carmustine

Summary

Summary: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Gutenberg A, Bock H, Bruck W, Doerner L, Mehdorn H, Roggendorf W, et al. MGMT promoter methylation status and prognosis of patients with primary or recurrent glioblastoma treated with carmustine wafers. Br J Neurosurg. 2013;27:772-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in glioblastoma patients treated with carmustine (BCNU) wafer implantation is unclear...
  2. Linch D, Yung L, Smith P, MacLennan K, Jack A, Hancock B, et al. Final analysis of the UKLG LY02 trial comparing 6-8 cycles of CHOP with 3 cycles of CHOP followed by a BEAM autograft in patients <65 years with poor prognosis histologically aggressive NHL. Br J Haematol. 2010;149:237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..at the time of diagnosis with 223 assigned to continuing CHOP and 234 to 3 cycles of CHOP followed by a BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) autograft. Analysis was on an intention to treat basis...
  3. Vinjamuri M, Adumala R, Altaha R, Hobbs G, Crowell E. Comparative analysis of temozolomide (TMZ) versus 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1 nitrosourea (BCNU) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. J Neurooncol. 2009;91:221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the superior OS of the TMZ-treated GBM patients was not due to better tumor control by TMZ but was possibly related to the newer salvage therapy that was available to them. ..
  4. Yamauchi T, Ogawa M, Ueda T. Carmustine-resistant cancer cells are sensitized to temozolomide as a result of enhanced mismatch repair during the development of carmustine resistance. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..MMR) triggered by O(6)-alkylguanine, whereas MMR protects cells against bifunctional alkylators, including carmustine (BCNU)...
  5. Helal G, Aleisa A, Helal O, Al Rejaie S, Al Yahya A, Al Majed A, et al. Metallothionein induction reduces caspase-3 activity and TNFalpha levels with preservation of cognitive function and intact hippocampal neurons in carmustine-treated rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2:26-35 pubmed
    ..The present study aimed to explore the effect of MT induction on carmustine (BCNU)-induced hippocampal cognitive dysfunction in rats...
  6. Gutenberg A, Lumenta C, Braunsdorf W, Sabel M, Mehdorn H, Westphal M, et al. The combination of carmustine wafers and temozolomide for the treatment of malignant gliomas. A comprehensive review of the rationale and clinical experience. J Neurooncol. 2013;113:163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Median overall survival in 14 studies of newly-diagnosed patients suggested a modest improvement versus resection followed by Stupp protocol or resection with BCNU wafers, with an acceptable and manageable safety profile. ..
  7. Salmaggi A, Milanesi I, Silvani A, Gaviani P, Marchetti M, Fariselli L, et al. Prospective study of carmustine wafers in combination with 6-month metronomic temozolomide and radiation therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: preliminary results. J Neurosurg. 2013;118:821-9 pubmed publisher
    Locoregional chemotherapy with carmustine wafers, positioned at surgery and followed by radiation therapy, has been shown to prolong survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, as has concomitant radiochemotherapy with ..
  8. Tseng Y, Liao J, Chen W, Kao Y, Liu S. Sustainable release of carmustine from biodegradable poly[((D,L))-lactide-co-glycolide] nanofibrous membranes in the cerebral cavity: in vitro and in vivo studies. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2013;10:879-88 pubmed publisher
  9. Moore S, Kayani I, Peggs K, Qian W, Lowry L, Thomson K, et al. Mini-BEAM is effective as a bridge to transplantation in patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma who have failed to respond to previous lines of salvage chemotherapy but not in patients with salvage-refractory DLBCL. Br J Haematol. 2012;157:543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report on 39 such patients who received mini-BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) chemotherapy as second or subsequent-line salvage chemotherapy...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Arifin D, Lee K, Wang C, Smith K. Role of convective flow in carmustine delivery to a brain tumor. Pharm Res. 2009;26:2289-302 pubmed publisher
    This paper presents a three-dimensional patient-specific simulation of carmustine delivery to brain tumor. The simulation investigates several crucial factors, particularly the role of convective flow, affecting drug delivery efficacy...
  2. Ryan C, Dolan M, Brockstein B, McLendon R, Delaney S, Samuels B, et al. A phase II trial of O6-benzylguanine and carmustine in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;58:634-9 pubmed
    Tumor resistance to alkylating agents such as carmustine (BCNU) has been found to be associated with intracellular expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)...
  3. Westphal M, Ram Z, Riddle V, Hilt D, Bortey E. Gliadel wafer in initial surgery for malignant glioma: long-term follow-up of a multicenter controlled trial. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:269-75; discussion 275 pubmed
    ..The only interstitial chemotherapy treatment approved for malignant glioma is Gliadel wafer containing carmustine (BCNU) placed in the resection cavity at surgery...
  4. Bay J, Jacques Olivier B, Linassier C, Claude L, Biron P, Pierre B, et al. Does high-dose carmustine increase overall survival in supratentorial high-grade malignant glioma? An EBMT retrospective study. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1782-6 pubmed
    ..However, prognosis remains poor. High-doses chemotherapy with carmustine is another way to improve response and survival by increasing the dose delivered...
  5. Yang H, Hua M, Liu H, Huang C, Tsai R, Lu Y, et al. Self-protecting core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for targeted, traceable, long half-life delivery of BCNU to gliomas. Biomaterials. 2011;32:6523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mg BCNU/kg carried by the nanocarrier versus 50 days for those that received 13.5 mg of free-BCNU). This improvement could enhance the potential of magnetic targeting therapy in clinical applications of cancer treatments. ..
  6. Gerull S, Beard B, Peterson L, Neff T, Kiem H. In vivo selection and chemoprotection after drug resistance gene therapy in a nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation setting in dogs. Hum Gene Ther. 2007;18:451-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the transduced cells conferred chemoprotection and prevented severe neutropenia. Our results suggest that drug resistance gene therapy is feasible and safe in the nonmyeloablative transplantation setting. ..
  7. Ewend M, Brem S, Gilbert M, Goodkin R, Penar P, Varia M, et al. Treatment of single brain metastasis with resection, intracavity carmustine polymer wafers, and radiation therapy is safe and provides excellent local control. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:3637-41 pubmed
    To define the safety and efficacy of carmustine polymer wafers when added to a regimen of surgery and external beam radiotherapy for treatment of a single brain metastasis...
  8. Papait R, Magrassi L, Rigamonti D, Cattaneo E. Temozolomide and carmustine cause large-scale heterochromatin reorganization in glioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:434-9 pubmed publisher
    Temozolomide (TMZ) and carmustine (BCNU), cancer-drugs usually used in the treatment of gliomas, are DNA-methylating agents producing O6-methylguanine...
  9. Bizzozero O, Ziegler J, De Jesus G, Bolognani F. Acute depletion of reduced glutathione causes extensive carbonylation of rat brain proteins. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:656-67 pubmed
    ..Our observations may be important in the context of multiple sclerosis where decreased GSH, mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive production of ROS, and increased protein carbonylation have all been reported. ..
  10. Della Puppa A, Rossetto M, Ciccarino P, Denaro L, Rotilio A, D Avella D, et al. Carmustine wafer implantation when surgical cavity is communicating with cerebral ventricles: technical considerations on a clinical series. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:156-9; discussion 67-8 pubmed publisher
    Implantation of carmustine (1,3-bis (2 chloroetyl)-1-nitrosurea [BCNU]) wafers is an approved local treatment after surgical removal of high-grade gliomas. Safety data have been largely reported by phase III studies...
  11. Miglierini P, Bouchekoua M, Rousseau B, Hieu P, Malhaire J, Pradier O. Impact of the per-operatory application of GLIADEL wafers (BCNU, carmustine) in combination with temozolomide and radiotherapy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: efficacy and toxicity. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2012;114:1222-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the small number of patients treated in our group, particular attention should be paid to the potential haematological consequences of this multimodal treatment regimen. ..
  12. van den Bent M, Brandes A, Rampling R, Kouwenhoven M, Kros J, Carpentier A, et al. Randomized phase II trial of erlotinib versus temozolomide or carmustine in recurrent glioblastoma: EORTC brain tumor group study 26034. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..were randomly assigned to either erlotinib or a control arm that received treatment with either temozolomide or carmustine (BCNU). The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS)...
  13. Bock H, Puchner M, Lohmann F, Schütze M, Koll S, Ketter R, et al. First-line treatment of malignant glioma with carmustine implants followed by concomitant radiochemotherapy: a multicenter experience. Neurosurg Rev. 2010;33:441-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have compiled the treatment experience of seven neurosurgical centers using implantation of carmustine wafers at primary surgery followed by 6 weeks of radiation therapy (59-60 Gy) and 75 mg/m(2)/day TMZ in patients ..
  14. Hua M, Liu H, Yang H, Chen P, Tsai R, Huang C, et al. The effectiveness of a magnetic nanoparticle-based delivery system for BCNU in the treatment of gliomas. Biomaterials. 2011;32:516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This drug delivery system promises to provide more effective tumor treatment using lower therapeutic doses and potentially reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. ..
  15. Xu X, Chen X, Xu X, Lu T, Wang X, Yang L, et al. BCNU-loaded PEG-PLLA ultrafine fibers and their in vitro antitumor activity against Glioma C6 cells. J Control Release. 2006;114:307-16 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the BCNU/PEG-PLLA fibers have an effect of controlled release of BCNU and are suitable for postoperative chemotherapy of cancers. ..
  16. Sirohi B, Cunningham D, Powles R, Murphy F, Arkenau T, Norman A, et al. Long-term outcome of autologous stem-cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to previously described prognostic factors, our data show that Hasenclever index <3 influences outcome favorably and attaining CR at ASCT leads to a better outcome. ..
  17. El Sayed E, Abdel Aziz A, Saleh S, Saad A. The chemopreventive effect of dimethylthiourea against carmustine-induced myelotoxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1965-9 pubmed publisher
    The possible chemopreventive role of dimethylthiourea (DMTU) against carmustine (1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, BCNU)-induced myelotoxicity was assessed through evaluation of apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content ..
  18. Gallego J, Barcia J, Barcia Marino C. Fatal outcome related to carmustine implants in glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007;149:261-5; discussion 265 pubmed
    Following the resection of newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastomas, local implantation of carmustine-impregnated biodegradable wafers (Gliadel) in the resection cavity constitutes an adjuvant therapy that can improve the possibilities ..
  19. Lock J, Sinkins W, Schilling W. Effect of protein S-glutathionylation on Ca2+ homeostasis in cultured aortic endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H493-506 pubmed publisher
  20. Beard B, Trobridge G, Ironside C, McCune J, Adair J, Kiem H. Efficient and stable MGMT-mediated selection of long-term repopulating stem cells in nonhuman primates. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These nonhuman primate studies closely model a clinical setting and should have broad applications for HSC gene therapy targeting human diseases of malignant, genetic, and infectious nature, including HIV. ..
  21. Noel G, Schott R, Froelich S, Gaub M, Boyer P, Fischer Lokou D, et al. Retrospective comparison of chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, with or without prior gliadel implantation (carmustine) after initial surgery in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:749-55 pubmed publisher
    Retrospective study of patients treated for high-grade glioma, with or without biodegradable carmustine wafers and according to the Stupp protocol...
  22. Buckner J, Ballman K, Michalak J, Burton G, Cascino T, Schomberg P, et al. Phase III trial of carmustine and cisplatin compared with carmustine alone and standard radiation therapy or accelerated radiation therapy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: North Central Cancer Treatment Group 93-72-52 and Southwest Oncology . J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3871-9 pubmed
    In patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme, to determine whether cisplatin plus carmustine (BCNU) administered before and concurrently with radiation therapy (RT) improves survival compared with BCNU and RT and whether ..
  23. Affronti M, Heery C, Herndon J, Rich J, Reardon D, Desjardins A, et al. Overall survival of newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients receiving carmustine wafers followed by radiation and concurrent temozolomide plus rotational multiagent chemotherapy. Cancer. 2009;115:3501-11 pubmed publisher
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most lethal type of brain tumor, has a 1-year median survival. The effect of carmustine wafers on the survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (..
  24. McGirt M, Than K, Weingart J, Chaichana K, Attenello F, Olivi A, et al. Gliadel (BCNU) wafer plus concomitant temozolomide therapy after primary resection of glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg. 2009;110:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Temozolomide can be safely administered to patients receiving Gliadel wafers after resection of GBM. ..
  25. Weingart J, Grossman S, Carson K, Fisher J, Delaney S, Rosenblum M, et al. Phase I trial of polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant plus continuous infusion of intravenous O6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent malignant glioma: new approaches to brain tumor therapy CNS consortium trial. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:399-404 pubmed
    ..2) evaluate the safety of extending continuous-infusion O6-BG at the optimal dose with intracranially implanted carmustine wafers, and (3) measure the pharmacokinetics of O6-BG and its metabolite...
  26. Darakchiev B, Albright R, Breneman J, Warnick R. Safety and efficacy of permanent iodine-125 seed implants and carmustine wafers in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg. 2008;108:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel treatment approaches are needed. Localized adjunct treatment with carmustine (BCNU) wafers or permanent, low-activity 125I seed implants has been shown to be effective for GBM...
  27. Lin S, Kleinberg L. Carmustine wafers: localized delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in CNS malignancies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2008;8:343-59 pubmed publisher
    ..To meaningfully increase survival, a trimodality approach of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy is needed. Carmustine (1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea) is a nitrosourea alkylating agent that exerts its antitumor effect by ..
  28. Duntze J, Litré C, Eap C, Theret E, Debreuve A, Jovenin N, et al. Implanted carmustine wafers followed by concomitant radiochemotherapy to treat newly diagnosed malignant gliomas: prospective, observational, multicenter study on 92 cases. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:2065-72 pubmed publisher
    Study the feasibility and effectiveness of a treatment associated surgery, intraoperative chemotherapy (carmustine wafers), and concomitant radiochemotherapy (temozolomide) for the management of newly diagnosed, high-grade gliomas...
  29. Recinos V, Tyler B, Bekelis K, Sunshine S, Vellimana A, Li K, et al. Combination of intracranial temozolomide with intracranial carmustine improves survival when compared with either treatment alone in a rodent glioma model. Neurosurgery. 2010;66:530-7; discussion 537 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the observed clinical synergy of orally administered TMZ and carmustine (BCNU) wafers would translate into even greater effectiveness with the local delivery of BCNU and TMZ and the ..
  30. Metellus P, Coulibaly B, Nanni I, Fina F, Eudes N, Giorgi R, et al. Prognostic impact of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase silencing in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme who undergo surgery and carmustine wafer implantation: a prospective patient cohort. Cancer. 2009;115:4783-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-two patients who had recurrent GBM and who underwent surgery with carmustine wafer implantation were enrolled prospectively between 2005 and 2007...
  31. Márquez Rivas J, Ramirez G, Ollero Ortiz A, Giménez Pando J, Emmerich J, Quiroga Cantero E, et al. Initial experience involving treatment and retreatment with carmustine wafers in combination with oral temozolomide: long-term survival in a child with relapsed glioblastoma multiforme. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010;32:e202-6 pubmed publisher
    ..child with malignant posterior temporal glioma treated with surgery, radiotherapy, local chemotherapy with carmustine wafers, and oral therapy with temozolomide, both at initial diagnosis and at relapse 18 months later...
  32. Chaichana K, Zaidi H, Pendleton C, McGirt M, Grossman R, Weingart J, et al. The efficacy of carmustine wafers for older patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prolonging survival. Neurol Res. 2011;33:759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal was to evaluate the efficacy of carmustine wafers in prolonging survival for older GBM patients...
  33. Dixit S, Hingorani M, Achawal S, Scott I. The sequential use of carmustine wafers (Gliadel®) and post-operative radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide: a clinical review. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:459-69 pubmed publisher
  34. Pan E, Mitchell S, Tsai J. A retrospective study of the safety of BCNU wafers with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. J Neurooncol. 2008;88:353-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy and safety of carmustine (BCNU) wafers followed by radiotherapy have been demonstrated in patients with malignant glioma...
  35. Zhong Z, Wan Y, Shi S, Han J, Zhang Z, Sun X. Co-delivery of adenovirus and carmustine by anionic liposomes with synergistic anti-tumor effects. Pharm Res. 2012;29:145-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking adenovirus-mediated stromal cell-derived factor-1? (Ad5-SDF1?) as therapeutic gene and carmustine (BCNU) as chemotherapeutic agent, a co-delivering system of AL/Ad5-SDF1?/BCNU was prepared and administered to ..
  36. Catalán Uribarrena G, Bilbao Barandica G, Pomposo Gaztelu I, Undabeitia Huertas J, Ruiz de Gopegui Ruiz E, Galbarriatu Gutiérrez L, et al. Prognostic factors and survival in a prospective cohort of patients with high-grade glioma treated with carmustine wafers or temozolomide on an intention-to-treat basis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:211-22; discussion 222 pubmed publisher
    Patients with high-grade glioma can be treated with carmustine wafers or following the Stupp protocol. As far as we are aware, no scientific evidence has been published comparing the two treatments...
  37. Kuo Y, Liang C. Inhibition of human brain malignant glioblastoma cells using carmustine-loaded catanionic solid lipid nanoparticles with surface anti-epithelial growth factor receptor. Biomaterials. 2011;32:3340-50 pubmed publisher
    Innovated catanionic solid lipid nanoparticles (CASLNs) carrying carmustine (BCNU) (BCNU-CASLNs) were grafted with anti-epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) (anti-EGFR/BCNU-CASLNs) and applied to inhibiting the propagation of human ..
  38. Geisler C, Kolstad A, Laurell A, Jerkeman M, Räty R, Andersen N, et al. Nordic MCL2 trial update: six-year follow-up after intensive immunochemotherapy for untreated mantle cell lymphoma followed by BEAM or BEAC + autologous stem-cell support: still very long survival but late relapses do occur. Br J Haematol. 2012;158:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, although highly encouraging regarding the majority of the patients, underline the need of a risk-adapted treatment strategy for MCL. The study was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN 87866680. ..
  39. Jilani K, Lang F. Carmustine-induced phosphatidylserine translocation in the erythrocyte membrane. Toxins (Basel). 2013;5:703-16 pubmed publisher
    The nitrosourea alkylating agent, carmustine, is used as chemotherapeutic drug in several malignancies. The substance triggers tumor cell apoptosis. Side effects of carmustine include myelotoxicity with anemia...
  40. Sabel M, Giese A. Safety profile of carmustine wafers in malignant glioma: a review of controlled trials and a decade of clinical experience. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24:3239-57 pubmed
    b>Carmustine (1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea, or BCNU) wafers are approved for recurrent glioblastoma and newly diagnosed malignant glioma (MG)...
  41. Menei P, Metellus P, Parot Schinkel E, Loiseau H, Capelle L, Jacquet G, et al. Biodegradable carmustine wafers (Gliadel) alone or in combination with chemoradiotherapy: the French experience. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1740-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Carmustine-releasing wafers (Gliadel have been available and reimbursed in France since 2005...
  42. Van Meter T, Broaddus W, Cash D, Fillmore H. Cotreatment with a novel phosphoinositide analogue inhibitor and carmustine enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy by attenuating AKT activity in gliomas. Cancer. 2006;107:2446-54 pubmed
    ..1-30 microM). Studies examining the effect of carmustine, either alone or in combination with either the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or SH-6, were ..
  43. El Sayed E, Abdel Aziz A, Helal G, Saleh S, Saad A. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against carmustine-induced myelotoxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1576-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Carmustine (BCNU) is used to treat a variety of tumors, in particular gliomas. However, the success of such treatment is limited by severe myelosuppression...
  44. Giese A, Bock H, Kantelhardt S, Rohde V. Risk management in the treatment of malignant gliomas with BCNU wafer implants. Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2010;71:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The growing body of experience with BCNU wafer implantation may serve as a basis to develop adequate risk management strategies with regard to patient selection, surgical techniques, and follow-up schedules. ..
  45. Helal G, Helal O. Metallothionein attenuates carmustine-induced oxidative stress and protects against pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:87-94 pubmed publisher
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of exogenously administered metallothionein (MT) against carmustine (BCNU)-induced lung toxicity in rats...
  46. Salvati M, D Elia A, Frati A, Brogna C, Santoro A, Delfini R. Safety and feasibility of the adjunct of local chemotherapy with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafers to the standard multimodal approach to high grade gliomas at first diagnosis. J Neurosurg Sci. 2011;55:1-6 pubmed
    ..at our institution for cerebral supratentorial high grade glioma with surgery and intraoperative placement of carmustine wafers. No postsurgical complications could be observed...
  47. Lechapt Zalcman E, Levallet G, Dugué A, Vital A, Diebold M, Menei P, et al. O(6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and low MGMT-encoded protein expression as prognostic markers in glioblastoma patients treated with biodegradable carmustine wafer implants after initial surgery followed by radiot. Cancer. 2012;118:4545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the prognostic impact of MGMT in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who receive carmustine-releasing wafers (Gliadel) along with temozolomide (TMZ) is still unknown...
  48. Sampath P, Rhines L, DiMeco F, Tyler B, Park M, Brem H. Interstitial docetaxel (taxotere), carmustine and combined interstitial therapy: a novel treatment for experimental malignant glioma. J Neurooncol. 2006;80:9-17 pubmed
    ..Also, we examined the combined local delivery of docetaxel with carmustine (BCNU) against the experimental intracranial glioma...
  49. Law L, Horning S, Wong R, Johnston L, Laport G, Lowsky R, et al. High-dose carmustine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:703-11 pubmed
    ..irradiation and another not based on total body irradiation with preparative therapy using cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) in autologous HCT...
  50. Reyes S, Herrera L, Ostrosky P, Sotelo J. Quinacrine enhances carmustine therapy of experimental rat glioma. Neurosurgery. 2001;49:969-73 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether quinacrine could improve carmustine therapy in C6 cell cultures and in C6 malignant gliomas implanted subcutaneously into Wistar rats...
  51. Creagan E, Suman V, Dalton R, Pitot H, Long H, Veeder M, et al. Phase III clinical trial of the combination of cisplatin, dacarbazine, and carmustine with or without tamoxifen in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:1884-90 pubmed
    ..whether the addition of tamoxifen (TAM) to the three-agent regimen of cisplatin (CDDP), dacarbazine (DTIC), and carmustine (BCNU) significantly increased the progression-free survival and overall survival of patients with advanced ..
  52. Wheeler C, Khurshid A, Ibrahim J, Elias A, Mauch P, Ault K, et al. Incidence of post transplant myelodysplasia/acute leukemia in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients compared with Hodgkin's disease patients undergoing autologous transplantation following cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV). Leuk Lymphoma. 2001;40:499-509 pubmed
    ..patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were treated with cyclophosphamide, carmustine and etoposide and autologous stem cell support from 1986 through 1994. Median follow up of survivors is 3...
  53. Esteller M, Garcia Foncillas J, Andion E, Goodman S, Hidalgo O, Vanaclocha V, et al. Inactivation of the DNA-repair gene MGMT and the clinical response of gliomas to alkylating agents. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1350-4 pubmed
    ..The gliomas were obtained from patients who had been treated with carmustine (1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, or BCNU). The molecular data were correlated with the clinical outcome...