Summary: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Reist M, Medjitna T, Braun U, Pfister K. Effect of a treatment with eprinomectin or trichlorfon on the yield and quality of milk produced by multiparous dairy cows. Vet Rec. 2002;151:377-80 pubmed
    ..Hypoderma species-endemic area in western Switzerland; 357 of the cows were treated with eprinomectin, 252 with trichlorfon, and 133 were left untreated...
  2. Wu M, Deng J. Acute hemolysis caused by incidental trichlorfon exposure. J Chin Med Assoc. 2009;72:214-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon (o-o-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloro-hydroxyethylphosphate), an organophosphate, has a moderately potent anticholinesterase activity...
  3. Chang C, Lee P, Liu C, Cheng W. Trichlorfon, an organophosphorus insecticide, depresses the immune responses and resistance to Lactococcus garvieae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;20:574-85 pubmed
    ..2+/-2.1 g) were individually reared in water containing concentrations of trichlorfon of 0, 0.2, or 0.4 mg L(-1) for a 144-h period...
  4. Chang C, Rahmawaty A, Chang Z. Molecular and immunological responses of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to the organophosphorus insecticide, trichlorfon. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;130-131:18-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is used as an agriculture pesticide to destroy insects, a human medicine to combat internal parasites, and an ectoparasiticide in the livestock and aquaculture industries, but ..
  5. Tian Y, Zhou S, Gao Y, Zhou Y, Shi R, Heiger Bernays W, et al. Effects of repeated maternal oral exposure to low levels of trichlorfon on development and cytogenetic toxicity in 3-day mouse embryos. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2655-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon is a widely used broad-spectrum agricultural insecticide. Few studies have evaluated the effects of trichlorfon on developing fetuses, especially at early stages of development after low-level maternal exposures...
  6. Xu W, Liu W, Liu Z. Trichlorfon-induced apoptosis in hepatocyte primary cultures of Carassius auratus gibelio. Chemosphere. 2009;77:895-901 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon, an organophosphorus pesticide, can disrupt metabolism, reproduction and immune functions of some aquatic animals...
  7. Mehl A, Schanke T, Torvik A, Fonnum F. The effect of trichlorfon and methylazoxymethanol on the development of guinea pig cerebellum. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;219:128-35 pubmed
    The pesticide trichlorfon (125 mg/kg on days 42-44 in gestation) gives hypoplasia of the brain of the offspring without any significant reduction in their body weights...
  8. Guimarães A, Silva de Assis H, Boeger W. The effect of trichlorfon on acetylcholinesterase activity and histopathology of cultivated fish Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007;68:57-62 pubmed
    ..g., trichlorfon)...
  9. Xu W, Liu W, Shao X, Jiang G, Li X. Effect of trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. J Aquat Anim Health. 2012;24:185-94 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio...

More Information


  1. Lopes R, Paraiba L, Ceccarelli P, Tornisielo V. Bioconcentration of trichlorfon insecticide in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Chemosphere. 2006;64:56-62 pubmed
    ..This research work investigated the bioconcentration of trichlorfon [phosphonic acid, (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl)-dimethyl ester] insecticide in pacu under fish ponds culture ..
  2. Honorato de Oliveira G, Moreira V, Ribeiro Goes S. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy in genetically dissimilar chickens: studies with tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) and trichlorfon. Toxicol Lett. 2002;136:143-50 pubmed
    ..Babcock chickens were treated with 800 mg/kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) or 80 mg/kg trichlorfon. The TOCP group had 82% Br...
  3. Chen H, Jiang J. Toxic effects of chemical pesticides (trichlorfon and dimehypo) on Dunaliella salina. Chemosphere. 2011;84:664-70 pubmed publisher alga of environmental tolerance, was employed as test organism to investigate the toxicity effects of trichlorfon and dimehypo widely used in agriculture and veterinary as pesticides...
  4. Sinha A, Vanparys C, De Boeck G, Kestemont P, Wang N, Nguyen P, et al. Expression characteristics of potential biomarker genes in Tra catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, exposed to trichlorfon. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2010;5:207-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon (TRC) is the most common organophosphorous insecticide used in aquaculture practices in Southeast Asian countries...
  5. Hong X, Qu J, Chen J, Cheng S, Wang Y, Song L, et al. Effects of trichlorfon on progesterone production in cultured human granulosa-lutein cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:912-8 pubmed
    b>Trichlorfon, a widely used organophophorus pesticide, has been reported to disrupt reproductive function in human and animal. However, the mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated...
  6. Cukurcam S, Sun F, Betzendahl I, Adler I, Eichenlaub Ritter U. Trichlorfon predisposes to aneuploidy and interferes with spindle formation in in vitro maturing mouse oocytes. Mutat Res. 2004;564:165-78 pubmed
    The pesticide trichlorfon (TCF) has been implicated in human trisomy 21, and in errors in chromosome segregation at male meiosis II in the mouse...
  7. Pohanka M, Jun D, Kuca K. In vitro reactivation of trichlorfon-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase using HI-6, obidoxime, pralidoxime and K048. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24:680-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon is a specific inhibitor of cholinesterases. It was typically used as an insecticide; however, trichlorfon was described as useful for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease some years ago...
  8. Ranaldi R, Gambuti G, Eichenlaub Ritter U, Pacchierotti F. Trichlorfon effects on mouse oocytes following in vivo exposure. Mutat Res. 2008;651:125-30 pubmed
    b>Trichlorfon (TCF) is a widely used pesticide, which according to some epidemiological and experimental data, is suspected of being aneugenic in human and mouse cells...
  9. Grimalt S, Sancho J, Pozo O, Garcia Baudin J, Fernandez Cruz M, Hernandez F. Analytical study of trichlorfon residues in Kaki fruit and cauliflower samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:1188-95 pubmed
    A detailed analytical study on trichlorfon residues in selected vegetables samples has been carried out, focused on the reliable quantification and confirmation of this compound, and on stability of residues under storage...
  10. Eraslan G, Kanbur M, Silici S, Karabacak M. Beneficial effect of pine honey on trichlorfon induced some biochemical alterations in mice. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:1084-91 pubmed publisher the control group, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered 1g/kg bw/day pine honey, 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon ( approximately 1/5LD(50)) and 1g/kg bw/day pine honey plus 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon, respectively, by the ..
  11. Riekkinen P, Schmidt B, Riekkinen M. Behavioral characterization of metrifonate-improved acquisition of spatial information in medial septum-lesioned rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;323:11-9 pubmed
  12. Li W, Ma Y, Li L, Qin D, Wu Y. The dissipation rates of trichlorfon and its degradation product dichlorvos in cabbage and soil. Chemosphere. 2011;82:829-33 pubmed publisher
    The residual levels and dissipation rate of trichlorfon, and its degradation product, dichlorvos, in cabbage crops and the soil in which these were grown, were determined by gas chromatography at two geographically distant experimental ..
  13. Jin T, Zeng L, Lin Y, Lu Y, Liang G. Characteristics of protein variants in trichlorphon-resistant Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera; Tephritidae) larvae. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:2608-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins appear to be involved in the resistance response to trichlorphon. ..
  14. Reynolds O, Osborne T, Barchia I. Efficacy of Chemicals for the Potential Management of the Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Insects. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..clothianidin, dimethoate (half-label rate), emamectin benzoate, fenthion (half- and full-label rate), and trichlorfon were the most efficacious in bioassay 1, across 18 tested insecticide treatments...
  15. Li B, Ma Y, Zhang Y. Oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in the frog, Rana chensinensis, when exposed to low doses of trichlorfon. J Environ Sci Health B. 2017;52:476-482 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide that is widely used in aquaculture and agriculture against parasitic infestations and has caused aquatic toxicity to non-target organisms...
  16. Kobayashi S, Okubo R, Ugawa Y. Delayed Polyneuropathy Induced by Organophosphate Poisoning. Intern Med. 2017;56:1903-1905 pubmed publisher
    An 89-year-old man attempted suicide by ingesting a pesticide (trichlorfon). After surviving the initial critical period in the intensive care unit, he developed rapidly progressive distal weakness and sensory disturbance...
  17. Ma Y, Li B, Ke Y, Zhang Y, Zhang Y. Transcriptome analysis of Rana chensinensis liver under trichlorfon stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;147:487-493 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon is a selective organophosphate insecticide that is widely applied in aquaculture and agriculture for control of various parasites...
  18. Costa J, Ando R, Sant Ana A, Corio P. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of organophosphorous model molecules and pesticides. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2012;14:15645-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the trace analysis of organophosphorous pesticides (trichlorfon and glyphosate) and model organophosphorous compounds (dimethyl methylphosphonate and o-ethyl ..
  19. Felippelli G, Cruz B, Gomes L, Lopes W, Teixeira W, Maciel W, et al. Susceptibility of helminth species from horses against different chemical compounds in Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2015;212:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg, moxidectin 0.4 mg/kg, trichlorfon 35 mg/kg, ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2.5 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2...
  20. Leandri A, Pompi V, Rosati M, Pucci C. Residues of trichlorfon and its metabolite dichlorvos in olive, oil, waste water. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2003;68:875-83 pubmed
  21. Turdean G, Popescu I, Oniciu L, Thevenot D. Sensitive detection of organophosphorus pesticides using a needle type amperometric acetylcholinesterase-based bioelectrode. Thiocholine electrochemistry and immobilised enzyme inhibition. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2002;17:107-15 pubmed
    ..The deviation from classical Michaelis Menten kinetics induced from the studied pesticides was evaluated using Hill plots...
  22. Takahashi M, Misumi H, Urakami H, Nogami S, Kadosaka T, Misumi M, et al. Trombidiosis in cats caused by the bite of the larval trombiculid mite Helenicula miyagawai (Acari: Trombiculidae). Vet Rec. 2004;154:471-2 pubmed
  23. Kodama H, Matsuoka Y, Tanaka Y, Liu Y, Iwasaki T, Watarai S. Changes of C-reactive protein levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sera after exposure to anti-ectoparasitic chemicals used in aquaculture. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2004;16:589-97 pubmed
    ..5-19.5 degrees C showed significantly higher CRP levels than those reared at 13 degrees C. Measurement of CRP levels in trout serum can be used as a bioindicator of the health condition of the fish. ..
  24. Zhu H, Cui Y, Zheng X, Han H, Yang M. Determination of trace trichlorfon by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection based on its catalytic effect on sodium perborate oxidizing benzidine. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;584:166-71 pubmed
    b>Trichlorfon has the capacity to catalyze the oxidation of benzidine (4,4'-diamino-biphenyl) to 4-amino-4'-nitro biphenyl in the presence of sodium perborate. The product of the catalyzed reaction was validated by LC-MS method...
  25. Muller P. [Insecticide resistance in the Musca domestica populations of the GDR 1976-1988]. Angew Parasitol. 1989;30:145-54 pubmed
    ..The insecticides tested were trichlorfon, dimethoate, bromophos, and trichlophenidine, i.e...
  26. Riekkinen M, Schmidt B, Kuitunen J, Riekkinen P. Effects of combined chronic nimodipine and acute metrifonate treatment on spatial and avoidance behavior. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;322:1-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that chronic nimodipine and acute metrifonate treatment may more effectively stimulate cognitive functioning than either of the treatments on their own. ..
  27. McKenzie D, Blasco F, Belão T, Killen S, Martins N, Taylor E, et al. Physiological determinants of individual variation in sensitivity to an organophosphate pesticide in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;189:108-114 pubmed publisher
    Individual variation in sub-lethal sensitivity to the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon was investigated in Nile tilapia, using critical swimming speed (Ucrit) as an indicator...
  28. Nordenfors H, Hoglund J. Long term dynamics of dermanyssus gallinae in relation to mite control measures in aviary systems for layers. Br Poult Sci. 2000;41:533-40 pubmed
    ..As the hens are attacked mainly at night-time the most likely explanation is that the mites adjust their behavioural pattern to the birds' roosting behaviour. ..
  29. Becker R, Unni L, Greig N. Resurrecting clinical pharmacology as a context for Alzheimer disease drug development. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2009;6:79-81 pubmed
    ..We trace the problem to inattention to sound clinical pharmacology practices. When properly applied, clinical pharmacology and associated drug development sciences can, hand in hand, facilitate success in commercial drug development. ..
  30. Tian J, Yu C, Xue Y, Zhao R, Wang J, Chen L. Performance of trichlorfon degradation by a novel Bacillus tequilensis strain PA F-3 and its proposed biodegradation pathway. Biodegradation. 2016;27:265-276 pubmed
    The novel trichlorfon (TCF)-degrading bacterium PA F-3, identified as Bacillus tequilensis, was isolated from pesticide-polluted soils by using an effective screening and domesticating procedure...
  31. Thomaz J, Martins N, Monteiro D, Rantin F, Kalinin A. Cardio-respiratory function and oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia exposed to the organophosphate insecticide trichlorfon (NEGUVON). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:1413-24 pubmed publisher
    ..oxidative stress and fish antioxidants were analyzed in juvenile Nile tilapia exposed for 96 h to a sublethal trichlorfon (TRC-Neguvon, Bayer) concentration of 0.5 mg L(-1)...
  32. Giacobini E. Cholinesterase inhibitors stabilize Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;920:321-7 pubmed
    ..In order to explain the stabilizing effect of ChEI, a mechanism other than AChE inhibition, based on beta-amyloid metabolism, is postulated. ..
  33. Ros Moreno R, de Armas Serra C, Gimenez Pardo C, Rodriguez Caabeiro F. Comparison of cholinesterase activities in the excretion-secretion products of Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Parasite. 2002;9:153-9 pubmed
    ..pseudospiralis ESP. The drug inhibits in part this activity. Moreover Neguvón (metrifonate) showed a high activity against the T. pseudospiralis viability. ..
  34. Wakakura M, Utsunomiya Kawasaki I, Ishikawa S. Rapid increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration mediated by acetylcholine receptors in cultured retinal neurons and Müller cells. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1998;236:934-9 pubmed
    ..calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) following the administration of acetylcholine, a cholinesterase inhibitor (trichlorfon), nicotine or muscarinic agonist with or without a receptor antagonist was monitored using the calcium ion ..
  35. Chen X, Ren Y, Meng Z, Lu C, Gu H, Zhuang Y. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188:266 pubmed publisher an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice...
  36. Ndyomugyenyi R, Minjas J. Urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, and the factors influencing its transmission. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2001;95:697-706 pubmed
    ..Additional health education, to heighten awareness of the disease and its prevention, would also be beneficial. ..
  37. Grewal P, Power K, Shetlar D. Neonicotinoid insecticides alter diapause behavior and survival of overwintering white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:852-7 pubmed
    ..Imidacloprid provided control of P japonica equivalent to the most widely used curative organophosphate, trichlorfon, by 14 days after treatment, but thiamethoxam had no affect...
  38. Czeizel A. Human germinal mutagenic effects in relation to intentional and accidental exposure to toxic agents. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104 Suppl 3:615-7 pubmed
    ..Environmental investigations have pointed to the excessive use of trichlorfon at local fish farms as the cause.
  39. Badawi A. O6-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine-DNA [corrected] methyltransferase activity in tissues of BDF-1 mice treated with antiparasitic drugs. Toxicol Lett. 1998;94:199-208 pubmed
    ..62) and bladder (r=- 0.59). These results demonstrate that treatment with antischistosomal agents may lead to the formation of promutagenic alkylation damage in the tissue DNA and alterations in the DNA repair capacity. ..
  40. Perić L, Ribarić L, Nerlović V. Cholinesterase activity in the tissues of bivalves Noah's ark shell (Arca noae) and warty venus (Venus verrucosa): characterisation and in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;165:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus ..
  41. Ferrando M, Sancho E, Andreu Moliner E. Comparative acute toxicities of selected pesticides to Anguilla anguilla. J Environ Sci Health B. 1991;26:491-8 pubmed
    ..was followed in order of decreasing toxicity by diazinon, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, lindane, methidathion, trichlorfon and methylparathion...
  42. Hong X, Qu J, Wang Y, Sun H, Song L, Wang S, et al. Study on the mechanism of trichlorfon-induced inhibition of progesterone synthesis in mouse leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). Toxicology. 2007;234:51-8 pubmed
    b>Trichlorfon, a widely used organophosphorus pesticide, has been reported to disrupt reproductive function in humans. However, the mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated...
  43. Cui Y, Ao M, Li W, Yu L. Effect of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory in mice. Planta Med. 2008;74:377-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, glabridin appears to be a promising candidate for memory improvement and it will be worthwhile to explore the potential of glabridin in the management of Alzheimer patients...
  44. Rakonczay Z. Potencies and selectivities of inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and its molecular forms in normal and Alzheimer's disease brain. Acta Biol Hung. 2003;54:183-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a molecular form-specific inhibitor may have therapeutic applications in inhibiting the G1 form, which is relatively unchanged in Alzheimer's brain...
  45. Yu H, Cai Y, Li Q, Bi S, Huang D. [Study on decomposed products of trichlorfon in process of gas chromatographic analysis by mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2006;24:23-5 pubmed
    The decomposed products of trichlorfon in gas chromatographic analysis were identified by mass spectrometry (MS)...
  46. Samochocki M, Höffle A, Fehrenbacher A, Jostock R, Ludwig J, Christner C, et al. Galantamine is an allosterically potentiating ligand of neuronal nicotinic but not of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:1024-36 pubmed
    ..Galantamine's APL action directly addresses the nicotinic deficit in AD. ..
  47. Mega M, Cummings J, O Connor S, Dinov I, Reback E, Felix J, et al. Cognitive and metabolic responses to metrifonate therapy in Alzheimer disease. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 2001;14:63-8 pubmed
    ..The clinical benefits observed in AD with cholinesterase inhibitor therapy are associated with a metabolic increase of heteromodal cognitive and medial temporal networks. ..
  48. Habluetzel A, Carnevali F, Lucantoni L, Grana L, Attili A, Archilei F, et al. Impact of the botanical insecticide Neem Azal on survival and reproduction of the biting louse Damalinia limbata on angora goats. Vet Parasitol. 2007;144:328-37 pubmed
    ..For this reason and for its prolonged activity, which in principle allows angora goats to be protected for a large part of the mohair production cycle, neem-based insecticides may have a potential interest for mohair producing breeders. ..
  49. Van Kampen M, Selbach K, Schneider R, Schiegel E, Boess F, Schreiber R. AR-R 17779 improves social recognition in rats by activation of nicotinic alpha7 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;172:375-83 pubmed
    ..AR-R17779 increased social recognition memory by activation of alpha(7)-nAChRs, suggesting that alpha(7)-nAChR agonists possess cognitive-enhancing properties. ..
  50. Shapira M, Thompson C, Soreq H, Robinson G. Changes in neuronal acetylcholinesterase gene expression and division of labor in honey bee colonies. J Mol Neurosci. 2001;17:1-12 pubmed
  51. Mgeni A, Kisumku U, McCullough F, Dixon H, Yoon S, Mott K. Metrifonate in the control of urinary schistosomiasis in Zanzibar. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68:721-30 pubmed
    ..3% egg-negative rate was observed. Thus, selective population chemotherapy with metrifonate was shown to reduce the prevalence and intensity of infection due to S. haematobium over a 24-month period. ..
  52. Fonnum F, Lock E. Cerebellum as a target for toxic substances. Toxicol Lett. 2000;112-113:9-16 pubmed
    ..Granule cells are sensitive to methyl halides, thiophene, methyl mercury, 2-chloropropionic acid and trichlorfon. The Purkinje cells appear in the rat brain on pre-natal day 14-16, whereas the granule cells appear post-..
  53. Miroshkina V, Kosmachev A, Salova L. [The mechanism of the transport of organophosphorus compounds across the histo-hematic barriers]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1999;62:48-51 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that both the rate and direction of OPC diffusion are determined by the relationship between the values of affinity of the ligands for the sites of their specific binding found on both sides of the HHB. ..
  54. Karademir Catalgol B, Ozden S, Alpertunga B. Effects of trichlorfon on malondialdehyde and antioxidant system in human erythrocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:1538-44 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the potency of trichlorfon, an organophosphate insecticide, to induce oxidative stress response in human erythrocytes in vitro...
  55. Fernandez Cruz M, Grimalt S, Villarroya M, Lopez F, Llanos S, Garcia Baudin J. Residue levels of captan and trichlorfon in field-treated kaki fruits, individual versus composite samples, and after household processing. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23:591-600 pubmed
    The dissipation of residue levels of captan and trichlorfon in field-treated kaki crops was studied according to good laboratory practices to propose maximum residue limits (MRLs)...
  56. Huggins D, Richardson R. Brainstem axolemmal protein phosphorylation in vitro in hens dosed with di-1-butyl-2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999;56:263-82 pubmed
  57. Liu L, Ikonen S, Heikkinen T, Tapiola T, van Groen T, Tanila H. The effects of long-term treatment with metrifonate, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on cholinergic activity, amyloid pathology, and cognitive function in APP and PS1 doubly transgenic mice. Exp Neurol. 2002;173:196-204 pubmed
    ..Our results do not support the idea that ChEIs would slow down the progression of amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease. ..
  58. Aden Abdi Y, Villen T, Ericsson O, Gustafsson L, Dahl Puustinen M. Metrifonate in healthy volunteers: interrelationship between pharmacokinetic properties, cholinesterase inhibition and side-effects. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68:731-6 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the absorption of metrifonate was not significantly different for doses between 2.5 and 15 mg/kg. The plasma levels of this drug correlated with the occurrence of side-effects. ..
  59. Zhu H, Zou Y. [Inhibition of in vitro translation of esterase mRNA of dipterex-resistant mosquito (Culex pipiens pallens) by antisense nucleic acids]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2001;19:333-5 pubmed
    ..Antisense oligonucleic acids to the esterase mRNA of dipterex-resistant mosquito could effectively inhibit its in vitro translation. ..
  60. Nguyen M, Alfonso A, Johnson C, Rand J. Caenorhabditis elegans mutants resistant to inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. Genetics. 1995;140:527-35 pubmed
    ..Measurements of acetylcholine levels in these mutants suggest that some of the genes are involved in presynaptic functions...
  61. Lucey D, Maguire J. Schistosomiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1993;7:635-53 pubmed
    ..Therapy with praziquantel is indicated for all species of schistosomes and all clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis. ..
  62. Klunker R. [The appearance of insecticide resistance in Blattella germanica in the German Democratic Republic]. Angew Parasitol. 1990;31:79-93 pubmed
    ..and subsequently reared in the laboratory, susceptibilities were measured against lindane, pyrethrin + PBO, trichlorfon, dichlorvos, and propoxur, the most used insecticides against cockroaches in our country...
  63. Bao Y, Zhang C, Yang W, Hu J, Sun X. Mechanism and kinetics study on the OH-initiated oxidation of organophosphorus pesticide trichlorfon in atmosphere. Sci Total Environ. 2012;419:144-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Trichlorfon [O,O-dimethyl-(2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxy-ethyl) phosphonate] (TCF) is a kind of widely used organophosphorus pesticides...
  64. Riekkinen P, Schmidt B, Stefanski R, Kuitunen J, Riekkinen M. Metrifonate improves spatial navigation and avoidance behavior in scopolamine-treated, medial septum-lesioned and aged rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;309:121-30 pubmed
    ..These results show that metrifonate may over a wide range of doses stimulate cognitive functioning, but during advanced aging neurobiological defects develop that may mask some of the therapeutic effects of metrifonate in rats. ..
  65. Zhu H, Liu W, Mao J, Yang M. Cloud point extraction and determination of trace trichlorfon by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-detection based on its catalytic effect on benzidine oxidizing. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;614:58-62 pubmed publisher
    4-Amino-4'-nitrobiphenyl, which is formed by catalytic effect of trichlorfon on sodium perborate oxidizing benzidine, is extracted with a cloud point extraction method and then detected using a high performance liquid chromatography with ..
  66. Kinoshita H, Nishiguchi M, Ouchi H, Minami T, Yamamura T, Yasui T, et al. Methanol: toxicity of the solvent in a commercial product should also be considered. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005;24:663-4 pubmed
  67. Navickiene S, Aquino A, Bezerra D. A matrix solid-phase dispersion method for the extraction of seven pesticides from mango and papaya. J Chromatogr Sci. 2010;48:750-4 pubmed
    A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion was developed to determine trichlorfon, pyrimethanil, methyl parathion, tetraconazole, thiabendazole, imazalil, and tebuconazole in papaya and mango using ..
  68. Fonnum F, Lock E. The contributions of excitotoxicity, glutathione depletion and DNA repair in chemically induced injury to neurones: exemplified with toxic effects on cerebellar granule cells. J Neurochem. 2004;88:513-31 pubmed
    Six chemicals, 2-halopropionic acids, thiophene, methylhalides, methylmercury, methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and trichlorfon (Fig...
  69. Lopes W, dos Santos T, Borges F, Sakamoto C, Soares V, Costa G, et al. Anthelmintic efficacy of oral trichlorfon solution against ivermectin resistant nematode strains in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2009;166:98-102 pubmed publisher
    ..calves from two different rural estates in Brazil were studied to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of oral trichlorfon against naturally occurring ivermectin resistant parasitic nematode strains...
  70. Kim C, Kim W, Boo K, Kim S. Cloning, mutagenesis, and expression of the acetylcholinesterase gene from a strain of Musca domestica; the change from a drug-resistant to a sensitive enzyme. Mol Cells. 2003;15:208-15 pubmed
    ..In addition to these residues, Glu-234 and Ala-236 in the conserved sequence FGESAG are thought to play a role in modulating sensitivity to organophosphorus insecticides. ..
  71. Baydan E, Yildirim E, Ince S. The effect of levamisole on sheep trachea alone and with trichlorfon combination. Pak J Biol Sci. 2008;11:1152-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of levamisole and levamisole-trichlorfon combination on isolated sheep trachea...
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    ..8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i...
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