blood borne pathogens


Summary: Infectious organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi, that are present in the BLOOD.

Top Publications

  1. Hladik W, Dollard S, Mermin J, Fowlkes A, Downing R, Amin M, et al. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by blood transfusion. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1331-8 pubmed
    ..Whether human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is transmissible by blood transfusion remains undetermined. We evaluated the risk of HHV-8 transmission by blood transfusion in Uganda, where HHV-8 is endemic...
  2. Macalino G, Springer K, Rahman Z, Vlahov D, Jones T. Community-based programs for safe disposal of used needles and syringes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18 Suppl 1:S111-9 pubmed
    ..To review issues related to discarded syringes in the community and to describe community-based programs for the safe disposal of used needles and syringes...
  3. Puro V, De Carli G, Petrosillo N, Ippolito G. Risk of exposure to bloodborne infection for Italian healthcare workers, by job category and work area. Studio Italiano Rischio Occupazionale da HIV Group. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22:206-10 pubmed
    ..To analyze the rate of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids from all sources and specifically from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected sources among hospital workers, by job category and work area...
  4. Jones T, Coffin P. Preventing blood-borne infections through pharmacy syringe sales and safe community syringe disposal. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2002;42:S6-9 pubmed
  5. Doebbeling B, Vaughn T, McCoy K, Beekmann S, Woolson R, Ferguson K, et al. Percutaneous injury, blood exposure, and adherence to standard precautions: are hospital-based health care providers still at risk?. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1006-13 pubmed
    ..New strategies for preventing exposures, training, and monitoring adherence are needed...
  6. León C, Ruiz Santana S, Rello J, de la Torre M, Valles J, Alvarez Lerma F, et al. Benefits of minocycline and rifampin-impregnated central venous catheters. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter trial. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:1891-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the efficacy of minocycline and rifampin-impregnated catheters compared to non-impregnated catheters in critically ill patients...
  7. Trapé Cardoso M, Schenck P. Reducing percutaneous injuries at an academic health center: a 5-year review. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32:301-5 pubmed
  8. Janjua N, Akhtar S, Hutin Y. Injection use in two districts of Pakistan: implications for disease prevention. Int J Qual Health Care. 2005;17:401-8 pubmed
    ..To estimate the annual number of injections per person in Sindh province of Pakistan and to describe their distribution with regard to prescribers, settings, and safety...
  9. Simonsen L, Kane A, Lloyd J, Zaffran M, Kane M. Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: a review. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:789-800 pubmed
    ..This situation needs to be addressed immediately, as a political and policy issue, with responsibilities clearly defined at the global, country and community levels...

More Information

Publications114 found, 100 shown here

  1. Beltrami E, Williams I, Shapiro C, Chamberland M. Risk and management of blood-borne infections in health care workers. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000;13:385-407 pubmed
    ..A sustained commitment to the occupational health of all HCWs will ensure maximum protection for HCWs and patients and the availability of optimal medical care for all who need it...
  2. Beekmann S, Vaughn T, McCoy K, Ferguson K, Torner J, Woolson R, et al. Hospital bloodborne pathogens programs: program characteristics and blood and body fluid exposure rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22:73-82 pubmed
    ..To describe hospital practices and policies relating to bloodborne pathogens and current rates of occupational exposure among healthcare workers...
  3. Mungai M, Tegtmeier G, Chamberland M, Parise M. Transfusion-transmitted malaria in the United States from 1963 through 1999. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1973-8 pubmed
  4. Shiao J, Guo L, McLaws M. Estimation of the risk of bloodborne pathogens to health care workers after a needlestick injury in Taiwan. Am J Infect Control. 2002;30:15-20 pubmed
    ..To estimate the number of health care workers (HCWs) in Taiwan at risk annually for contracting hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV after a needlestick and sharps injury (NSI) with a used hollow-bore needle...
  5. Dziekan G, Chisholm D, Johns B, Rovira J, Hutin Y. The cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injection in healthcare settings. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:277-85 pubmed
    ..We modelled the cost-effectiveness of policies for the safe and appropriate use of injections in ten epidemiological subregions of the world in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted...
  6. Kermode M. Unsafe injections in low-income country health settings: need for injection safety promotion to prevent the spread of blood-borne viruses. Health Promot Int. 2004;19:95-103 pubmed
  7. Dement J, Epling C, Ostbye T, Pompeii L, Hunt D. Blood and body fluid exposure risks among health care workers: results from the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System. Am J Ind Med. 2004;46:637-48 pubmed
    ..Utilizing a new comprehensive occupational health surveillance system, the objective of this research was to better define the BBF exposure risk and risk factors among employees of a large tertiary medical center...
  8. Prüss Ustün A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. Estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to contaminated sharps injuries among health-care workers. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48:482-90 pubmed
    ..The global burden of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to percutaneous injuries among health care workers (HCWs) is estimated...
  9. Matee M, Magesa P, Lyamuya E. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:21 pubmed
    ..Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone...
  10. Khairallah M, Astroski J, Custer S, Androphy E, Franklin C, Lorson C. SMN deficiency negatively impacts red pulp macrophages and spleen development in mouse models of spinal muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:932-941 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that SMN deficiency impacts spleen development and suggests a potential role for immunological development in SMA. ..
  11. Sazzad H, Luby S, Labrique A, Kamili S, Hayden T, Kamili N, et al. Risk Factors Associated with Blood Exposure for Sporadic Hepatitis E in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1437-1444 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to prevent the transmission of blood-borne pathogens may also prevent sporadic HEV transmission in this endemic setting...
  12. Siria D, Batista E, Opiyo M, Melo E, Sumaye R, Ngowo H, et al. Evaluation of a simple polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based membrane for blood-feeding of malaria and dengue fever vectors in the laboratory. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:236 pubmed publisher
    ..If improved (e.g. minimizing temperature fluctuations), the approach could possibly also support studies where vectors are artificially infected with blood-borne pathogens. ..
  13. Silva O Hare J, de Oliveira I, Klevorn T, Almeida V, Oliveira G, Atta A, et al. Disruption of Splenic Lymphoid Tissue and Plasmacytosis in Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: Changes in Homing and Survival of Plasma Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156733 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes in the distribution of immunocompetent cells in the spleen may contribute to the progression of VL, and impair the spleen's ability to protect against blood borne pathogens.
  14. Frid A, Kreugel G, Grassi G, Halimi S, Hicks D, Hirsch L, et al. New Insulin Delivery Recommendations. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91:1231-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Adherence to these new recommendations should lead to more effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for patients with diabetes. ..
  15. Paoletta M, López Arias L, de la Fournière S, Guillemi E, Luciani C, Sarmiento N, et al. Epidemiology of Babesia, Anaplasma and Trypanosoma species using a new expanded reverse line blot hybridization assay. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018;9:155-163 pubmed publisher identify simultaneously numerous pathogenic species which can also be easily expanded to detect other blood borne pathogens. These characteristics make the RLB hybridization assay an essential tool for epidemiological survey of ..
  16. Gröner A, Broumis C, Fang R, Nowak T, Popp B, Schäfer W, et al. Effective inactivation of a wide range of viruses by pasteurization. Transfusion. 2018;58:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. ..
  17. Salek T, Katz A, Lenze S, Lusk H, Li D, Des Jarlais D. Seroprevalence of HCV and HIV infection among clients of the nation's longest-standing statewide syringe exchange program: A cross-sectional study of Community Health Outreach Work to Prevent AIDS (CHOW). Int J Drug Policy. 2017;48:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Relatively low HIV prevalence compared with HCV prevalence reflects differences in transmissibility of these 2 blood-borne pathogens and suggests much greater efficacy of SEP for HIV prevention. ..
  18. Bakr S, Edris S, Abdel Fattah N, Ibrahim N, El Khadragy M. Molecular Screening for Malaria among Blood Donors in a WHO Claimed Region of Egypt, Fayoum Governorate. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2017;9:e2017065 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, screening of malaria is not listed within screening protocols of blood-borne pathogens in Fayoum blood banks...
  19. Goldberg A. Genital piercings in the context of acute sexual assault. J Forensic Leg Med. 2017;52:181-183 pubmed publisher
    ..The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens.
  20. Zigmond E, Varol C. With Respect to Macrophages, Judge the Liver by Its Cover. Immunity. 2017;47:219-221 pubmed publisher
    ..Sierro et al. (2017) uncover a distinct liver-resident macrophage population residing in its capsule, which creates a firewall against peritoneal infections. ..
  21. Bednarsh H, Klein B. Legal issues for healthcare workers with bloodborne infectious disease. Dent Clin North Am. 2003;47:745-56 pubmed
    ..It would be prudent for these guidelines to be updated to reflect current scientific evidence and be inclusive for all bloodborne pathogens...
  22. Suliman M, Al Qadire M, AlAzzam M, Aloush S, Alsaraireh A, Alsaraireh F. Students nurses' knowledge and prevalence of Needle Stick Injury in Jordan. Nurse Educ Today. 2017;60:23-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Student nurses are at high risk of blood-borne pathogens transmitted via Needle Stick Injury (NSI). Understanding various aspects of NSI is essential if they are to avoid the risks associated with it...
  23. Achakzai M, Kassi M, Kasi P. Seroprevalences and co-infections of HIV, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus in injecting drug users in Quetta, Pakistan. Trop Doct. 2007;37:43-5 pubmed
    ..Fifty (76.9%) consented for serological testing. Seroprevalences of hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV and hepatitis B antigen were 60%, 24% and 6%, respectively. Co-infections of HCV/HIV were particularly high (20%). ..
  24. Washer L, Riddell J, Rider J, Chenoweth C. Mycobacterium neoaurum bloodstream infection: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:e10-3 pubmed
    ..Fever was universal at presentation, but local signs of inflammation were rare. Combination antimicrobial therapy and catheter removal resulted in clinical cure. ..
  25. Rolston K, Bodey G, Safdar A. Polymicrobial infection in patients with cancer: an underappreciated and underreported entity. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:228-33 pubmed
  26. Chakrabarty P, Rudra S, Hoque M. Update of pathogen reduction technology for therapeutic plasma. Mymensingh Med J. 2010;19:308-11 pubmed
    ..This overview aims to provide an update on the continual improvements in blood component safety in particular using methods that target pathogen's nucleic acid. ..
  27. Londono Renteria B, Grippin C, Cardenas J, Troupin A, Colpitts T. Human C5a Protein Participates in the Mosquito Immune Response Against Dengue Virus. J Med Entomol. 2016;53:505-512 pubmed
    ..Our results also show that human C5a protein is able to interact with several membrane-bound mosquito proteins. Together these results suggest an important role of human complement protein in DENV transmission. ..
  28. Sutton A, Edmunds W, Gill O. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of detecting cases of chronic hepatitis C infection on reception into prison. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:170 pubmed
  29. Lipkin W. Pathogen discovery. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000002 pubmed publisher
  30. Caci M. [Ignorance is no excuse...the legal statue of occupational risk of blood-borne infections]. Rev Med Suisse. 2008;4:740-3 pubmed
  31. Dosunmu A, Dada M. Principles of blood transfusion service audit. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2005;34:349-53 pubmed
    ..The suggestions are mainly based on the experience at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and the Lagos State Blood Transfusion Service. ..
  32. Swoboda P, Modi A, Bhandari S. Counselling prior to blood-borne virus screening in haemodialysis patients: a survey of patient experience and opinion. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;112:c94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Information during pre-dialysis sessions may be an appropriate way of educating patients about the importance of BBV. ..
  33. Mohamed L, Markandaiah S, Bonanno S, Pasinelli P, Trotti D. Blood-Brain Barrier Driven Pharmacoresistance in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Challenges for Effective Drug Therapies. AAPS J. 2017;19:1600-1614 pubmed publisher
  34. Sacchi M, Daglio M, Feletti T, Lanave M, Candura S, Strosselli M. [Accidents with risk of blood-borne infections in obstetricians: analysis of a hospital case records]. Med Lav. 2007;98:64-72 pubmed
    ..An adequate post-exposure management of accidents in also required ..
  35. Moghimi M, Marashi S, Kabir A, Taghipour H, Faghihi Kashani A, Ghoddoosi I, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian surgeons about blood-borne diseases. J Surg Res. 2009;151:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Educational meetings, pamphlets, and facilities must be provided to health care workers, informing them of hazards, prevention, and postexposure prophylaxis to needlestick injuries, vaccination efficacy, and wearing double gloves. ..
  36. Yanagihara K, Ohnishi Y, Morinaga Y, Nakamura S, Kurihara S, Seki M, et al. Efficacy of ME1036 against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-insensitive S. aureus in a model of haematogenous pulmonary infection. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;32:401-4 pubmed publisher
    ..07+/-0.45 for control (P<0.001)). ME1036 produced >3 log(10) reduction versus control against both MRSA strains (>5 log for the VCM-susceptible strain and 3.4 log for the VISA), whereas VCM produced <1.3 log for both strains. ..
  37. Abdullah S, Karunamoorthi K. Malaria and blood transfusion: major issues of blood safety in malaria-endemic countries and strategies for mitigating the risk of Plasmodium parasites. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:35-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, selection of the zero-risk donors could pave the way to build a transmissible malaria-free world in the near future. ..
  38. Lee J, Cho J, Kim Y, Im S, Jang E, Kim J, et al. Occupational blood exposures in health care workers: incidence, characteristics, and transmission of bloodborne pathogens in South Korea. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:827 pubmed publisher
    ..6 cases per 100 person-years and 20.3 per 100 bed-years and was related to HCW workload and work proficiency. Though the actual bloodborne pathogen transmission rate was low, efforts to prevent OBE should be made for hospital safety. ..
  39. Mulumba R, Mogale S. Improving injection safety. S Afr Med J. 2008;98:356, 358 pubmed
  40. Potterat J. AIDS epidemiology in Africa: a changing of the guard. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:812-5 pubmed publisher
  41. Olowookere S, Fatiregun A. Human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis at IBadan, Nigeria. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2010;9:187-90 pubmed publisher
    ..8%) could not complete drug therapy because of side effects. Although no client was HIV positive after the recommended 6 months of follow-up, 8 (16.7%) clients did not complete attendance to the clinic during the period. ..
  42. Al Benna S. Needlestick an sharps injuries among theatre care professionals. J Perioper Pract. 2010;20:440-5 pubmed
    ..Consequently, workers are at risk of infection with bloodborne viruses including human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and bacterial infections (Al-Benna et al 2008). ..
  43. Turner V, Mabbott N. Ageing adversely affects the migration and function of marginal zone B cells. Immunology. 2017;151:349-362 pubmed publisher
    ..A thorough analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the ageing-related decline in the status of the MZ and MZ B cells will help the design of novel treatments to improve immunity in the elderly. ..
  44. Niessner A, Sato K, Chaikof E, Colmegna I, Goronzy J, Weyand C. Pathogen-sensing plasmacytoid dendritic cells stimulate cytotoxic T-cell function in the atherosclerotic plaque through interferon-alpha. Circulation. 2006;114:2482-9 pubmed
    ..0003). pDCs in atherosclerotic plaque sense microbial motifs and amplify cytolytic T-cell functions, thus providing a link between host-infectious episodes and acute immune-mediated complications of atherosclerosis. ..
  45. Yapp A, Lindeman R, Gilroy N, Gao Z, MacIntyre C. Infection outcomes in splenectomized patients with hemoglobinopathies in Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:696-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Infectious complications in this group of patients cause serious morbidity and mortality. This cohort may be a target for novel preventive strategies such as more immunogenic vaccines, patient registries, and/or education programs. ..
  46. Park H, Lee K, Kim M, Lee J, Seong S, Ko G. Detection and hazard assessment of pathogenic microorganisms in medical wastes. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2009;44:995-1003 pubmed
    ..However, medical waste should be carefully controlled and monitored to prevent nosocomial infection associated with the exposure to these wastes. ..
  47. Sierro F, Evrard M, Rizzetto S, Melino M, Mitchell A, Flórido M, et al. A Liver Capsular Network of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Restricts Hepatic Dissemination of Intraperitoneal Bacteria by Neutrophil Recruitment. Immunity. 2017;47:374-388.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the liver contains two separate and non-overlapping niches occupied by distinct resident macrophage populations mediating immunosurveillance at these two pathogen entry points to the liver. ..
  48. Ruijs W, Timen A. [Guideline 'Needlestick injuries': risk assessment and post-exposure management in practice]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152:1967-71 pubmed
    ..Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis is advised for high-risk injuries with a HIV seropositive source or a source belonging to a risk group for HIV. ..
  49. Goodrich R, Custer B, Keil S, Busch M. Defining "adequate" pathogen reduction performance for transfused blood components. Transfusion. 2010;50:1827-37 pubmed publisher
  50. Muralidhar S, Singh P, Jain R, Malhotra M, Bala M. Needle stick injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital of India. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:405-10 pubmed
    ..These issues need to be addressed, through appropriate education and other interventional strategies by the hospital infection control committee. ..
  51. Konlan K, Aarah Bapuah M, Kombat J, Wuffele G. TOPIC: "The level of nurses' knowledge on occupational post exposure to hepatitis B infection in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana". BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:254 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, there is a need for a national policy on occupational safety and health which should include HB vaccination of health care workers as a requirement for appointment into the health service. ..
  52. Stringer B, Haines T, Goldsmith C, Blythe J, Harris K. Perioperative use of the hands-free technique: a semistructured interview study. AORN J. 2006;84:233-5, 238-48 pubmed
    ..RESEARCHERS CONDUCTED in-depth telephone interviews to explore 20 health care providers' knowledge and use of the HFT. MOST OF THE INTERVIEWEES did not regularly use the HFT, and some were resistant to its use. ..
  53. Moore J, Miller B. Skin, hair, and other infections associated with visits to barber's shops and hairdressing salons. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35:203-4 pubmed
  54. Pedrana A, Aitken C, Higgs P, Hellard M. Risk behaviours and blood borne virus exposure for transient workers in rural Victoria. Aust J Rural Health. 2008;16:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that transient workers and their contacts would benefit from the targeted provision of harm-reduction services, with a particular focus on sexual behaviour and alcohol and drug use. ..
  55. Roudiere L, Viard J. [Accidental exposure to blood]. Rev Prat. 2008;58:313-7 pubmed
  56. Ross M, McCurdy S, Kilonzo G, Williams M, Leshabari M. Drug use careers and blood-borne pathogen risk behavior in male and female Tanzanian heroin injectors. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:338-43 pubmed
    ..These data confirm that heroin injecting is well established in large cities in east Africa, and that HIV prevention in the region must now include drug injectors and other drug users. ..
  57. Janetzko K, Hinz K, Marschner S, Goodrich R, Kluter H. Pathogen reduction technology (Mirasol) treated single-donor platelets resuspended in a mixture of autologous plasma and PAS. Vox Sang. 2009;97:234-9 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 13.0 vs. 16.5 +/- 7.6%). In comparison to PRT platelets resuspended in 100% plasma, a mixture of plasma and PAS improves pH and platelet metabolism but not platelet activation. Prolonged shelf-life for up to 7 days may be possible ..
  58. Dodd R. Emerging pathogens in transfusion medicine. Clin Lab Med. 2010;30:499-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Over the past 20 years, however, greatest concern has arisen from variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, West Nile virus, and Babesia. These and other emerging infections are discussed in the context of blood safety. ..
  59. Kao Y, Bailey A, Samminger B, Tanimoto J, Burnouf T. Removal process of prion and parvovirus from human platelet lysates used as clinical-grade supplement for ex vivo cell expansion. Cytotherapy. 2016;18:911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These data bring new perspectives for increasingly safer use of pooled HPL in cell therapy and regenerative medicine applications. ..
  60. Gisselquist D. How much do blood exposures contribute to HIV prevalence in female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand and India?. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:581-8 pubmed
  61. Liñares J. Diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection: conservative techniques. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:827-9 pubmed
  62. Koppel E, Litjens M, van den Berg V, van Kooyk Y, Geijtenbeek T. Interaction of SIGNR1 expressed by marginal zone macrophages with marginal zone B cells is essential to early IgM responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:2881-7 pubmed publisher
  63. Moore P, Chang Y, Jaffe H. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by blood transfusion. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:88; author reply 89 pubmed
  64. Wendel S, Leiby D. Parasitic infections in the blood supply: assessing and countering the threat. Dev Biol (Basel). 2007;127:17-41 pubmed
  65. Moore J, Watabe M, Stewart A, Cherie Millar B, Rao J. A novel challenge test incorporating irradiation (60Co) of compost sub-samples to validate thermal lethality towards pathogenic bacteria. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:144-53 pubmed
  66. Arduino M, Lucero C, Patel P. Infections in dialysis patients. Nephrol News Issues. 2008;22:48-50, 53, 55-7 passim pubmed
  67. Perdelli F, Spagnolo A, Cristina M, Sartini M, Malcontenti R, Dallera M, et al. Evaluation of contamination by blood aerosols produced during various healthcare procedures. J Hosp Infect. 2008;70:174-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Although there is, as yet, no concrete proof of the risk of infection through blood-containing aerosols, minimising the production and dispersal of aerosols and spatters is strongly recommended...
  68. Kurtoglu M, Bozkurt H, Tuncer O, Kesli R, Berktas M. Distribution, optimum detection time and antimicrobial susceptibility rates of the microorganisms isolated from blood cultures over a 4-year time period in a Turkish university hospital and a review of the international literature. J Int Med Res. 2008;36:1261-72 pubmed
    ..This study helps in understanding the epidemiology of the region and in providing positive therapeutic approaches. A review of the international literature helps to place this understanding into a global context...
  69. Wicker S, Rabenau H. Occupational exposures to bloodborne viruses among German dental professionals and students in a clinical setting. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010;83:77-83 pubmed publisher
  70. Roshan T, Rosline H, Ahmed S, Rapiaah M, Khattak M. Response rate of Malaysian blood donors with reactive screening test to transfusion medicine unit calls. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:1315-21 pubmed
    ..A review of the effectiveness of the current deferral system and an increased public knowledge of transmissible infectious diseases may encourage blood donors to have a better response rate...
  71. Rupp T, Christensen K. Infection protection. A review of post-exposure prophylaxis. JEMS. 2008;33:68-77; quiz 78 pubmed publisher
  72. Blenkharn I. Waste management requirements of community i.v. therapy services. Br J Community Nurs. 2009;14:38-9 pubmed
  73. Singh V, Kalairajah Y. Splash in elective primary knee and hip replacement: are we adequately protected?. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009;91:1074-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A high number of splashes are generated during a TKR and a THR. The simple visor mask fails to protect the surgeon, the assistant or the patient from the risk of a splash and reverse splash, respectively...
  74. Goodrich R, Doane S, Reddy H. Design and development of a method for the reduction of infectious pathogen load and inactivation of white blood cells in whole blood products. Biologicals. 2010;38:20-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This manuscript describes development efforts using a photochemical PRT method employing riboflavin and UV-Light (Mirasol PRT)...
  75. Haynes R, ZIMMERMAN B, Millward L, Ware E, Premanandan C, Yu L, et al. Early spatial and temporal events of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 spread following blood-borne transmission in a rabbit model of infection. J Virol. 2010;84:5124-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support emerging evidence that HTLV-1 promotes lymphocyte proliferation preceding early viral spread in lymphoid compartments to establish and maintain persistent infection...
  76. Argentero P, Zotti C, Abbona F, Mamo C, Castella A, Vallino A, et al. [Regional surveillance of occupational percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure to blood-borne pathogens in health care workers: strategies for prevention]. Med Lav. 2007;98:145-55 pubmed
    ..At the moment no complete epidemiological data are available covering the hospitals of an entire Region...
  77. Rainey J. An evaluation of a state hepatitis prevention and control program: focus group interviews with clients. Health Promot Pract. 2007;8:266-72 pubmed
  78. Kihara R, Yanagihara K, Morinaga Y, Araki N, Nakamura S, Seki M, et al. Potency of SMP-601, a novel carbapenem, in hematogenous murine bronchopneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:2163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the potency of SMP-601 against MRSA and VISA in murine hematogenous pulmonary infection...
  79. Machado Carvalhais H, Ramos Jorge M, Auad S, Martins L, Paiva S, Pordeus I. Occupational exposure to potentially infectious biological material in a dental teaching environment. J Dent Educ. 2008;72:1201-8 pubmed
    ..8; 95 percent CI 2.1-19.0), were independently associated with exposure to blood. Policies of reviewing the procedures during clinical practice are recommended in order to reduce occupational exposure...
  80. Gershon R, Pearson J, Sherman M, Samar S, Canton A, Stone P. The prevalence and risk factors for percutaneous injuries in registered nurses in the home health care sector. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this gap, a large cross-sectional study of self-reported exposures in HHC registered nurses (RNs) was conducted...
  81. Thein H, Yi Q, Heathcote E, Krahn M. Prognosis of hepatitis C virus-infected Canadian post-transfusion compensation claimant cohort. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:802-13 pubmed publisher
  82. Thompson N, Barry V, Alelis K, Cui D, Perz J. Evaluation of the potential for bloodborne pathogen transmission associated with diabetes care practices in nursing homes and assisted living facilities, Pinellas County. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:914-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate and characterize routine blood glucose monitoring practices in nursing homes and assisted living facilities (ALFs)...
  83. Singh Y, Sawyer L, Pinkoski L, Dupuis K, Hsu J, Lin L, et al. Photochemical treatment of plasma with amotosalen and long-wavelength ultraviolet light inactivates pathogens while retaining coagulation function. Transfusion. 2006;46:1168-77 pubmed
    ..These studies evaluated the efficacy of PCT to inactivate pathogens in plasma and the effect of PCT on plasma function...
  84. Chen G, Jenkins E. Potential work-related exposures to bloodborne pathogens by industry and occupation in the United States Part II: A telephone interview study. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50:285-92 pubmed
  85. Zenner D, Tomkins S, Charlett A, Wellings K, Ncube F. HIV prone occupational exposures: epidemiology and factors associated with initiation of post-exposure prophylaxis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009;63:373-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet one in five UK healthcare workers did not initiate PEP despite having been exposed to an HIV-positive source patient. The aim of the study is to examine factors associated with PEP uptake behaviour...
  86. Pillonel J, Brouard C, Laperche S, Barin F, Bernillon P, De Valk H. [Quantitative estimate of the risk of blood donation contamination by infectious agents]. Transfus Clin Biol. 2009;16:138-45 pubmed publisher
  87. Okinyi M, Brewer D, Potterat J. Horizontally-acquired HIV infection in Kenyan and Swazi children. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:852-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Rigorous surveillance and investigation of horizontally acquired HIV infection in children are urgently needed, along with universal public education about risks of specific blood exposures and ways to avoid them...
  88. Carneiro Proietti A, Sabino E, Sampaio D, Proietti F, Goncalez T, Oliveira C, et al. Demographic profile of blood donors at three major Brazilian blood centers: results from the International REDS-II study, 2007 to 2008. Transfusion. 2010;50:918-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Donor demographic data from three major blood centers establish current donation profiles in Brazil, serving as baseline for future analyses and tracking longitudinal changes in donor characteristics...
  89. Price L, Goodman T. Demystifying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration inspection process. AORN J. 2006;83:856-65; quiz 867-70 pubmed
    ..Actual citations given in four recent OSHA health care facility inspections are discussed and general recommendations to prepare for an OSHA site visit are given...
  90. Chen G, Jenkins E. Potential work-related bloodborne pathogen exposures by industry and occupation in the United States part I: an emergency department-based surveillance study. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50:183-90 pubmed
    ..The estimate was derived from a convenience sample and did not include exposures outside of hospitals. This study seeks to understand the magnitude and distribution of the exposures across all industries and occupations...
  91. Burt R, Hagan H, Garfein R, Sabin K, Weinbaum C, Thiede H. Trends in hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, risk behaviors, and preventive measures among Seattle injection drug users aged 18-30 years, 1994-2004. J Urban Health. 2007;84:436-54 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there has been a substantial and sustained reduction in prevalence rates for HBV and HCV infection among young Seattle IDUs, while HIV rates have remained low and stable...