Summary: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.

Top Publications

  1. Neroev V, Archipova M, Bakeeva L, Fursova A, Grigorian E, Grishanova A, et al. Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 4. Age-related eye disease. SkQ1 returns vision to blind animals. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:1317-28 pubmed
    Mitochondria-targeted cationic plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium) has been investigated as a potential tool for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases...
  2. Skulachev V, Antonenko Y, Cherepanov D, Chernyak B, Izyumov D, Khailova L, et al. Prevention of cardiolipin oxidation and fatty acid cycling as two antioxidant mechanisms of cationic derivatives of plastoquinone (SkQs). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:878-89 pubmed publisher
    ..state of the art in studies on the mechanisms of antioxidant activities of mitochondria-targeted cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) is reviewed...
  3. Agapova L, Chernyak B, Domnina L, Dugina V, Efimenko A, Fetisova E, et al. Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 3. Inhibitory effect of SkQ1 on tumor development from p53-deficient cells. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:1300-16 pubmed
    ..Extremely high efficiency of SkQ1, related to its accumulation in the mitochondrial membrane, indicates that mitochondrial ROS production is critical for tumorigenesis at least in some animal models. ..
  4. Tóth S, Schansker G, Strasser R. A non-invasive assay of the plastoquinone pool redox state based on the OJIP-transient. Photosynth Res. 2007;93:193-203 pubmed
    The plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the photosynthetic electron transport chain becomes reduced under anaerobic conditions...
  5. Antonenko Y, Roginsky V, Pashkovskaya A, Rokitskaya T, Kotova E, Zaspa A, et al. Protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ in aqueous and lipid membrane environments. J Membr Biol. 2008;222:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SkQ1 and MitoQ (conjugates of a lipophilic decyltriphenylphosphonium cation with an antioxidant moiety of a plastoquinone and ubiquinone, respectively), was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid environment, i.e...
  6. Singh D, Laremore T, Smith P, Maximova S, McNellis T. Knockdown of FIBRILLIN4 gene expression in apple decreases plastoglobule plastoquinone content. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47547 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these species had a molecular mass and fragmentation pattern that identified it as plastoquinone, a known major component of plastoglobules...
  7. Bennoun P. Chlororespiration and the process of carotenoid biosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1506:133-42 pubmed
    The plastoquinone pool during dark adaptation is reduced by endogenous reductants and oxidized at the expense of molecular oxygen...
  8. Lichtenthaler H. Biosynthesis, accumulation and emission of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, plastoquinone, and isoprene in leaves under high photosynthetic irradiance. Photosynth Res. 2007;92:163-79 pubmed
    ..carriers phylloquinone K1, alpha-tocoquinone and alpha-tocopherol, as well as the nona-prenyl side-chain of plastoquinone-9...
  9. Skulachev M, Antonenko Y, Anisimov V, Chernyak B, Cherepanov D, Chistyakov V, et al. Mitochondrial-targeted plastoquinone derivatives. Effect on senescence and acute age-related pathologies. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12:800-26 pubmed
    b>Plastoquinone, a very effective electron carrier and antioxidant of chloroplasts, was conjugated with decyltriphenylphosphonium to obtain a cation easily penetrating through membranes...

More Information


  1. Plotnikov E, Chupyrkina A, Jankauskas S, Pevzner I, Silachev D, Skulachev V, et al. Mechanisms of nephroprotective effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants under rhabdomyolysis and ischemia/reperfusion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1812:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A mitochondria-targeted compound which is a conjugate of a positively charged rhodamine molecule with plastoquinone (SkQR1) was found to rescue the kidney from the deleterious effect of both pathologies...
  2. Kaminskaya O, Shuvalov V. Biphasic reduction of cytochrome b559 by plastoquinol in photosystem II membrane fragments: evidence for two types of cytochrome b559/plastoquinone redox equilibria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:471-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The properties of this site designated here as QD clearly suggest that it is distinct from the site QC found in the photosystem II crystal structure. ..
  3. Amstislavskaya T, Maslova L, Gladkikh D, Belousova I, Stefanova N, Kolosova N. Effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on sexually motivated behavior in male rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;96:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recovery from these impairments and/or their prevention enables a fully successful performance of the initial stage of male sexual behavior. ..
  4. Rumeau D, Peltier G, Cournac L. Chlororespiration and cyclic electron flow around PSI during photosynthesis and plant stress response. Plant Cell Environ. 2007;30:1041-51 pubmed the stroma lamellae, include a plastidial NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex and a plastid terminal plastoquinone oxidase (PTOX)...
  5. Mus F, Cournac L, Cardettini V, Caruana A, Peltier G. Inhibitor studies on non-photochemical plastoquinone reduction and H(2) photoproduction in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1708:322-32 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in relation to the absence of ndh genes in Chlamydomonas plastid genome and to the existence of 7 ORFs homologous to type-II NDHs in its nuclear genome. ..
  6. Gauthier A, Govindachary S, Harnois J, Carpentier R. Interaction of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine with photosystem II as revealed by thermoluminescence: reduction of the higher oxidation states of the Mn cluster and displacement of plastoquinone from the Q(B) niche. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1547-56 pubmed
    ..oscillations of Q(B) confirmed that TMPD decreased the initial population of PSII centers with an oxidized plastoquinone molecule in the Q(B) niche...
  7. Saprunova V, Pilipenko D, Alexeevsky A, Fursova A, Kolosova N, Bakeeva L. Lipofuscin granule dynamics during development of age-related macular degeneration. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2010;75:130-8 pubmed
  8. Skulachev V, Anisimov V, Antonenko Y, Bakeeva L, Chernyak B, Erichev V, et al. An attempt to prevent senescence: a mitochondrial approach. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:437-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper summarizes the first results of the project. A new type of compounds (SkQs) comprising plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), a penetrating cation, and a decane or pentane linker has been synthesized...
  9. Adamiec M, Drath M, Jackowski G. Redox state of plastoquinone pool regulates expression of Arabidopsis thaliana genes in response to elevated irradiance. Acta Biochim Pol. 2008;55:161-73 pubmed
    ..We postulate that their expression is regulated by redox state of plastoquinone (PQ) pool...
  10. Fetisova E, Avetisyan A, Izyumov D, Korotetskaya M, Chernyak B, Skulachev V. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQR1 selectively protects MDR (Pgp 170)-negative cells against oxidative stress. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:562-6 pubmed publisher
    A conjugate of plastoquinone with decylrhodamine 19 (SkQR1) selectively accumulates in mitochondria of normal and tumor cells. SkQR1 protected the cellular pool of reduced glutathione under oxidative stress...
  11. Tsimilli Michael M, Stamatakis K, Papageorgiou G. Dark-to-light transition in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 cells studied by fluorescence kinetics assesses plastoquinone redox poise in the dark and photosystem II fluorescence component and dynamics during state 2 to state 1 transition. Photosynth Res. 2009;99:243-55 pubmed publisher the variable to initial fluorescence ratio and the relative height of J-level can serve as indexes of the plastoquinone redox poise and the established state in the dark; hence, differences among cyanobacteria can be recognised in ..
  12. Anisimov V, Egorov M, Krasilshchikova M, Lyamzaev K, Manskikh V, Moshkin M, et al. Effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on lifespan of rodents. Aging (Albany NY). 2011;3:1110-9 pubmed
    The effect of the mitochondria-targeted, plastoquinone-containing antioxidant SkQ1 on the lifespan of outbred mice and of three strains of inbred mice was studied...
  13. Swiezewska E. Ubiquinone and plastoquinone metabolism in plants. Methods Enzymol. 2004;378:124-31 pubmed
  14. Sadre R, Pfaff C, Buchkremer S. Plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis in cyanobacteria differs from that in plants and involves a novel 4-hydroxybenzoate solanesyltransferase. Biochem J. 2012;442:621-9 pubmed publisher
    PQ-9 (plastoquinone-9) has a central role in energy transformation processes in cyanobacteria by mediating electron transfer in both the photosynthetic as well as the respiratory electron transport chain...
  15. Norris S, Barrette T, DellaPenna D. Genetic dissection of carotenoid synthesis in arabidopsis defines plastoquinone as an essential component of phytoene desaturation. Plant Cell. 1995;7:2139-49 pubmed
    ..Analysis of pds1 and pds2 shows that both mutants are plastoquinone and tocopherol deficient, in addition to their inability to desaturate phytoene...
  16. Antonenko Y, Avetisyan A, Bakeeva L, Chernyak B, Chertkov V, Domnina L, et al. Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: synthesis and in vitro studies. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:1273-87 pubmed
    Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described...
  17. Shibamoto T, Kato Y, Sugiura M, Watanabe T. Redox potential of the primary plastoquinone electron acceptor Q(A) in photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus determined by spectroelectrochemistry. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10682-4 pubmed publisher
    The redox potential of the primary plastoquinone electron acceptor Q(A), E(m)(Q(A)/Q(A)(-)), in an oxygen-evolving photosystem (PS) II complex from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus was determined to be -140 +/- ..
  18. Obukhova L, Skulachev V, Kolosova N. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 inhibits age-dependent involution of the thymus in normal and senescence-prone rats. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1:389-401 pubmed
    ..Thus SkQ1 slows down age-linked decline of the immune system, explaining prevention by this compound of infection-caused death in rodents, previously described in our group. ..
  19. Joet T, Genty B, Josse E, Kuntz M, Cournac L, Peltier G. Involvement of a plastid terminal oxidase in plastoquinone oxidation as evidenced by expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana enzyme in tobacco. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31623-30 pubmed
    ..We proposed that PTOX, by modulating the redox state of intersystem electron carriers, may participate in the regulation of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I. ..
  20. Kruk J, Trebst A. Plastoquinol as a singlet oxygen scavenger in photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1777:154-62 pubmed
    It has been found that in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, under high-light stress, the level of reduced plastoquinone considerably increases while in the presence of pyrazolate, an inhibitor of plastoquinone and tocopherol biosynthesis, ..
  21. Umena Y, Kawakami K, Shen J, Kamiya N. Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 Å. Nature. 2011;473:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The determination of the high-resolution structure of photosystem II will allow us to analyse and understand its functions in great detail. ..
  22. Plotnikov E, Silachev D, Chupyrkina A, Danshina M, Jankauskas S, Morosanova M, et al. New-generation Skulachev ions exhibiting nephroprotective and neuroprotective properties. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2010;75:145-50 pubmed
    A mitochondria-targeted chimeric compound consisting of a rhodamine derivative linked to a plastoquinone molecule (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine, SkQR1) was studied under conditions of acute brain or kidney damage...
  23. Stefanova N, Fursova A, Kolosova N. Behavioral effects induced by mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 in Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;21:479-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, SkQ1 did not alter learning performance in the MWM in OXYS rats and slightly reduced it in the Wistar strain, which may be associated with differences in redox homeostasis. ..
  24. Allen J. Botany. State transitions--a question of balance. Science. 2003;299:1530-2 pubmed
  25. Shinkarev V, Zybailov B, Vassiliev I, Golbeck J. Modeling of the P700+ charge recombination kinetics with phylloquinone and plastoquinone-9 in the A1 site of photosystem I. Biophys J. 2002;83:2885-97 pubmed
    ..PS I complexes isolated from menA and menB mutants contain plastoquinone-9 rather than phylloquinone in the A(1) site and show altered rates of forward electron transfer from A to [F(..
  26. Frigerio S, Campoli C, Zorzan S, Fantoni L, Crosatti C, Drepper F, et al. Photosynthetic antenna size in higher plants is controlled by the plastoquinone redox state at the post-transcriptional rather than transcriptional level. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29457-69 pubmed
    We analyze the effect of the plastoquinone redox state on the regulation of the light-harvesting antenna size at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
  27. Ohad I, Dal Bosco C, Herrmann R, Meurer J. Photosystem II proteins PsbL and PsbJ regulate electron flow to the plastoquinone pool. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2297-308 pubmed compared to that of the wild type and the psbJ deletion mutant, which is impaired in PSII electron flow to plastoquinone [Regel et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 41473-41478]...
  28. Kirchhoff H, Mukherjee U, Galla H. Molecular architecture of the thylakoid membrane: lipid diffusion space for plastoquinone. Biochemistry. 2002;41:4872-82 pubmed, the fraction of lipids located in the first protein solvation shell (boundary lipids), and the plastoquinone (PQ) concentration are derived...
  29. Wykoff D, Davies J, Melis A, Grossman A. The regulation of photosynthetic electron transport during nutrient deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol. 1998;117:129-39 pubmed
    ..of PSII nonreducing centers (PSII centers capable of performing a charge separation but unable to reduce the plastoquinone pool)...
  30. Jun L, Saiki R, Tatsumi K, Nakagawa T, Kawamukai M. Identification and subcellular localization of two solanesyl diphosphate synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:1882-8 pubmed
    ..designated SPS1 and SPS2, which are responsible for the synthesis of the isoprenoid side chain of either plastoquinone or ubiquinone in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified...
  31. Desplats C, Mus F, Cuiné S, Billon E, Cournac L, Peltier G. Characterization of Nda2, a plastoquinone-reducing type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase in chlamydomonas chloroplasts. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..reinhardtii by reducing PQs from exogenous NADH or NADPH. We discuss the possible involvement of Nda2 in cyclic electron flow around PSI, chlororespiration, and hydrogen production. ..
  32. Jans F, Mignolet E, Houyoux P, Cardol P, Ghysels B, Cuiné S, et al. A type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase mediates light-independent plastoquinone reduction in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20546-51 pubmed publisher
    In photosynthetic eukaryotes, nonphotochemical plastoquinone (PQ) reduction is important for the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow...
  33. Szymańska R, Dłużewska J, Slesak I, Kruk J. Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase bound to cytochrome b?f complex is active in plastoquinone reduction: implications for cyclic electron transport. Physiol Plant. 2011;141:289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..methods showed the presence of the FNR peptide(s), when incorporated into liposome membranes, the NADPH-PQ (plastoquinone) oxidoreductase activity was not detected for the cytochrome b?f complex isolated with the original method ..
  34. Scognamiglio V, Stano P, Polticelli F, Antonacci A, Lambreva M, Pochetti G, et al. Design and biophysical characterization of atrazine-sensing peptides mimicking the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastoquinone binding niche. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013;15:13108-15 pubmed publisher
    The plastoquinone (Q(B)) binding niche of the Photosystem II (PSII) D1 protein is the subject of intense research due to its capability to bind also anthropogenic pollutants...
  35. Severin F, Severina I, Antonenko Y, Rokitskaya T, Cherepanov D, Mokhova E, et al. Penetrating cation/fatty acid anion pair as a mitochondria-targeted protonophore. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:663-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrophobic penetrating cations might be promising to treat obesity, senescence, and some kinds of cancer that require mitochondrial hyperpolarization. ..
  36. Sadre R, Frentzen M, Saeed M, Hawkes T. Catalytic reactions of the homogentisate prenyl transferase involved in plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and decarboxylation of homogentisate to form 2-methyl-6-solanesyl-1,4-benzoquinol, the first intermediate in plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis. In vitro, HST from Spinacia oleracea L...
  37. Shipounova I, Svinareva D, Petrova T, Lyamzaev K, Chernyak B, Drize N, et al. Reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria are involved in age-dependent changes of hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells in mice. A study with the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1. Mech Ageing Dev. 2010;131:415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-aging effects of SkQ1 described here are in perfect agreement with the inhibitory effects of this antioxidant on aging observed in the other models. ..
  38. Bellafiore S, Barneche F, Peltier G, Rochaix J. State transitions and light adaptation require chloroplast thylakoid protein kinase STN7. Nature. 2005;433:892-5 pubmed
    ..3). Excess stimulation of PSII relative to PSI leads to the reduction of the plastoquinone pool and the activation of a kinase; the phosphorylation of LHCII; and the displacement of LHCII from PSII to ..
  39. Kern J, Loll B, Zouni A, Saenger W, Irrgang K, Biesiadka J. Cyanobacterial photosystem II at 3.2 A resolution - the plastoquinone binding pockets. Photosynth Res. 2005;84:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both binding pockets and problems related to the QB site are discussed here and compared to the situation in the purple bacterial reaction centre...
  40. Tian L, DellaPenna D, Dixon R. The pds2 mutation is a lesion in the Arabidopsis homogentisate solanesyltransferase gene involved in plastoquinone biosynthesis. Planta. 2007;226:1067-73 pubmed
    b>Plastoquinone plays critical roles in photosynthesis, chlororespiration and carotenoid biosynthesis...
  41. Fufezan C, Gross C, Sjödin M, Rutherford A, Krieger Liszkay A, Kirilovsky D. Influence of the redox potential of the primary quinone electron acceptor on photoinhibition in photosystem II. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12492-502 pubmed
    ..The effect of the A249S mutation seems to reflect a shift in the structural equilibrium favoring the low potential form. ..
  42. Fu A, Park S, Rodermel S. Sequences required for the activity of PTOX (IMMUTANS), a plastid terminal oxidase: in vitro and in planta mutagenesis of iron-binding sites and a conserved sequence that corresponds to Exon 8. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42489-96 pubmed
    ..a terminal oxidase (PTOX, the product of the Arabidopsis IMMUTANS gene) that functions in the oxidation of the plastoquinone pool...
  43. Tullberg A, Alexciev K, Pfannschmidt T, Allen J. Photosynthetic electron flow regulates transcription of the psaB gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) chloroplasts through the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. Plant Cell Physiol. 2000;41:1045-54 pubmed
    ..psaB transcription in isolated, illuminated chloroplasts: DCMU addition resulted in oxidation of the plastoquinone pool and decreased transcription of psaB; DBMIB addition resulted in reduction of the plastoquinone pool and ..
  44. Lepetit B, Sturm S, Rogato A, Gruber A, Sachse M, Falciatore A, et al. High light acclimation in the secondary plastids containing diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is triggered by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:853-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Artificial modification of the redox state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool via 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone ..
  45. Krementsova A, Roshina N, Tsybul ko E, Rybina O, Symonenko A, Pasyukova E. Reproducible effects of the mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan under different experimental scenarios. Biogerontology. 2012;13:595-607 pubmed publisher
    Previously, extremely low, nanomolar concentrations of the mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium) were shown to prolong the lifespan of male and female Drosophila ..
  46. Houille Vernes L, Rappaport F, Wollman F, Alric J, Johnson X. Plastid terminal oxidase 2 (PTOX2) is the major oxidase involved in chlororespiration in Chlamydomonas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this mutant, the plastoquinone pool is constitutively reduced under dark-aerobic conditions, resulting in the mobile light-harvesting ..
  47. Tóth S, Schansker G, Strasser R. In intact leaves, the maximum fluorescence level (F(M)) is independent of the redox state of the plastoquinone pool: a DCMU-inhibition study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1708:275-82 pubmed
    ..measurements (a measure of electron flow through Photosystem I) showed that in the DCMU-treated samples, the plastoquinone pool remained oxidized during the light pulses whereas in uninhibited leaves, the F(M) level coincided with a ..
  48. Mubarakshina M, Ivanov B. The production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the plastoquinone pool of chloroplast thylakoid membranes. Physiol Plant. 2010;140:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review describes the experimental data and theoretical considerations that implicate the plastoquinone pool (PQ-pool) in this process...
  49. Yoshida K, Shibata M, Terashima I, Noguchi K. Simultaneous determination of in vivo plastoquinone and ubiquinone redox states by HPLC-based analysis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:836-41 pubmed publisher
    ..For this purpose, we devised an HPLC-based measurement system simultaneously analyzing plastoquinone (PQ) and ubiquinone (UQ) contents and redox states...
  50. Kern J, Renger G. Photosystem II: structure and mechanism of the water:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. Photosynth Res. 2007;94:183-202 pubmed
    ..the reaction pattern of light-driven water splitting and the structure of Photosystem II that acts as a water:plastoquinone oxidoreductase...
  51. Rokitskaya T, Klishin S, Severina I, Skulachev V, Antonenko Y. Kinetic analysis of permeation of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants across bilayer lipid membranes. J Membr Biol. 2008;224:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..SkQ1 containing plastoquinone was shown to be more permeable through the membrane compared to MitoQ containing ubiquinone, which might be ..
  52. Anisimov V, Bakeeva L, Egormin P, Filenko O, Isakova E, Manskikh V, et al. Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 5. SkQ1 prolongs lifespan and prevents development of traits of senescence. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:1329-42 pubmed
    ..Data summarized here and in the preceding papers of this series suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 is competent in slowing down execution of an aging program responsible for development of age-related senescence. ..
  53. Morosinotto T, Bassi R, Frigerio S, Finazzi G, Morris E, Barber J. Biochemical and structural analyses of a higher plant photosystem II supercomplex of a photosystem I-less mutant of barley. Consequences of a chronic over-reduction of the plastoquinone pool. FEBS J. 2006;273:4616-30 pubmed
  54. Kana R, Kotabová E, Prasil O. Acceleration of plastoquinone pool reduction by alternative pathways precedes a decrease in photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in preheated barley leaves. Physiol Plant. 2008;133:794-806 pubmed publisher
    ..CO(2) assimilation, affects light photosynthetic reactions and accelerates alternative pathways of plastoquinone pool reduction (APPR)...
  55. Krieger Liszkay A, Fufezan C, Trebst A. Singlet oxygen production in photosystem II and related protection mechanism. Photosynth Res. 2008;98:551-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Singlet oxygen is efficiently quenched by beta-carotene, tocopherol or plastoquinone. If not quenched, it can trigger the up-regulation of genes, which are involved in the molecular defence ..
  56. Gombos Z, Várkonyi Z, Hagio M, Iwaki M, Kovacs L, Masamoto K, et al. Phosphatidylglycerol requirement for the function of electron acceptor plastoquinone Q(B) in the photosystem II reaction center. Biochemistry. 2002;41:3796-802 pubmed
    ..membranes of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, is demonstrated to be essential for the functionality of plastoquinone electron acceptor Q(B) in the photosystem II reaction center of oxygenic photosynthesis...
  57. Krieger Liszkay A, Rutherford A. Influence of herbicide binding on the redox potential of the quinone acceptor in photosystem II: relevance to photodamage and phytotoxicity. Biochemistry. 1998;37:17339-44 pubmed
    Here we show that herbicide binding influences the redox potential (Em) of the plastoquinone QA/QA- redox couple in Photosystem II (PSII). Phenolic herbicides lower the Em by approximately 45 mV, while DCMU raises the Em by 50 mV...
  58. Sadre R, Gruber J, Frentzen M. Characterization of homogentisate prenyltransferases involved in plastoquinone-9 and tocochromanol biosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:5357-62 pubmed
    ..Hence, these data provide evidence that the latter represent homogentisate solanesyltransferases involved in plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis. Overexpression of At3g11950 in A...
  59. Kurisu G, Zhang H, Smith J, Cramer W. Structure of the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis: tuning the cavity. Science. 2003;302:1009-14 pubmed
    ..cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus reveals a large quinone exchange cavity, stabilized by lipid, in which plastoquinone, a quinone-analog inhibitor, and a novel heme are bound...
  60. Cheng Z, Sattler S, Maeda H, Sakuragi Y, Bryant D, DellaPenna D. Highly divergent methyltransferases catalyze a conserved reaction in tocopherol and plastoquinone synthesis in cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2343-56 pubmed publisher
    ..methyltransferase (MPBQ/MSBQ MT), which catalyzes a key methylation step in both tocopherol and plastoquinone (PQ) synthesis...
  61. Guo Y, Wirth B, Tan J. Observation of plastoquinone kinetics in photosystem II from delayed fluorescence measurements. IET Syst Biol. 2010;4:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The simplicity of the model structure, nonetheless, permits observation and analysis of the PQ kinetics of PSII reaction centres from DF measurements by using linear-system techniques. ..
  62. Dähnhardt D, Falk J, Appel J, van der Kooij T, Schulz Friedrich R, Krupinska K. The hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is not required for plastoquinone biosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 2002;523:177-81 pubmed
    ..dioxygenase results in an impairment of tocopherol biosynthesis without affecting levels of plastoquinone, carotenoids and chlorophyll as well as cell growth and photosynthesis...
  63. Haldrup A, Jensen P, Lunde C, Scheller H. Balance of power: a view of the mechanism of photosynthetic state transitions. Trends Plant Sci. 2001;6:301-5 pubmed
    ..Redistribution of energy during state transitions depends on an altered binding equilibrium between the light harvesting complex II-photosystem II and light harvesting complex II-photosystem I complexes. ..
  64. Bondarava N, Gross C, Mubarakshina M, Golecki J, Johnson G, Krieger Liszkay A. Putative function of cytochrome b559 as a plastoquinol oxidase. Physiol Plant. 2010;138:463-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of superoxide formation was absent in thylakoid membranes from the mutant. The physiological importance of the plastoquinol oxidation by cyt b559 for photosynthesis is discussed...