selenocysteine

Summary

Summary: A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.

Top Publications

  1. Ma S, Caprioli R, Hill K, Burk R. Loss of selenium from selenoproteins: conversion of selenocysteine to dehydroalanine in vitro. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2003;14:593-600 pubmed
    ..Predicted selenopeptide mass peaks were accompanied by peaks corresponding to the conversion of one or more selenocysteine residues to dehydroalanine(s)...
  2. Aeby E, Palioura S, Pusnik M, Marazzi J, Lieberman A, Ullu E, et al. The canonical pathway for selenocysteine insertion is dispensable in Trypanosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5088-92 pubmed publisher
    The micronutrient selenium is found in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid cotranslationally inserted in response to a UGA codon...
  3. Fixsen S, Howard M. Processive selenocysteine incorporation during synthesis of eukaryotic selenoproteins. J Mol Biol. 2010;399:385-96 pubmed publisher
    Selenoproteins are a family of proteins that share the common feature of containing selenocysteine, the "twenty-first" amino acid...
  4. Agamy O, Ben Zeev B, Lev D, Marcus B, Fine D, Su D, et al. Mutations disrupting selenocysteine formation cause progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;87:538-44 pubmed publisher
    The essential micronutrient selenium is found in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the only genetically encoded amino acid whose biosynthesis occurs on its cognate tRNA in humans...
  5. Berry M. Knowing when not to stop. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:389-90 pubmed
  6. Mariotti M, Guigo R. Selenoprofiles: profile-based scanning of eukaryotic genome sequences for selenoprotein genes. Bioinformatics. 2010;26:2656-63 pubmed publisher
    Selenoproteins are a group of proteins that contain selenocysteine (Sec), a rare amino acid inserted co-translationally into the protein chain. The Sec codon is UGA, which is normally a stop codon...
  7. Jiang L, Ni J, Liu Q. Evolution of selenoproteins in the metazoan. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:446 pubmed publisher
    The selenocysteine (Sec) containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present throughout all 3 kingdoms of life...
  8. Kuiper G, Klootwijk W, Visser T. Substitution of cysteine for selenocysteine in the catalytic center of type III iodothyronine deiodinase reduces catalytic efficiency and alters substrate preference. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2505-13 pubmed
    ..Like types I and II iodothyronine deiodinases, D3 protein contains selenocysteine (SeC) in the highly conserved core catalytic center at amino acid position 144...
  9. Raffa R. Diselenium, instead of disulfide, bonded analogs of conotoxins: novel synthesis and pharmacotherapeutic potential. Life Sci. 2010;87:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel synthesis and testing of analogs incorporating diselenium bonds between selenocysteine residues in place of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues has recently been reported...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Lacey B, Eckenroth B, Flemer S, Hondal R. Selenium in thioredoxin reductase: a mechanistic perspective. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Many eukaryotic TRs have replaced the Cys(2) position of the dyad with the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec)...
  2. Kim M, Lee B, Jeong J, Lee K, Hwang K, Gladyshev V, et al. Tandem use of selenocysteine: adaptation of a selenoprotein glutaredoxin for reduction of selenoprotein methionine sulfoxide reductase. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1194-203 pubmed publisher
    Several engineered selenocysteine (Sec)-containing glutaredoxins (Grxs) and their enzymatic properties have been reported, but natural selenoprotein Grxs have not been previously characterized...
  3. Banerjee S, Yang S, Foster C. A luciferase reporter assay to investigate the differential selenium-dependent stability of selenoprotein mRNAs. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:1294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Renilla luciferase gene and of the ?-globin gene, but contains features required for incorporation of selenocysteine (SEC), namely, a UGA-SEC codon and a 3' untranslated region RNA stem loop called a SEC incorporation sequence (..
  4. Sandman K, Tardiff D, Neely L, Noren C. Revised Escherichia coli selenocysteine insertion requirements determined by in vivo screening of combinatorial libraries of SECIS variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2234-41 pubmed
    To investigate the stringency of the Escherichia coli selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) requirements, libraries of SECIS variants were screened via a novel method in which suppression of the selenocysteine (Sec) opal codon was ..
  5. Abdulah R, Miyazaki K, Nakazawa M, Koyama H. Chemical forms of selenium for cancer prevention. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005;19:141-50 pubmed
    ..g., Se-methylselenocysteine and methylseleninic acid), are more efficacious than other Se compounds because of their chemoprevention activity. ..
  6. Wessjohann L, Schneider A, Abbas M, Brandt W. Selenium in chemistry and biochemistry in comparison to sulfur. Biol Chem. 2007;388:997-1006 pubmed
    ..This review compiles and compares physicochemical properties of selenium and sulfur, synthetic routes to selenocysteine (Sec) and its peptides, and comparative studies of relevant thiols and selenols and their (mixed) dichalcogens,..
  7. Driscoll D, Chavatte L. Finding needles in a haystack. In silico identification of eukaryotic selenoprotein genes. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:140-1 pubmed
  8. Utomo A, Jiang X, Furuta S, Yun J, Levin D, Wang Y, et al. Identification of a novel putative non-selenocysteine containing phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (NPGPx) essential for alleviating oxidative stress generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:43522-9 pubmed
    ..of a novel phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), which incorporates cysteine instead of selenocysteine in the conserved catalytic motif was observed in a microarray analysis using cDNAs amplified from mRNA of ..
  9. Hirosawa Takamori M, Ossipov D, Novoselov S, Turanov A, Zhang Y, Gladyshev V, et al. A novel stem loop control element-dependent UGA read-through system without translational selenocysteine incorporation in Drosophila. FASEB J. 2009;23:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that GAPsec is part of a novel SECIS-dependent translational read-through system that does not involve selenocysteine incorporation.
  10. Schoenmakers E, Agostini M, Mitchell C, Schoenmakers N, Papp L, Rajanayagam O, et al. Mutations in the selenocysteine insertion sequence-binding protein 2 gene lead to a multisystem selenoprotein deficiency disorder in humans. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:4220-35 pubmed publisher
    Selenium, a trace element that is fundamental to human health, is incorporated into some proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), generating a family of selenoproteins...
  11. Hondal R, Marino S, Gladyshev V. Selenocysteine in thiol/disulfide-like exchange reactions. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:1675-89 pubmed publisher
    ..selenium is unique in that it is incorporated into proteins co-translationally in the form of an amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec)...
  12. Ellis D, Sors T, Brunk D, Albrecht C, Orser C, Lahner B, et al. Production of Se-methylselenocysteine in transgenic plants expressing selenocysteine methyltransferase. BMC Plant Biol. 2004;4:1 pubmed
    ..this Se accumulator to biosynthesize Se-methylselenocysteine provides a critical metabolic shunt that prevents selenocysteine and selenomethionine from entering the protein biosynthetic machinery...
  13. Novoselov S, Lobanov A, Hua D, Kasaikina M, Hatfield D, Gladyshev V. A highly efficient form of the selenocysteine insertion sequence element in protozoan parasites and its use in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7857-62 pubmed
    Selenoproteins are an elite group of proteins containing a rare amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the codon, UGA...
  14. Zeng H, Combs G. Selenium as an anticancer nutrient: roles in cell proliferation and tumor cell invasion. J Nutr Biochem. 2008;19:1-7 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the status of knowledge concerning selenium metabolism and its anticancer effects with particular reference to the modulation of cell proliferation and the inhibition of tumor cell invasion. ..
  15. Su D, Hohn M, Palioura S, Sherrer R, Yuan J, Soll D, et al. How an obscure archaeal gene inspired the discovery of selenocysteine biosynthesis in humans. IUBMB Life. 2009;61:35-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) is the 21st genetically encoded amino acid found in organisms from all three domains of life. Sec biosynthesis is unique in that it always proceeds from an aminoacyl-tRNA precursor...
  16. Strub M, Hoh F, Sanchez J, Strub J, Bock A, Aumelas A, et al. Selenomethionine and selenocysteine double labeling strategy for crystallographic phasing. Structure. 2003;11:1359-67 pubmed
    A protocol for the quantitative incorporation of both selenomethionine and selenocysteine into recombinant proteins overexpressed in Escherichia coli is described...
  17. Freeman J, Quinn C, Marcus M, Fakra S, Pilon Smits E. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plant defense. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2181-92 pubmed
    ..the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins...
  18. Chapple C, Guigo R. Relaxation of selective constraints causes independent selenoprotein extinction in insect genomes. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2968 pubmed publisher
    Selenoproteins are a diverse family of proteins notable for the presence of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Until very recently, all metazoan genomes investigated encoded selenoproteins, and these proteins had therefore been believed ..
  19. Castellano S, Novoselov S, Kryukov G, Lescure A, Blanco E, Krol A, et al. Reconsidering the evolution of eukaryotic selenoproteins: a novel nonmammalian family with scattered phylogenetic distribution. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of predictions from different genomes, wherein conservation in regions flanking the TGA codon suggests selenocysteine coding function...
  20. Li L, Xie Y, El Sayed W, Szakacs J, Franklin M, Roberts J. Chemopreventive activity of selenocysteine prodrugs against tobacco-derived nitrosamine (NNK) induced lung tumors in the A/J mouse. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2005;19:396-405 pubmed
    Prodrugs of L-selenocysteine have potential utility in cancer chemoprevention...
  21. Araiso Y, Palioura S, Ishitani R, Sherrer R, O Donoghue P, Yuan J, et al. Structural insights into RNA-dependent eukaryal and archaeal selenocysteine formation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1187-99 pubmed publisher
    The micronutrient selenium is present in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec). In eukaryotes and archaea, Sec is formed in a tRNA-dependent conversion of O-phosphoserine (Sep) by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS)...
  22. Lee B, Lobanov A, Marino S, Kaya A, Seravalli J, Hatfield D, et al. A 4-selenocysteine, 2-selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element methionine sulfoxide reductase from Metridium senile reveals a non-catalytic function of selenocysteines. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18747-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) residues occur in thiol oxidoreductase families, and functionally characterized selenoenzymes typically have a single Sec residue used directly for redox catalysis...
  23. Johansson L, Gafvelin G, Arner E. Selenocysteine in proteins-properties and biotechnological use. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1726:1-13 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid, exists naturally in all kingdoms of life as the defining entity of selenoproteins...
  24. Xu X, Carlson B, Zhang Y, Mix H, Kryukov G, Glass R, et al. New developments in selenium biochemistry: selenocysteine biosynthesis in eukaryotes and archaea. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007;119:234-41 pubmed
    ..used comparative genomics and experimental analyses to show that (1) eukaryotes and archaea, which possess the selenocysteine (Sec) protein insertion machinery contain an enzyme, O-phosphoseryl-transfer RNA (tRNA) [Ser]Sec kinase (..
  25. Xu X, Carlson B, Mix H, Zhang Y, Saira K, Glass R, et al. Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e4 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) is cotranslationally inserted into protein in response to UGA codons and is the 21st amino acid in the genetic code. However, the means by which Sec is synthesized in eukaryotes is not known...
  26. Rederstorff M, Allamand V, Guicheney P, Gartioux C, Richard P, Chaigne D, et al. Ex vivo correction of selenoprotein N deficiency in rigid spine muscular dystrophy caused by a mutation in the selenocysteine codon. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:237-44 pubmed
    ..Selenoproteins are interesting candidates considering the idiosyncrasy of the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) insertion mechanism...
  27. Lothrop A, Ruggles E, Hondal R. No selenium required: reactions catalyzed by mammalian thioredoxin reductase that are independent of a selenocysteine residue. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6213-23 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TR) contains a rare selenocysteine (Sec) residue in a conserved redox-active tetrapeptide of sequence Gly-Cys(1)-Sec(2)-Gly...
  28. Bhattacharya A, Toth K, Sen A, Seshadri M, Cao S, Durrani F, et al. Inhibition of colon cancer growth by methylselenocysteine-induced angiogenic chemomodulation is influenced by histologic characteristics of the tumor. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2009;8:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Such regions constitute a physical barrier to chemotherapy and can confer drug resistance. Our results indicate that MSC could enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in human CRC, especially in CRC with few or no hypoxic regions. ..
  29. Donovan J, Copeland P. The efficiency of selenocysteine incorporation is regulated by translation initiation factors. J Mol Biol. 2010;400:659-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation is an essential process required for the production of at least 25 human selenoproteins...
  30. Hohn M, Palioura S, Su D, Yuan J, Soll D. Genetic analysis of selenocysteine biosynthesis in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:249-58 pubmed publisher
    In Archaea selenocysteine (Sec) is synthesized in three steps. First seryl-tRNA synthetase acylates tRNA(Sec) with serine to generate Ser-tRNA(Sec)...
  31. Chavatte L, Brown B, Driscoll D. Ribosomal protein L30 is a component of the UGA-selenocysteine recoding machinery in eukaryotes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:408-16 pubmed
    The translational recoding of UGA as selenocysteine (Sec) is directed by a SECIS element in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs...
  32. Bhattacharya A, Seshadri M, Oven S, Toth K, Vaughan M, Rustum Y. Tumor vascular maturation and improved drug delivery induced by methylselenocysteine leads to therapeutic synergy with anticancer drugs. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:3926-32 pubmed publisher
  33. Stenvall J, Fierro González J, Swoboda P, Saamarthy K, Cheng Q, Cacho Valadez B, et al. Selenoprotein TRXR-1 and GSR-1 are essential for removal of old cuticle during molting in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A selenocysteine-to-cysteine TRXR-1 mutant fails to rescue molting defects. Furthermore, worms lacking SELB-1, the C...
  34. Lin Y, Boutureira O, Lercher L, Bhushan B, Paton R, Davis B. Rapid cross-metathesis for reversible protein modifications via chemical access to Se-allyl-selenocysteine in proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:12156-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, efficient protein CM has been demonstrated through biomimetic chemical access to Se-allyl-selenocysteine (Seac), a metathesis-reactive amino acid substrate, via dehydroalanine...
  35. Yoshizawa S, Bock A. The many levels of control on bacterial selenoprotein synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1404-14 pubmed publisher
    ..chemical reactivity of the deprotonated selenol has been used by Biology in the synthesis of the amino acid selenocysteine and its DNA-encoded incorporation into specific positions of proteins to enhance their structural role or ..
  36. Weekley C, Aitken J, Musgrave I, Harris H. Methylselenocysteine treatment leads to diselenide formation in human cancer cells: evidence from X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies. Biochemistry. 2012;51:736-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in the speciation of Se in the selenoamino acid-treated cells may provide insight into the differing anticancer activities of MeSeCys and SeMet. ..
  37. Donovan J, Copeland P. Selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2L is implicated as a novel post-transcriptional regulator of selenoprotein expression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35581 pubmed publisher
    The amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) is encoded by UGA codons. Recoding of UGA from stop to Sec requires a Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element in the 3' UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs...
  38. Squires J, Berry M. Eukaryotic selenoprotein synthesis: mechanistic insight incorporating new factors and new functions for old factors. IUBMB Life. 2008;60:232-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Selenium exerts its biological activity through the incorporation of the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), into a unique class of proteins termed selenoproteins...
  39. Matsugi J, Murao K. Genomic investigation of the system for selenocysteine incorporation in the bacterial domain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1676:23-32 pubmed
    ..genomes has made it possible to categorize them into two groups, according to the presence or absence of a selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA...
  40. Mehta A, Rebsch C, Kinzy S, Fletcher J, Copeland P. Efficiency of mammalian selenocysteine incorporation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:37852-9 pubmed
    Five components have thus far been identified that are necessary for the incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) into approximately 25 mammalian proteins...
  41. Johansson L, Chen C, Thorell J, Fredriksson A, Stone Elander S, Gafvelin G, et al. Exploiting the 21st amino acid-purifying and labeling proteins by selenolate targeting. Nat Methods. 2004;1:61-6 pubmed
    Selenium is essential to human life and occurs in selenoproteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid...
  42. Fang J, Holmgren A. Inhibition of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in vitro and in vivo. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:1879-85 pubmed
    ..The selenocysteine (Sec) and cysteine (Cys) residues (Cys-496/Sec-497) in the active site of TrxR and a pair of Cys residues (Cys-..
  43. Lee S, Yeon Chun J, Nadiminty N, Trump D, Ip C, Dong Y, et al. Monomethylated selenium inhibits growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer xenograft accompanied by a decrease in the expression of androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Prostate. 2006;66:1070-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that selenium (MSC) can serve as a therapeutic agent aimed at disruption of AR signaling for prostate cancer. ..
  44. Haft D, Self W. Orphan SelD proteins and selenium-dependent molybdenum hydroxylases. Biol Direct. 2008;3:4 pubmed publisher
    ..and Archaeal cells use selenium structurally in selenouridine-modified tRNAs, in proteins translated with selenocysteine, and in the selenium-dependent molybdenum hydroxylases (SDMH)...
  45. Zhang X, Zarbl H. Chemopreventive doses of methylselenocysteine alter circadian rhythm in rat mammary tissue. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:119-27 pubmed publisher
  46. Turanov A, Lobanov A, Fomenko D, Morrison H, Sogin M, Klobutcher L, et al. Genetic code supports targeted insertion of two amino acids by one codon. Science. 2009;323:259-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the codon UGA specifies insertion of selenocysteine and cysteine in the ciliate Euplotes crassus, that the dual use of this codon can occur even within the same ..
  47. Allmang C, Wurth L, Krol A. The selenium to selenoprotein pathway in eukaryotes: more molecular partners than anticipated. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1415-23 pubmed publisher
    The amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) is the major biological form of the trace element selenium. Sec is co-translationally incorporated in selenoproteins...
  48. Arner E. Selenoproteins-What unique properties can arise with selenocysteine in place of cysteine?. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1296-303 pubmed publisher
    The defining entity of a selenoprotein is the inclusion of at least one selenocysteine (Sec) residue in its sequence...
  49. Jan Y, Heck D, Gray J, Zheng H, Casillas R, Laskin D, et al. Selective targeting of selenocysteine in thioredoxin reductase by the half mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide in lung epithelial cells. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:1045-53 pubmed publisher
    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a selenocysteine-containing flavoprotein that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized thioredoxin and plays a key role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis...
  50. Müller C, Wingler K, Brigelius Flohe R. 3'UTRs of glutathione peroxidases differentially affect selenium-dependent mRNA stability and selenocysteine incorporation efficiency. Biol Chem. 2003;384:11-8 pubmed
    ..They contain a specific secondary structure in their 3'UTR, called Secis (selenocysteine inserting sequence), which is indispensable for selenocysteine incorporation, and they are degraded under ..
  51. Hatfield D, Carlson B, Xu X, Mix H, Gladyshev V. Selenocysteine incorporation machinery and the role of selenoproteins in development and health. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2006;81:97-142 pubmed
  52. Harris K, Flemer S, Hondal R. Studies on deprotection of cysteine and selenocysteine side-chain protecting groups. J Pept Sci. 2007;13:81-93 pubmed
    ..method for deprotecting p-methoxybenzyl groups and acetamidomethyl groups from the side-chains of cysteine and selenocysteine. This method uses the highly elecrophilic, aromatic disulfides 2,2'-dithiobis(5-nitropyridine) (DTNP) and 2,2'-..
  53. Zhang Y, Romero H, Salinas G, Gladyshev V. Dynamic evolution of selenocysteine utilization in bacteria: a balance between selenoprotein loss and evolution of selenocysteine from redox active cysteine residues. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R94 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) is co-translationally inserted into protein in response to UGA codons. It occurs in oxidoreductase active sites and often is catalytically superior to cysteine (Cys)...
  54. Zhang Y, Gladyshev V. High content of proteins containing 21st and 22nd amino acids, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, in a symbiotic deltaproteobacterium of gutless worm Olavius algarvensis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4952-63 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) and pyrrolysine (Pyl) are rare amino acids that are cotranslationally inserted into proteins and known as the 21st and 22nd amino acids in the genetic code...
  55. Gupta M, Copeland P. Functional analysis of the interplay between translation termination, selenocysteine codon context, and selenocysteine insertion sequence-binding protein 2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36797-807 pubmed
    A selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element in the 3'-untranslated region and an in-frame UGA codon are the requisite cis-acting elements for the incorporation of selenocysteine into selenoproteins...
  56. Barry A, Blackburn N. A selenocysteine variant of the human copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase. A Se-XAS probe of cluster composition at the domain 3-domain 3 dimer interface. Biochemistry. 2008;47:4916-28 pubmed publisher
    We report the semisynthesis of a selenocysteine (Sec) derivative of the human copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase, substituted with Sec at the C-terminal C246 residue...
  57. Stock T, Selzer M, Connery S, Seyhan D, Resch A, Rother M. Disruption and complementation of the selenocysteine biosynthesis pathway reveals a hierarchy of selenoprotein gene expression in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:734-47 pubmed publisher
    Proteins containing selenocysteine are found in members of all three domains of life, Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea. A dedicated tRNA (tRNA(sec)) serves as a scaffold for selenocysteine synthesis...
  58. Dudkiewicz M, Szczepińska T, Grynberg M, Pawłowski K. A novel protein kinase-like domain in a selenoprotein, widespread in the tree of life. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32138 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, the role of the selenocysteine residue is considered and the possibility of an oxidoreductase-regulated kinase function for SELO is discussed...
  59. Wållberg H, Grafström J, Cheng Q, Lu L, Martinsson Ahlzén H, Samen E, et al. HER2-positive tumors imaged within 1 hour using a site-specifically 11C-labeled Sel-tagged affibody molecule. J Nucl Med. 2012;53:1446-53 pubmed publisher
    ..A HER2-binding Affibody molecule, Z(HER2:342), was recombinantly fused with a C-terminal selenocysteine-containing tetrapeptide Sel-tag, allowing site-specific labeling with either (11)C or (68)Ga, followed by ..
  60. Zavacki A, Mansell J, Chung M, Klimovitsky B, Harney J, Berry M. Coupled tRNA(Sec)-dependent assembly of the selenocysteine decoding apparatus. Mol Cell. 2003;11:773-81 pubmed
    ..in eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNA 3' untranslated regions, recruit a SECIS binding protein, which recruits a selenocysteine-specific elongation factor-tRNA complex...
  61. Tamura T, Yamamoto S, Takahata M, Sakaguchi H, Tanaka H, Stadtman T, et al. Selenophosphate synthetase genes from lung adenocarcinoma cells: Sps1 for recycling L-selenocysteine and Sps2 for selenite assimilation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16162-7 pubmed
    ..Better complementation with added l-selenocysteine suggested involvement of a selenocysteine lyase for mobilization of selenium...
  62. Zhang Y, Fomenko D, Gladyshev V. The microbial selenoproteome of the Sargasso Sea. Genome Biol. 2005;6:R37 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) is a rare amino acid which occurs in proteins in major domains of life...
  63. Clery A, Bourguignon Igel V, Allmang C, Krol A, Branlant C. An improved definition of the RNA-binding specificity of SECIS-binding protein 2, an essential component of the selenocysteine incorporation machinery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1868-84 pubmed
    ..located in the 3'-UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs, the protein SBP2 plays a key role in the assembly of the selenocysteine incorporation machinery. SBP2 contains an L7Ae/L30 RNA-binding domain similar to that of protein 15...
  64. Sculaccio S, Rodrigues E, Cordeiro A, Magalhaes A, Braga A, Alberto E, et al. Selenocysteine incorporation in Kinetoplastid: selenophosphate synthetase (SELD) from Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;162:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..biologically active selenium donor compound, monoselenophosphate, from ATP and selenide, for the synthesis of selenocysteine. The kinetoplastid Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei selD genes were cloned and the SELD protein ..
  65. Wang L, Bonorden M, Li G, Lee H, Hu H, Zhang Y, et al. Methyl-selenium compounds inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model with survival benefit. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2:484-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these selenium compounds may effectively inhibit this model of prostate cancer carcinogenesis. ..
  66. Huang H, Day L, Cass C, Ballou D, Williams C, Williams D. Investigations of the catalytic mechanism of thioredoxin glutathione reductase from Schistosoma mansoni. Biochemistry. 2011;50:5870-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A Sec-597 variant was still able to reduce a variety of substrates, albeit slowly, showing that selenocysteine is important but is not the sole determinant for the broad substrate tolerance of the enzyme...
  67. Copeland P. Regulation of gene expression by stop codon recoding: selenocysteine. Gene. 2003;312:17-25 pubmed
    ..For the incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) into protein, the UGA codon is transformed from one that signals translation termination to one specific ..
  68. Zhang Y, Baranov P, Atkins J, Gladyshev V. Pyrrolysine and selenocysteine use dissimilar decoding strategies. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20740-51 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) and pyrrolysine (Pyl) are known as the 21st and 22nd amino acids in protein. Both are encoded by codons that normally function as stop signals...
  69. Unni E, Koul D, Yung W, Sinha R. Se-methylselenocysteine inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity of mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells in vitro. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7:R699-707 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that MSC blocks multiple signaling pathways in mouse mammary tumor cells. MSC inhibits cell growth by inhibiting the activity of PI3-K and its downstream effector molecules in mouse mammary tumor cells in vitro. ..
  70. Azrak R, Frank C, Ling X, Slocum H, Li F, Foster B, et al. The mechanism of methylselenocysteine and docetaxel synergistic activity in prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006;5:2540-8 pubmed
    ..The synergy between MSeC and docetaxel in C2G prostate cancer cells is associated with increased level of caspase-dependent apoptosis and decreased level of survivin. ..
  71. Yuan J, Palioura S, Salazar J, Su D, O Donoghue P, Hohn M, et al. RNA-dependent conversion of phosphoserine forms selenocysteine in eukaryotes and archaea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18923-7 pubmed publisher
    The trace element selenium is found in proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid to participate in ribosome-mediated translation. The substrate for ribosomal protein synthesis is selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec)...
  72. Sors T, Martin C, Salt D. Characterization of selenocysteine methyltransferases from Astragalus species with contrasting selenium accumulation capacity. Plant J. 2009;59:110-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the isolation and molecular characterization of the gene that encodes a putative selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) enzyme from the non-accumulator Astragalus drummondii and biochemically compare it ..
  73. Budiman M, Bubenik J, Miniard A, Middleton L, Gerber C, Cash A, et al. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4a3 is a selenium-regulated RNA-binding protein that selectively inhibits selenocysteine incorporation. Mol Cell. 2009;35:479-89 pubmed publisher
    The synthesis of selenoproteins requires the translational recoding of the UGA stop codon as selenocysteine. During selenium deficiency, there is a hierarchy of selenoprotein expression, with certain selenoproteins synthesized at the ..
  74. Namy O, Rousset J, Napthine S, Brierley I. Reprogrammed genetic decoding in cellular gene expression. Mol Cell. 2004;13:157-68 pubmed
    ..frameshifting, hopping, termination codon suppression, and the incorporation of the unusual amino acids selenocysteine and pyrrolysine...
  75. Nalvarte I, Damdimopoulos A, Nystöm C, Nordman T, Miranda Vizuete A, Olsson J, et al. Overexpression of enzymatically active human cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in HEK-293 cells. Effect on cell growth and differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54510-7 pubmed
    The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) are selenoproteins containing a catalytically active selenocysteine residue (Sec) and are important enzymes in cellular redox control...
  76. Taskov K, Chapple C, Kryukov G, Castellano S, Lobanov A, Korotkov K, et al. Nematode selenoproteome: the use of the selenocysteine insertion system to decode one codon in an animal genome?. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:2227-38 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec) is co-translationally inserted into selenoproteins in response to codon UGA with the help of the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element...
  77. Rayman M. Selenium in cancer prevention: a review of the evidence and mechanism of action. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005;64:527-42 pubmed
    ..an unusual trace element in having its own codon in mRNA that specifies its insertion into selenoproteins as selenocysteine (SeCys), by means of a mechanism requiring a large SeCys-insertion complex...
  78. Caban K, Copeland P. Size matters: a view of selenocysteine incorporation from the ribosome. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:73-81 pubmed
    This review focuses on the known factors required for selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation in eukaryotes and highlights recent findings that have compelled us to propose a new model for the mechanism of Sec incorporation...
  79. Levengood M, van der Donk W. Dehydroalanine-containing peptides: preparation from phenylselenocysteine and utility in convergent ligation strategies. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:3001-10 pubmed
    ..However, once SecPh is in hand, the time required for the preparation of peptides is significantly shorter and comparable to that for any peptide synthesis. ..
  80. Shchedrina V, Novoselov S, Malinouski M, Gladyshev V. Identification and characterization of a selenoprotein family containing a diselenide bond in a redox motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13919-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Selenocysteine (Sec, U) insertion into proteins is directed by translational recoding of specific UGA codons located upstream of a stem-loop structure known as Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element...
  81. Johnson W, Morrissey R, Kapetanovic I, Crowell J, McCormick D. Subchronic oral toxicity studies of Se-methylselenocysteine, an organoselenium compound for breast cancer prevention. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1068-78 pubmed
    ..5mg/kg/day. Based on alterations in hematology parameters and liver morphology in male dogs in all dose groups, the NOAEL for MSC in dogs is <0.15 mg/kg/day. ..
  82. Anestål K, Prast Nielsen S, Cenas N, Arner E. Cell death by SecTRAPs: thioredoxin reductase as a prooxidant killer of cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1846 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptotic proteins) can be formed from the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) by targeting of its selenocysteine (Sec) residue with electrophiles, or by its removal through C-terminal truncation...
  83. Mahn A, Toledo H, Ruz M. Organic and inorganic selenium compounds produce different protein patterns in the blood plasma of rats. Biol Res. 2009;42:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..HNF6 was responsive only to SMSeC, whereas fibrinogen responded only to sodium-selenate. We postulate that the protein patterns observed in this work could be proposed as new molecular biology-based markers of selenium intake...
  84. Salgado P, Taylor J, Cota E, Matthews S. Extending the usability of the phasing power of diselenide bonds: SeCys SAD phasing of CsgC using a non-auxotrophic strain. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011;67:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Reported here is the successful incorporation of selenocysteine (SeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) into recombinant CsgC, yielding derivatized crystals suitable for ..
  85. Seeher S, Mahdi Y, Schweizer U. Post-transcriptional control of selenoprotein biosynthesis. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2012;13:337-46 pubmed
    Selenoproteins are defined as proteins containing the 21st proteinogenic amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec)...
  86. Gonzalez Flores J, Gupta N, Demong L, Copeland P. The selenocysteine-specific elongation factor contains a novel and multi-functional domain. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38936-45 pubmed publisher
    The selenocysteine (Sec)-specific eukaryotic elongation factor (eEFSec) delivers the aminoacylated selenocysteine-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome and suppresses UGA codons that are upstream of Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) elements ..
  87. Kim H, Gladyshev V. Methionine sulfoxide reduction in mammals: characterization of methionine-R-sulfoxide reductases. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1055-64 pubmed
    ..and nucleus and exhibited the highest methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase activity because of the presence of selenocysteine (Sec) in its active site...
  88. Hirosawa Takamori M, Chung H, Jackle H. Conserved selenoprotein synthesis is not critical for oxidative stress defence and the lifespan of Drosophila. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:317-22 pubmed
    ..It involves the differential decoding of the UGA stop codon as selenocysteine. The proteomes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, with the exception of yeast, contain only few ..
  89. Kinzy S, Caban K, Copeland P. Characterization of the SECIS binding protein 2 complex required for the co-translational insertion of selenocysteine in mammals. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5172-80 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine is incorporated into at least 25 human proteins by a complex mechanism that is a unique modification of canonical translation elongation...
  90. Small Howard A, Morozova N, Stoytcheva Z, Forry E, Mansell J, Harney J, et al. Supramolecular complexes mediate selenocysteine incorporation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2337-46 pubmed
    b>Selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes occurs cotranslationally at UGA codons via the interactions of RNA-protein complexes, one comprised of selenocysteyl (Sec)-tRNA([Ser]Sec) and its specific elongation factor, EFsec, and another ..
  91. Allmang C, Krol A. Selenoprotein synthesis: UGA does not end the story. Biochimie. 2006;88:1561-71 pubmed
    ..beneficial effects of the trace element selenium are mediated by its major biological product, the amino acid selenocysteine, present in the active site of selenoproteins...
  92. Cheng Q, Sandalova T, Lindqvist Y, Arner E. Crystal structure and catalysis of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:3998-4008 pubmed publisher
    Selenoproteins contain a highly reactive 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) encoded by recoding of a predefined UGA codon...