phosphinic acids

Summary

Summary: Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.

Top Publications

  1. Bessaïh T, Bourgeais L, Badiu C, Carter D, Toth T, Ruano D, et al. Nucleus-specific abnormalities of GABAergic synaptic transmission in a genetic model of absence seizures. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:3074-81 pubmed
  2. Dive V, Georgiadis D, Matziari M, Makaritis A, Beau F, Cuniasse P, et al. Phosphinic peptides as zinc metalloproteinase inhibitors. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:2010-9 pubmed
    ..Specific properties of the inhibitors produced in recent years are reviewed, supporting the notion that phosphinic pseudo-peptides are useful tools for studying the structural and functional biology of zinc proteases...
  3. Yang Y, Coward J. Synthesis of p-aminophenyl aryl H-phosphinic acids and esters via cross-coupling reactions: elaboration to phosphinic acid pseudopeptide analogues of pteroyl glutamic acid and related antifolates. J Org Chem. 2007;72:5748-58 pubmed
    The synthesis of suitably protected p-aminophenyl H-phosphinic acids and esters from the corresponding para-substituted aryl halides has been accomplished via the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of anilinium hypophosphite, either in ..
  4. Feng Y, Coward J. Prodrug forms of N-[(4-deoxy-4-amino-10-methyl)pteroyl]glutamate-gamma-[psiP(O)(OH)]-glutarate, a potent inhibitor of folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase: synthesis and hydrolytic stability. J Med Chem. 2006;49:770-88 pubmed
    ..H-phosphinic acids derived from N-Cbz vinyl glycine esters were converted to the desired pseudopeptides by Michael addition to ..
  5. Akif M, Schwager S, Anthony C, Czarny B, Beau F, Dive V, et al. Novel mechanism of inhibition of human angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) by a highly specific phosphinic tripeptide. Biochem J. 2011;436:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These features, for the first time, highlight the unusual architecture and flexibility of the active site of C-ACE, which could be further utilized for structure-based design of new C-ACE or vasopeptidase inhibitors...
  6. Redelinghuys P, Nchinda A, Sturrock E. Development of domain-selective angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1056:160-75 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the structural basis and recent synthetic chemistry approaches to the development of novel domain-selective inhibitors...
  7. Beurrier C, Lopez S, Révy D, Selvam C, Goudet C, Lhérondel M, et al. Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence that modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 with a new agonist reverses experimental parkinsonism. FASEB J. 2009;23:3619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, systemic administration of LSP1-2111 counteracts haloperidol-induced catalepsy, opening promising perspectives for the development of antiparkinsonian therapeutic strategies focused on orthosteric mGlu4-receptor agonists. ..
  8. Bartley D, Coward J. A stereoselective synthesis of phosphinic acid phosphapeptides corresponding to glutamyl-gamma-glutamate and incorporation into potent inhibitors of folylpoly-gamma-glutamyl synthetase. J Org Chem. 2005;70:6757-74 pubmed
  9. Georgiadis D, Cuniasse P, Cotton J, Yiotakis A, Dive V. Structural determinants of RXPA380, a potent and highly selective inhibitor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme C-domain. Biochemistry. 2004;43:8048-54 pubmed
    ..The structural insights provided by this study should enhance understanding of the factors controlling the selectivity of the two domains of somatic ACE and allow the design of new selective ACE inhibitors...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Lehmann A, Antonsson M, Holmberg A, Blackshaw L, Brändén L, Brauner Osborne H, et al. (R)-(3-amino-2-fluoropropyl) phosphinic acid (AZD3355), a novel GABAB receptor agonist, inhibits transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation through a peripheral mode of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:504-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, AZD3355 probably inhibits TLESR through stimulation of peripheral GABA(B) receptors and may offer a potential new approach to treatment of GERD...
  2. Kröger W, Douglas R, O Neill H, Dive V, Sturrock E. Investigating the domain specificity of phosphinic inhibitors RXPA380 and RXP407 in angiotensin-converting enzyme. Biochemistry. 2009;48:8405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data advance our understanding regarding the molecular basis for the remarkable ACE domain selectivity exhibited by these inhibitors...
  3. Butovas S, Hormuzdi S, Monyer H, Schwarz C. Effects of electrically coupled inhibitory networks on local neuronal responses to intracortical microstimulation. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:1227-36 pubmed
    ..Electrical coupling renders evoked cortical inhibition more precise and strong and ensures a uniform spread along the two cardinal axes of neocortical geometry...
  4. Wieronska J, Stachowicz K, Pałucha Poniewiera A, Acher F, Branski P, Pilc A. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 novel agonist LSP1-2111 with anxiolytic, but not antidepressant-like activity, mediated by serotonergic and GABAergic systems. Neuropharmacology. 2010;59:627-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the compound was not effective in 5-HT depleted animals. The results of these studies indicate that the GABAergic and serotonergic systems are involved in the potential anxiolytic action of LSP1-2111. ..
  5. Corradi H, Chitapi I, Sewell B, Georgiadis D, Dive V, Sturrock E, et al. The structure of testis angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with the C domain-specific inhibitor RXPA380. Biochemistry. 2007;46:5473-8 pubmed
    ..The characterization of the extended active site and the binding of a potent C-domain-selective inhibitor provide the first structural data for the design of truly domain-specific pharmacophores...
  6. Wieronska J, Stachowicz K, Branski P, Pałucha Poniewiera A, Pilc A. On the mechanism of anti-hyperthermic effects of LY379268 and LY487379, group II mGlu receptors activators, in the stress-induced hyperthermia in singly housed mice. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it seems that the antagonism towards GABA(A) receptors, presynaptic 5-HT(1A) and postsynaptic 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors is responsible for the phenomenon. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'...
  7. Oren I, Nissen W, Kullmann D, Somogyi P, Lamsa K. Role of ionotropic glutamate receptors in long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal CA1 oriens-lacunosum moleculare interneurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:939-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamatergic synapses on O-LM cells thus behave in a homogeneous manner and exhibit LTP dependent on Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors...
  8. Wieronska J, Stachowicz K, Acher F, Lech T, Pilc A. Opposing efficacy of group III mGlu receptor activators, LSP1-2111 and AMN082, in animal models of positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220:481-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we propose that among group III mGlu receptors, mGlu4 receptor may be a promising target for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs. ..
  9. Jullien N, Cuniasse P, Georgiadis D, Yiotakis A, Dive V. Combined use of selective inhibitors and fluorogenic substrates to study the specificity of somatic wild-type angiotensin-converting enzyme. FEBS J. 2006;273:1772-81 pubmed
    ..These results raise concerns about the interpretation of functional studies performed in animals using N-domain and C-domain substrate selectivity data derived only from human ACE...
  10. Wieronska J, Kusek M, Tokarski K, Wabno J, Froestl W, Pilc A. The GABA B receptor agonist CGP44532 and the positive modulator GS39783 reverse some behavioural changes related to positive syndromes of psychosis in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1034-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP51176 and CGP36742, agonist CGP44532 and positive allosteric modulator GS39783 were studied...
  11. Anthony C, Corradi H, Schwager S, Redelinghuys P, Georgiadis D, Dive V, et al. The N domain of human angiotensin-I-converting enzyme: the role of N-glycosylation and the crystal structure in complex with an N domain-specific phosphinic inhibitor, RXP407. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35685-93 pubmed publisher
    ..0 Å resolution. The Ndom389 structure revealed a hinge region that may contribute to the breathing motion proposed for substrate binding...
  12. Boeckxstaens G, Rydholm H, Lei A, Adler J, Ruth M. Effect of lesogaberan, a novel GABA(B)-receptor agonist, on transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in male subjects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31:1208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are a major mechanism behind gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
  13. Boeckxstaens G, Beaumont H, Mertens V, Denison H, Ruth M, Adler J, et al. Effects of lesogaberan on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter function in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:409-17 pubmed publisher
  14. Vassiliou S, Kosikowska P, Grabowiecka A, Yiotakis A, Kafarski P, Berlicki L. Computer-aided optimization of phosphinic inhibitors of bacterial ureases. J Med Chem. 2010;53:5597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..The designed compounds represent a competitive reversible class of urease inhibitors. The most potent, N-methyl-aminomethyl-P-hydroxymethylphosphinic acid, displayed K(i) = 360 nM against P. vulgaris enzyme...
  15. Dive V, Cotton J, Yiotakis A, Michaud A, Vassiliou S, Jiracek J, et al. RXP 407, a phosphinic peptide, is a potent inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme able to differentiate between its two active sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4330-5 pubmed
  16. Valiaeva N, Bartley D, Konno T, Coward J. Phosphinic acid pseudopeptides analogous to glutamyl-gamma-glutamate: synthesis and coupling to pteroyl azides leads to potent inhibitors of folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase. J Org Chem. 2001;66:5146-54 pubmed
  17. McGuire J, Haile W, Valiaeva N, Bartley D, Guo J, Coward J. Potent inhibition of human folylpolyglutamate synthetase by a phosphinic acid mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:315-8 pubmed
    ..Because of its exceedingly high potency as an FPGS inhibitor, MTX-phosphinate represents a lead structure from which cell-permeable analogs may be developed to test the hypothesis that FPGS inhibition is therapeutically efficacious...
  18. Junot C, Gonzales M, Ezan E, Cotton J, Vazeux G, Michaud A, et al. RXP 407, a selective inhibitor of the N-domain of angiotensin I-converting enzyme, blocks in vivo the degradation of hemoregulatory peptide acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro with no effect on angiotensin I hydrolysis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;297:606-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, RXP 407 is the first ACE inhibitor that might be used to control selectively AcSDKP metabolism with no effect on blood pressure regulation...
  19. Georgiadis D, Beau F, Czarny B, Cotton J, Yiotakis A, Dive V. Roles of the two active sites of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme in the cleavage of angiotensin I and bradykinin: insights from selective inhibitors. Circ Res. 2003;93:148-54 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, it might be suggested that the gene duplication of ACE in vertebrates may represent a means for regulating the cleavage of Ang I differently from that of BK...
  20. Coates D, Isaac R, Cotton J, Siviter R, Williams T, Shirras A, et al. Functional conservation of the active sites of human and Drosophila angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Biochemistry. 2000;39:8963-9 pubmed
    ..The conservation of ACE enzymes with distinct active sites in the evolution of both vertebrate and invertebrate species provides further evidence that these two kinds of active sites have different physiological functions...
  21. Lin C, Chen S, Kwon D, Coward J, Walsh C. Aldehyde and phosphinate analogs of glutathione and glutathionylspermidine: potent, selective binding inhibitors of the E. coli bifunctional glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidase. Chem Biol. 1997;4:859-66 pubmed
    ..In E. coli, the Gsp synthetase is part of a bifunctional enzyme opposed by the hydrolytic Gsp amidase...
  22. Gjoni T, Desrayaud S, Imobersteg S, Urwyler S. The positive allosteric modulator GS39783 enhances GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP formation in rat striatum in vivo. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1416-22 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, these results provide the first biochemical demonstration of in vivo activity of a G protein-coupled receptor-positive allosteric modulator...
  23. Noisong P, Danvirutai C. A new synthetic route, characterization and vibrational studies of manganese hypophosphite monohydrate at ambient temperature. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2010;77:890-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the Raman spectra could not be fully identified. The coupling between these modes with the appropriate vibrations of neighboring species at each sites in the unit cell can further influence the vibrational spectra...
  24. Tsakiridis P, Oustadakis P, Katsiapi A, Agatzini Leonardou S. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Part II: Downstream processing and zinc recovery by electrowinning. J Hazard Mater. 2010;179:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..4) Zinc electrowinning from sulphate solutions (at 38 degrees C) using Al as cathode and Pb as anode. The acidity of the electrolyte was fixed at 180 g/L H(2)SO(4), while the current density was kept constant at 500 A/m(2)...
  25. Zala C, St Clair M, Dudas K, Kim J, Lou Y, White S, et al. Safety and efficacy of GSK2248761, a next-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:2570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK2248761 at 100 to 800 mg QD for 7 days was well tolerated, demonstrated potent antiviral activity in treatment-naive HIV-infected subjects, and had favorable PK and resistance profiles. GSK2248761 is no longer in clinical development...
  26. Callaghan B, Haythornthwaite A, Berecki G, Clark R, Craik D, Adams D. Analgesic alpha-conotoxins Vc1.1 and Rg1A inhibit N-type calcium channels in rat sensory neurons via GABAB receptor activation. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10943-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a novel mechanism by which alpha-conotoxins Vc1.1 and Rg1A modulate native N-type (Ca(V)2.2) Ca2+ channel currents, namely acting as agonists via G-protein-coupled GABA(B) receptors...
  27. Safiulina V, Fattorini G, Conti F, Cherubini E. GABAergic signaling at mossy fiber synapses in neonatal rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2006;26:597-608 pubmed
    ..Low-threshold GABA-releasing fibers may undergo elimination, and this may occur when GABA shifts from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction...
  28. Roberto M, Gilpin N, O Dell L, Cruz M, Morse A, Siggins G, et al. Cellular and behavioral interactions of gabapentin with alcohol dependence. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5762-71 pubmed publisher
  29. Tsai M, Shen B, Leung L. Seizures induced by GABAB-receptor blockade in early-life induced long-term GABA(B) receptor hypofunction and kindling facilitation. Epilepsy Res. 2008;79:187-200 pubmed publisher
  30. Hinton T, Chebib M, Johnston G. Enantioselective actions of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid and (3-amino-2-hydroxypropyl)methylphosphinic acid at recombinant GABA(C) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:402-4 pubmed
    ..These studies highlight the different stereochemical requirements for the hydroxy group in these analogues at GABA(A), GABA(B) and GABA(C) receptors...
  31. Lee S, Zhou Z. The synaptic mechanism of direction selectivity in distal processes of starburst amacrine cells. Neuron. 2006;51:787-99 pubmed
  32. Köhling R, D Antuono M, Benini R, de Guzman P, Avoli M. Hypersynchronous ictal onset in the perirhinal cortex results from dynamic weakening in inhibition. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;87:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..3mM) with the spike immediately preceding ictal onset. Our findings indicate that hypersynchronous seizure onset in rat PC is caused by dynamic weakening of GABAA receptor signaling presumably resulting from [K(+)]o accumulation. ..
  33. Wilkening I, Del Signore G, Hackenberger C. Synthesis of phosphonamidate peptides by Staudinger reactions of silylated phosphinic acids and esters. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011;47:349-51 pubmed publisher
    The Staudinger reaction of unprotected azido-peptides with silylated phosphinic acids and esters on the solid support offers a straightforward acid-free entry to different phosphonamidate peptide esters or acids under mild conditions in ..
  34. Ochoa de la Paz L, Estrada Mondragón A, Limon A, Miledi R, Martinez Torres A. Dopamine and serotonin modulate human GABA?1 receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2012;3:96-104 pubmed publisher
  35. Meng F, He F, Song X, Zhang L, Hu W, Liu G, et al. Facile synthesis of hybrid sulfonophosphinodipeptides composing of taurines and 1-aminoalkylphosphinic acids. Amino Acids. 2012;43:423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current method provides an efficient and direct synthesis of hybrid sulfonophosphinodipeptides...
  36. Errington A, Gibson K, Crunelli V, Cope D. Aberrant GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition in cortico-thalamic networks of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficient mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19021 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement with previous studies, GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory gain-of-function may be a common feature in models of typical absence seizures, and could be of pathological importance in patients with SSADH deficiency. ..
  37. Selvam C, Oueslati N, Lemasson I, Brabet I, Rigault D, Courtiol T, et al. A virtual screening hit reveals new possibilities for developing group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists. J Med Chem. 2010;53:2797-813 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally 6 was able to activate mGlu7 receptor with an EC(50) of 43 +/- 16 microM and is thus significantly more potent than L-AP4 (EC(50) of 249 +/- 106 microM)...
  38. Jurgens C, Boese S, King J, Pyle S, Porter J, Doze V. Adrenergic receptor modulation of hippocampal CA3 network activity. Epilepsy Res. 2005;66:117-28 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results imply that the antiepileptic effect of alpha2AR activation in CA3 is not dependent on the GABAergic system...
  39. Alakuijala A, Alakuijala J, Pasternack M. Evidence for a functional role of GABA receptors in the rat mature hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:514-20 pubmed
    ..The lack of GABA(C) receptor activation by less intensive stimulation under control conditions suggests that these receptors are extrasynaptic and activated via spillover of synaptically released GABA...
  40. Zagoskina N, Pinaev A, Alyavina A, Yamburenko M, Gladyshko T, Kuznetsov V, et al. Activation of growth and accumulation of phenolic compounds in tea callus culture by melafen is not associated with its possible cytokinin activity. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2007;413:88-91 pubmed
  41. Greco M, Hawkins M, Powell E, Almond H, de Garavilla L, Hall J, et al. Discovery of potent, selective, orally active, nonpeptide inhibitors of human mast cell chymase. J Med Chem. 2007;50:1727-30 pubmed
    ..Compound 5f was selective for inhibiting chymase versus eight serine proteases. Compound 6h was orally bioavailable in rats (F=39%), and orally efficacious in a hamster model of inflammation...
  42. Cai H, Roach T, Dabek M, Somerville K, ACHARYA S, Hosmane R. Bis[2-(3-carboxyphenoxy)carbonylethyl]phosphinic acid (m-BCCEP): a novel affinity cross-linking reagent for the beta-cleft modification of human hemoglobin. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:1494-507 pubmed publisher
    ..19 Torr) assayed under identical conditions. The measured Hill coefficient value of 1.91 of the m-BCCEP-modified Hb product points to the reasonable retainment of oxygen-binding cooperativity after the cross-link formation...
  43. Yao Q, Yuan C. Enantioselective synthesis of H-phosphinic acids bearing natural amino acid residues. J Org Chem. 2013;78:6962-74 pubmed publisher
    The first systematic study on the asymmetric synthesis of H-phosphinic acids bearing natural protein amino acid residues was reported on the basis of the asymmetric addition of ethyl diethoxymethylphosphinate to N-tert-butanesulfinyl ..
  44. Ishikawa M, Otaka M, Huang Y, Neumann P, Winters B, Grace A, et al. Dopamine triggers heterosynaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6759-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal...
  45. Gouault Bironneau S, Deprèle S, Sutor A, Montchamp J. Radical reaction of sodium hypophosphite with terminal alkynes: synthesis of 1,1-bis-H-phosphinates. Org Lett. 2005;7:5909-12 pubmed
    ..The 1,1-bis-H-phosphinate products are novel precursors of the biologically important 1,1-bisphosphonates...
  46. Matziari M, Nasopoulou M, Yiotakis A. Active methylene phosphinic peptides: a new diversification approach. Org Lett. 2006;8:2317-9 pubmed
  47. Park Y, Fray D. Separation of zinc and nickel ions in a strong acid through liquid-liquid extraction. J Hazard Mater. 2009;163:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..whilst that of nickel ions was less than 20 wt.%, when 100 vol.% Cyanex 301 was used. The maximum S(Zn,Ni) value was about 21,700 at pH 6.0 and the highest relative purity (R) of zinc was about 99 wt.% without a pH control, pH -1.1...
  48. Guo J, Harling J, Steel P, Woods T. Phosphinates as new electrophilic partners for cross-coupling reactions. Org Biomol Chem. 2008;6:4053-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of enol phosphinates as electrophiles for cross-coupling reactions has been explored. Both boronic acids (Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) and stannanes (Stille reaction) couple efficiently with lactam derived phosphinates...
  49. Bischof Vukusic S, Flincec Grgac S, Budimir A, Kalenic S. Cotton textiles modified with citric acid as efficient anti-bacterial agent for prevention of nosocomial infections. Croat Med J. 2011;52:68-75 pubmed
  50. Bhattacharyya A, Mohapatra P, Ghanty T, Manchanda V. A pH dependent transport and back transport of americium(III) through the cellulose triacetate composite polymer membrane of cyanex-301 and TBP: role of H-bonding interactions. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2008;10:6274-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental observations were rationalized using the hydrogen bonding interaction energies obtained through ab initio molecular orbital and DFT calculations...
  51. Fairbanks B, Schwartz M, Bowman C, Anseth K. Photoinitiated polymerization of PEG-diacrylate with lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate: polymerization rate and cytocompatibility. Biomaterials. 2009;30:6702-7 pubmed publisher
    ..When examined 24h after encapsulation, survival rates of human neonatal fibroblasts encapsulated in hydrogels polymerized with the phosphinate initiator exceed 95%, demonstrating the cytocompatibility of this initiating system...
  52. Manocchi A, Horelik N, Lee B, Yi H. Simple, readily controllable palladium nanoparticle formation on surface-assembled viral nanotemplates. Langmuir. 2010;26:3670-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We envision that our strategy can be extended to a wide range of applications, including uniform nanostructure and nanocatalyst synthesis...
  53. Capogna M. Distinct properties of presynaptic group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibition of perforant pathway-CA1 EPSCs. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19:2847-58 pubmed
    ..Groups II and III mGluRs are segregated at the presynaptic terminal, and there are distinct differences between the properties of the presynaptic inhibition mediated by these two groups of receptors...