urea

Summary

Summary: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.

Top Publications

  1. Hilding Ohlsson A, Fauerbach J, Sacco N, Bonetto M, Corton E. Voltamperometric discrimination of urea and melamine adulterated skimmed milk powder. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:12220-34 pubmed publisher
    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008...
  2. Holzer M, Zangger K, El Gamal D, Binder V, Curcic S, Konya V, et al. Myeloperoxidase-derived chlorinating species induce protein carbamylation through decomposition of thiocyanate and urea: novel pathways generating dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;17:1043-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that MPO-derived chlorinating species rapidly decompose the plasma components thiocyanate (SCN) and urea, thereby promoting (lipo)protein carbamylation...
  3. Kocyigit Kaymakcioglu B, Celen A, Tabanca N, Ali A, Khan S, Khan I, et al. Synthesis and biological activity of substituted urea and thiourea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moieties. Molecules. 2013;18:3562-76 pubmed publisher
    A series of novel thiourea and urea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity...
  4. Bihuniak J, Simpson C, Sullivan R, Caseria D, Kerstetter J, Insogna K. Dietary protein-induced increases in urinary calcium are accompanied by similar increases in urinary nitrogen and urinary urea: a controlled clinical trial. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:447-51 pubmed publisher
    To determine the usefulness of urinary urea as an index of dietary protein intake, 10 postmenopausal women were enrolled in and completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over feeding trial from September 2008 to May 2010 that compared ..
  5. Ulianas A, Heng L, Ahmad M. A biosensor for urea from succinimide-modified acrylic microspheres based on reflectance transduction. Sensors (Basel). 2011;11:8323-38 pubmed publisher
    ..An optical biosensor for urea based on reflectance transduction with a large linear response range to urea was successfully developed using this ..
  6. Eder M, Schafer M, Bauder Wüst U, Hull W, Wängler C, Mier W, et al. 68Ga-complex lipophilicity and the targeting property of a urea-based PSMA inhibitor for PET imaging. Bioconjug Chem. 2012;23:688-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Urea-based inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) represent low-molecular-weight pepidomimetics showing the ability to image PSMA-expressing prostate tumors...
  7. MCNULTY R, Ulmschneider J, Luecke H, Ulmschneider M. Mechanisms of molecular transport through the urea channel of Helicobacter pylori. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2900 pubmed publisher
    Helicobacter pylori survival in acidic environments relies on cytoplasmic hydrolysis of gastric urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which buffer the pathogen's periplasm...
  8. Pages G, Puckeridge M, Liangfeng G, Tan Y, Jacob C, Garland M, et al. Transmembrane exchange of hyperpolarized 13C-urea in human erythrocytes: subminute timescale kinetic analysis. Biophys J. 2013;105:1956-66 pubmed publisher
    The rate of exchange of urea across the membranes of human erythrocytes (red blood cells) was quantified on the 1-s to 2-min timescale...
  9. LeMoine C, Walsh P. Ontogeny of ornithine-urea cycle gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;304:R991-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..adult teleosts excrete most of their nitrogenous wastes as ammonia, several fish species are capable of producing urea early in development...

More Information

Publications32

  1. Gunzner Toste J, Zhao G, Bauer P, Baumeister T, Buckmelter A, Caligiuri M, et al. Discovery of potent and efficacious urea-containing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitors with reduced CYP2C9 inhibition properties. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:3531-8 pubmed publisher
    Potent, reversible inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 isoform was observed in a series of urea-containing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitors...
  2. Mariotti F, Petzke K, Bonnet D, Szezepanski I, Bos C, Huneau J, et al. Kinetics of the utilization of dietary arginine for nitric oxide and urea synthesis: insight into the arginine-nitric oxide metabolic system in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis remains unknown and may be related to a competitive hydrolysis of arginine into urea in the splanchnic area and systemic circulation...
  3. Geer M, Walla M, Solntsev K, Strassert C, Shimizu L. Self-assembled benzophenone bis-urea macrocycles facilitate selective oxidations by singlet oxygen. J Org Chem. 2013;78:5568-78 pubmed publisher
    This manuscript investigates how incorporation of benzophenone, a well-known triplet sensitizer, within a bis-urea macrocycle, which self-assembles into a columnar host, influences its photophysical properties and affects the reactivity ..
  4. Klein J, Blount M, Sands J. Urea transport in the kidney. Compr Physiol. 2011;1:699-729 pubmed publisher
    b>Urea transport proteins were initially proposed to exist in the kidney in the late 1980s when studies of urea permeability revealed values in excess of those predicted by simple lipid-phase diffusion and paracellular transport...
  5. Kumar N, Kishore N. Structure and effect of sarcosine on water and urea by using molecular dynamics simulations: Implications in protein stabilization. Biophys Chem. 2013;171:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..is one of the most important protecting osmolytes which is also known to counteract the denaturing effect of urea. We used molecular dynamics simulation methods to investigate the mechanism of protein stabilization and ..
  6. Strugatsky D, MCNULTY R, Munson K, Chen C, Soltis S, Sachs G, et al. Structure of the proton-gated urea channel from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature. 2013;493:255-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Its proton-gated inner-membrane urea channel, HpUreI, is essential for survival in the acidic environment of the stomach...
  7. Qiao J, Li J, Ma Y, Guo X, Zhu X, Dong C. [Combined treatment with urea injection and surgical procedure for the scrotal vein malformation in teenagers]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;28:256-60 pubmed
    ..31 cases underwent local injection with 40% urea before resection...
  8. Tichenor M, Keith J, Jones W, Pierce J, Merit J, Hawryluk N, et al. Heteroaryl urea inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase: structure-mutagenicity relationships for arylamine metabolites. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:7357-62 pubmed publisher
    The structure-activity relationships for a series of heteroaryl urea inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are described...
  9. Bush D, Wysocki V, Scaraffia P. Study of the fragmentation of arginine isobutyl ester applied to arginine quantification in Aedes aegypti mosquito excreta. J Mass Spectrom. 2012;47:1364-71 pubmed publisher
    It has been demonstrated that argininolysis and uricolysis are involved in the synthesis and excretion of urea in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes...
  10. Wang Y, Klein J, FROEHLICH O, Sands J. Role of protein kinase C-? in hypertonicity-stimulated urea permeability in mouse inner medullary collecting ducts. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the hypertonic environment of the kidney, urea transporters must be regulated to optimize function...
  11. Lei T, Zhou L, Layton A, Zhou H, Zhao X, Bankir L, et al. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F1251-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively...
  12. Gorla S, Kavitha M, Zhang M, Liu X, Sharling L, Gollapalli D, et al. Selective and potent urea inhibitors of cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase. J Med Chem. 2012;55:7759-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report a selective urea-based inhibitor of C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) identified by high-throughput screening...
  13. Noce A, Ferrannini M, Fabrini R, Bocedi A, Dessi M, Galli F, et al. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a new biomarker for hemodialysis adequacy, overcoming the Kt/V(urea) dogma?. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e377 pubmed publisher
    Kt/V(urea) ratio is commonly used to assess the delivered dose of dialysis in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients...
  14. Bailey E, Titgemeyer E, Olson K, Brake D, Jones M, Anderson D. Effects of supplemental energy and protein on forage digestion and urea kinetics in growing beef cattle. J Anim Sci. 2012;90:3492-504 pubmed publisher
    Effects of supplemental energy sources on nutrient digestion and urea kinetics at 2 levels of degradable intake protein were evaluated in cattle (Bos taurus)...
  15. Montecinos Franjola F, Ross J, Sanchez S, Brunet J, Lagos R, Jameson D, et al. Studies on the dissociation and urea-induced unfolding of FtsZ support the dimer nucleus polymerization mechanism. Biophys J. 2012;102:2176-85 pubmed publisher
  16. Velayos B, Fernández Salazar L, Pons Renedo F, Muñoz M, Almaraz A, Aller R, et al. Accuracy of urea breath test performed immediately after emergency endoscopy in peptic ulcer bleeding. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:1880-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work is to investigate the accuracy of the urea breath test (UBT) performed immediately after emergency endoscopy in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB)...
  17. Zelent B, Buettger C, Grimsby J, Sarabu R, Vanderkooi J, Wand A, et al. Thermal stability of glucokinase (GK) as influenced by the substrate glucose, an allosteric glucokinase activator drug (GKA) and the osmolytes glycerol and urea. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:769-84 pubmed publisher
    We investigated how glycerol, urea, glucose and a GKA influence kinetics and stability of wild-type and mutant GK. Glycerol and glucose stabilized GK additively...
  18. Srivastava R, Srivastava S, Narayanan T, Mahlotra B, Vajtai R, Ajayan P, et al. Functionalized multilayered graphene platform for urea sensor. ACS Nano. 2012;6:168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We utilize this functionalized MLG for the fabrication of a novel amperometric urea biosensor. This biosensor shows linearity of 10-100 mg dL(-1), sensitivity of 5...
  19. Emtestam L, Svensson A, Rensfeldt K. Treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp with a topical solution of urea, lactic acid, and propylene glycol (K301): results of two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled studies. Mycoses. 2012;55:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Treatment-related adverse events were generally mild and included some smarting or burning upon application. The K301 was well tolerated and associated with clinically meaningful improvements in seborrhoeic dermatitis endpoints...
  20. Meyer T, Sirich T, Hostetter T. Dialysis cannot be dosed. Semin Dial. 2011;24:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current solution to this problem is to define an adequate dose of dialysis on the basis of fraction of urea removed from the body...
  21. Graziano G. How does trimethylamine N-oxide counteract the denaturing activity of urea?. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2011;13:17689-95 pubmed publisher
    Trimethylamine N-oxide, TMAO, stabilizes globular proteins and is able to counteract the denaturing activity of urea. The mechanism of this counteraction has remained elusive up to now...
  22. Berteotti A, Barducci A, Parrinello M. Effect of urea on the ?-hairpin conformational ensemble and protein denaturation mechanism. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:17200-6 pubmed publisher
    Despite the daily use of urea to influence protein folding and stability, the molecular mechanism with which urea acts is still not well understood...
  23. Schrier R. Diagnostic value of urinary sodium, chloride, urea, and flow. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1610-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The present brief review discusses the various aspects of the correct interpretation of urinary electrolytes, solute excretion, and urine flow in the setting of a rising serum creatinine concentration. ..