- and splenomegaly. ..
  45. Kawakami S, Hagiwara H. Polysphondylium multicystogenum sp. nov., a new dictyostelid species from Sierra Leone, West Africa. Mycologia. 2008;100:347-51 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of Polysphondylium producing such abundant microcysts...
  46. MacWilliams H, Doquang K, Pedrola R, Dollman G, Grassi D, Peis T, et al. A retinoblastoma ortholog controls stalk/spore preference in Dictyostelium. Development. 2006;133:1287-97 pubmed
    ..rblA-null cells show reduced cell size and a premature growth-development transition; the latter appears anomalous but may reflect selection pressures acting on social ameba. ..
  47. Spiegel F, Shadwick J, Hemmes D. A new ballistosporous species of Protostelium. Mycologia. 2006;98:144-8 pubmed
    ..This represents the seventh species of protostelids described to have forcible spore discharge, and the possibility of forcible discharge needs to be examined in several other species. ..
  48. Driskel B, Doss P, Littlefield L, Walker N, Verchot Lubicz J. Soilborne wheat mosaic virus movement protein and RNA and wheat spindle streak mosaic virus coat protein accumulate inside resting spores of their vector, Polymyxa graminis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004;17:739-48 pubmed
    ..These data are the first direct evidence that SBWMV and WSSMV are internalized by P. graminis. ..
  49. Lukins H, Zale A, Barrows F. A packed-bed filtration system for collection of Myxobolus cerebralis triactinomyxons. J Aquat Anim Health. 2007;19:234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..7-1.4/L. The packed-bed filtration system has the potential to quickly determine the temporal and spatial variation in infection risk and to test the efficacy of various management strategies...
  50. Liu P, Wang Q, Li Y. Spore-to-spore agar culture of the myxomycete Physarum globuliferum. Arch Microbiol. 2010;192:97-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Its complete life cycle including spore germination, myxamoebae, swarm cells, plasmodial development, and maturity of fructifications was demonstrated. Details of spore-to-spore development are described and illustrated. ..
  51. Cali A, Weiss L, Takvorian P. Brachiola algerae spore membrane systems, their activity during extrusion, and a new structural entity, the multilayered interlaced network, associated with the polar tube and the sporoplasm. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2002;49:164-74 pubmed
    ..A thin "unit limiting membrane", present on the sporoplasm at the time of extrusion, is connected to the MIN by many cross-connections forming the "thick blistered" surface by 30 min-postextrusion. ..
  52. El Mansy A. Revision of Myxobolus heterosporus Baker, 1963 (syn. Myxosoma Heterospora) (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in African records. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;63:205-14 pubmed
    ..Some transitional stages from Myxobolus-like spore types to tailed-spores were observed. Therefore, some tailed-spores may be simply heteromorphs of Myxobolus. ..
  53. Reed C, Basson L, Van As L. Myxobolus species (Myxozoa), parasites of fishes in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, including descriptions of two new species. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2002;49:81-8 pubmed
    ..hydrocyni Kostoïngue et Toguebaye, 1994, M. nyongana (Fomena, Bouix et Birgi, 1985) and M. tilapiae Abolarin, 1974 are recorded for the first time in Botswana and descriptions of these species are provided. ..
  54. Canning E, Feist S, Longshaw M, Okamura B, Anderson C, Tse M, et al. Microgemma vivaresi n. sp. (Microsporidia, Tetramicridae), infecting liver and skeletal muscle of sea scorpions, Taurulus bubalis (Euphrasen 1786) (Osteichthyes, Cottidae), an inshore, littoral fish. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2005;52:123-31 pubmed
  55. Holzer A, Blasco Costa I, Sarabeev V, Ovcharenko M, Balbuena J. Kudoa trifolia sp. n. - molecular phylogeny suggests a new spore morphology and unusual tissue location for a well-known genus. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:743-55 pubmed
    ..trifolia showed that this species is deeply embedded in the genus Kudoa despite its aberrant morphology and host tissue location. This suggests important amendments to the morphological diagnosis of the genus Kudoa. ..
  56. Schnittler M, Tesmer J. A habitat colonisation model for spore-dispersed organisms: does it work with eumycetozoans?. Mycol Res. 2008;112:697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Species with sexual reproductive systems produce often more spores than asexual ones; many morphospecies have sexual and asexual strains; and back-conversion from sexual to asexual reproduction occurs occasionally. ..
  57. Jacobs Lorena V, Mikolajczak S, Labaied M, Vaughan A, Kappe S. A dispensable Plasmodium locus for stable transgene expression. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;171:40-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we show that a fluorescent transgene can be stably expressed from this site. This demonstrates that the S1 locus can be utilized for stable expression of heterologous genes in rodent malaria parasites. ..
  58. Dykova I, Fiala I, Nie P. New data on Myxobolus longisporus (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill infecting parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, from Chinese lakes. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2003;50:263-8 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis based on these sequences has allowed clearer phylogenetic relationships to be established with other species of the genus Myxobolus sequenced to date. ..
  59. Longshaw M, Frear P, Feist S. Descriptions, development and pathogenicity of myxozoan (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) parasites of juvenile cyprinids (Pisces: Cyprinidae). J Fish Dis. 2005;28:489-508 pubmed
    ..Data are provided on spore morphology, pathogenic responses and tissue and host specificity of the myxozoans recorded. ..
  60. Morris D, Molnar K, Longshaw M, Adams A. Immunostaining of spores and plasmodia of disparate myxozoan genera with comments on the properties of the sporular mucus envelope. Parasitology. 2006;132:781-90 pubmed
    ..The nature of this envelope is further discussed in relation to its formation and distinctive properties. ..
  61. Saito K, Drgon T, Krupatkina D, Drgonova J, Terlizzi D, Mercer N, et al. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on in vitro proliferation, encystment, and excystment of Pfiesteria piscicida. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:6410-20 pubmed
    ..The addition of ammonia, urea, nitrate, phosphate, or surprisingly, spent fish aquarium water had no effect...
  62. Foott J, Stone R, Wiseman E, True K, Nichols K. Longevity of Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis actinospore infectivity in the Klamath River. J Aquat Anim Health. 2007;19:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..minibicornis) or the prevalence of infection for both parasites. Actinospores of these myxosporean parasites have the potential to infect salmonids for at least 7 d after release from the alternate polychaete host...
  63. Sokmen M, Degerli S, Aslan A. Photocatalytic disinfection of Giardia intestinalis and Acanthamoeba castellani cysts in water. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:44-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless the studied system seemed to be ineffective for the inactivation of A. castellani. Inactivation percentages of TiO2/UV and Ag-TiO2/UV systems were far lower than that of UV alone, being 50.1% and 46.1%, respectively. ..
  64. Muramoto T, Chubb J. Live imaging of the Dictyostelium cell cycle reveals widespread S phase during development, a G2 bias in spore differentiation and a premitotic checkpoint. Development. 2008;135:1647-57 pubmed publisher
  65. Koprivnikar J, Desser S. A new form of raabeia-type actinosporean (Myxozoa) from the oligochaete Uncinais uncinata. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2002;49:89-92 pubmed
    ..This form differs from those previously described in its small size, and by having caudal processes that gradually widen and terminate with a single prominent branch. ..
  66. Pandrea I, Mittleider D, Brindley P, Didier E, Robertson D. Phylogenetic relationships of methionine aminopeptidase 2 among Encephalitozoon species and genotypes of microsporidia. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;140:141-52 pubmed
  67. Boeckeler K, Tischendorf G, Mutzel R, Weissenmayer B. Aberrant stalk development and breakdown of tip dominance in Dictyostelium cell lines with RNAi-silenced expression of calcineurin B. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:12 pubmed
  68. Stentiford G, Bateman K. Enterospora sp., an intranuclear microsporidian infection of hermit crab Eupagurus bernhardus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;75:73-8 pubmed
    ..The opportunistic nature of the discovery of a second intranuclear microsporidian within the Crustacea suggests that their presence may be more common than in higher animal groups...
  69. Deshpande A, Agarwal S, Kelkar A. Primary cutaneous rhinosporidiosis diagnosed on FNAC: a case report with review of literature. Diagn Cytopathol. 2009;37:125-7 pubmed publisher
    ..seeberi are specific; their demonstration confirms diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis. FNAC or scrape cytology is economical and reliable in preoperative diagnosis of suspected and unsuspected cutaneous lesions of R. seeberi...
  70. Casal G, Garcia P, Matos P, Monteiro E, Matos E, Azevedo C. Fine structure of Chloromyxum menticirrhi n. sp. (Myxozoa) infecting the urinary bladder of the marine teleost Menticirrhus americanus (Sciaenidae) in Southern Brazil. Eur J Protistol. 2009;45:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The gill, liver, gall bladder and intestine of the host showed no abnormalities. ..
  71. Koehler A, Romans P, Desser S, Ringuette M. Encapsulation of Myxobolus pendula (Myxosporidia) by epithelioid cells of its cyprinid host Semotilus atromaculatus. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1401-5 pubmed
    ..The granuloma may serve to limit the spread of the parasite to surrounding tissues but does not appear to inhibit diffusion of oxygen and nutrients to the developing spores. ..
  72. Rajawat J, Vohra I, Mir H, Gohel D, Begum R. Effect of oxidative stress and involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in Dictyostelium discoideum development. FEBS J. 2007;274:5611-8 pubmed
    ..However, second-generation cells showed normal development, signifying that PARP inhibition has no deleterious effect on D. discoideum development under oxidative stress. ..
  73. Buttery N, Thompson C, Wolf J. Complex genotype interactions influence social fitness during the developmental phase of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:1664-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the large impact that social interactions can have on development and suggest that social effects should play an important role in developmental evolution in this system. ..
  74. Grossel G, Dykova I, Handlinger J, Munday B. Pentacapsula neurophila sp.n. (Multivalvulida) from the central nervous system of striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster). J Fish Dis. 2003;26:315-20 pubmed
    ..Measurements made of isolated spores indicated that the organism was distinct from all previously described Pentacapsula species. This is the first report of a marine myxozoan parasite of the genus Pentacapsula in Australian waters. ..
  75. Derda M, Winiecka Krusnell J, Linder M, Linder E. Labeled Trichoderma reesei cellulase as a marker for Acanthamoeba cyst wall cellulose in infected tissues. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6827-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the recombinant CBDs can be used as a marker to distinguish between cellulose and chitin. This allows rapid identification of Acanthamoeba cyst wall cellulose in paraffin or frozen sections of infected tissues. ..
  76. West C. Comparative analysis of spore coat formation, structure, and function in Dictyostelium. Int Rev Cytol. 2003;222:237-93 pubmed
    ..Coat formation and structure have many parallels in walls from plant, algal, yeast, protist, and animal cells. ..
  77. Moodie E, Le Jambre L, Katz M. Thelohania parastaci sp. nov. (Microspora: Thelohaniidae), a parasite of the Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Parasitol Res. 2003;91:151-65 pubmed
    ..Analysis of SSU rDNA and ITS sequences of T. parastaci sp. nov. from crayfish from Victoria, Western Australia, and New South Wales indicate that the parasite has a wide geographical distribution in Australia. ..
  78. Garner M, Bartholomew J, Whipps C, Nordhausen R, Raiti P. Renal myxozoanosis in crowned river turtles Hardella thurjii: description of the putative agent Myxidium hardella n. sp. by histopathology, electron microscopy, and DNA sequencing. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:589-95 pubmed
    ..with strong bootstrap support. This myxozoan agent appears to be a significant pathogen in H. thurjii on the basis of morphologic changes in the kidneys of in the infected turtles. ..
  79. Uspenskaia A. [The history of myxosporean (Myxozoa Grasse, 1970, Myxosporea Butschli, 1881) life and nuclear cycles studies]. Tsitologiia. 2008;50:18-28 pubmed
    ..Possible reasons for the data discrepancy are considered. The further perspectives of myxozoan biology, cytology, karyology and taxonomy investigation in Russia are discussed. ..
  80. Kim B, Choi C, Lee C, Jeong S, Kim J, Kim B, et al. Glutathione is required for growth and prespore cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. Dev Biol. 2005;284:387-98 pubmed publisher
    ..2 mM GSH may result from altered cell cycle. These results suggest that glutathione itself is essential for growth and differentiation to prespore in Dictyostelium...
  81. Slodkowicz Kowalska A, Graczyk T, Tamang L, Jedrzejewski S, Nowosad A, Zduniak P, et al. Microsporidian species known to infect humans are present in aquatic birds: implications for transmission via water?. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4540-4 pubmed
  82. Green L, Didier P, Bowers L, Didier E. Natural and experimental infection of immunocompromised rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with the microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D. Microbes Infect. 2004;6:996-1002 pubmed
  83. Kriebel P, Parent C. Adenylyl cyclase expression and regulation during the differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum. IUBMB Life. 2004;56:541-6 pubmed
    ..discoideum to transition from uni- to multi-cellularity. This review will highlight the properties of these enzymes and describe the signaling cascades that lead to their activation. ..
  84. Yokoyama H, Itoh N, Tanaka S. Henneguya pagri n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) causing cardiac henneguyosis in red sea bream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel). J Fish Dis. 2005;28:479-87 pubmed
    ..Partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of H. pagri are closely related to those of H. lateolabracis infecting the bulbus arteriosus of Chinese sea bass, Lateolabrax sp...
  85. Arai A, Goto Y, Hasegawa A, Hosaka K, Kikuchi H, Oshima Y, et al. Dictyopyrones, novel alpha-pyronoids isolated from Dictyostelium spp., promote stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium discoideum. Differentiation. 2005;73:377-84 pubmed
    ..discoideum. ..
  86. Tsujioka M, Zhukovskaya N, Yamada Y, Fukuzawa M, Ross S, Williams J. Dictyostelium Myb transcription factors function at culmination as activators of ancillary stalk differentiation. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:568-70 pubmed
    ..A Myb site within the mrrA promoter is necessary for expression in both cups. Thus, multiple Myb proteins are required for ancillary stalk differentiation. ..
  87. Fetterer R, Miska K, Lillehoj H, Barfield R. Serine protease activity in developmental stages of Eimeria tenella. J Parasitol. 2007;93:333-40 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment of SZ with AEBSF significantly reduced SZ invasion and the release of the microneme protein, MIC2. The current results suggest that serine proteases are present in all the developmental stages examined. ..
  88. Canning E, Curry A, Hill S, Okamura B. Ultrastructure of Buddenbrockia allmani n. sp. (Myxozoa, Malacosporea), a parasite of Lophopus crystallinus (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:247-62 pubmed
  89. Kim H, Choi Y, Kim D, Park S, Han J, Park Y. Tetrahydropteridine deficiency impairs mitochondrial function in Dictyostelium discoideum Ax2. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5430-4 pubmed
    ..The results strongly suggested that tetrahydropteridines in Dictyostelium are associated with mitochondrial function, probably via direct protection against oxidative stress. ..
  90. Reed C, Basson L, Van As L, Dykova I. Four new myxozoans (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from intertidal fishes along the south coast of Africa. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2007;54:283-92 pubmed
    ..C. cottoides Valenciennes and Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch), respectively. A fourth new species Henneguya clini sp. n. was also identified from the gills and gill arches of C. superciliosus. ..
  91. Brady R, Wen Y, O Halloran T. The ENTH and C-terminal domains of Dictyostelium epsin cooperate to regulate the dynamic interaction with clathrin-coated pits. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3433-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model where the ENTH domain coordinates with the clathrin-binding C-terminal domain to allow a dynamic interaction of epsin with coated pits...
  92. Stensvold C, Lebbad M, Clark C. Genetic characterisation of uninucleated cyst-producing Entamoeba spp. from ruminants. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:775-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that Entamoeba bovis can be isolated from ruminant hosts other than cattle, and we suggest that organisms clustering with the sheep and cattle isolates analysed in the present study be named E. bovis. ..