Summary: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.

Top Publications

  1. Ohta H, Matsuda Y, Tokimasa S, Sawada A, Kim J, Sashihara J, et al. Foscarnet therapy for ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus retinitis after stem cell transplantation: effective monitoring of CMV infection by quantitative analysis of CMV mRNA. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;27:1141-5 pubmed
    ..pediatric patients with ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis who were successfully treated with foscarnet. The patients were recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from HLA-mismatched donors...
  2. Luppi M, Barozzi P, Rasini V, Riva G, Re A, Rossi G, et al. Severe pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis after HHV-8 primary infection in a renal transplant patient successfully treated with foscarnet. Transplantation. 2002;74:131-2 pubmed
    ..Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced, and the patient was treated with foscarnet for 2 weeks, leading to a dramatic normalization of blood cell counts, concomitantly with the disappearance of ..
  3. Lee M, Kim K, Lee W. Intravitreal foscarnet for the treatment of acyclovir-resistant acute retinal necrosis caused by varicella zoster virus. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:212-3 pubmed publisher
    To report of a case of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), successfully treated with intravitreal foscarnet.
  4. Cheung T, Jayaweera D, Pearce D, Benson P, Nahass R, Olson C, et al. Safety of oral versus intravenous hydration during induction therapy with intravenous foscarnet in AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus infections. Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11:640-7 pubmed
    ..v.) versus oral hydration to prevent nephrotoxicity associated with the use of foscarnet for induction therapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in HIV-infected persons...
  5. Canestri A, Ghosn J, Wirden M, Marguet F, Ktorza N, Boubezari I, et al. Foscarnet salvage therapy for patients with late-stage HIV disease and multiple drug resistance. Antivir Ther. 2006;11:561-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of foscarnet on HIV infection in patients with late-stage HIV disease and multiple drug resistance.
  6. Meyer P, Matsuura S, Zonarich D, Chopra R, Pendarvis E, Bazmi H, et al. Relationship between 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine resistance and primer unblocking activity in foscarnet-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. J Virol. 2003;77:6127-37 pubmed
    Phosphonoformate (foscarnet) is a pyrophosphate (PP(i)) analogue and a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT), acting through the PP(i) binding site on the enzyme...
  7. King J, Chung M, DiLoreto D. A 9 year-old girl with herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis treated with intravitreal foscarnet. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:395-8 pubmed
    ..The retinitis was controlled with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal foscarnet. The clinical course was complicated by retinal neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhage, which was treated by ..
  8. Pöhlmann C, Schetelig J, Reuner U, Bornhauser M, Illmer T, Kiani A, et al. Cidofovir and foscarnet for treatment of human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis in a neutropenic stem cell transplant recipient. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:e118-20 pubmed
    ..Administration of cidofovir followed by foscarnet was associated with total clearance of human herpesvirus 6 infection...
  9. Reusser P, Einsele H, Lee J, Volin L, Rovira M, Engelhard D, et al. Randomized multicenter trial of foscarnet versus ganciclovir for preemptive therapy of cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2002;99:1159-64 pubmed
    The present study compared foscarnet with ganciclovir for preemptive therapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after allogeneic blood or marrow stem cell transplantation (SCT)...

More Information


  1. Mathiesen S, Roge B, Weis N, Lundgren J, Obel N, Gerstoft J. Foscarnet used in salvage therapy of HIV-1 patients harbouring multiple nucleotide excision mutations. AIDS. 2004;18:1076-8 pubmed
  2. Kudlacek O, Mitterauer T, Nanoff C, Hohenegger M, Tang W, Freissmuth M, et al. Inhibition of adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase isoforms by the antiviral drug foscarnet. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:3010-6 pubmed
    The pyrophosphate (PP(i)) analog foscarnet inhibits viral DNA-polymerases and is used to treat cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency vius infections. Nucleotide cyclases and DNA-polymerases catalyze analogous reactions, i.e...
  3. Talarico L, Castilla V, Ramirez J, Galagovsky L, Wachsman M. Synergistic in vitro interactions between (22S,23S)-3beta-bromo-5alpha,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one and acyclovir or foscarnet against herpes simplex virus type 1. Chemotherapy. 2006;52:38-42 pubmed
    ..virus multiplication is hindered by 6b, we performed studies of drug-drug combination with acyclovir (ACV) and foscarnet (FOS)...
  4. Marchand B, Tchesnokov E, Gotte M. The pyrophosphate analogue foscarnet traps the pre-translocational state of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a Brownian ratchet model of polymerase translocation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3337-46 pubmed
    The pyrophosphate (PPi) analogue phosphonoformic acid (PFA or foscarnet) inhibits the reverse transcriptase (RT) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the mechanisms of drug action and resistance remain elusive...
  5. Piret J, Lamontagne J, Desormeaux A, Bergeron M. Efficacies of gel formulations containing foscarnet, alone or combined with sodium lauryl sulfate, against establishment and reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:1030-6 pubmed
    The influence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on the efficacies of gel formulations of foscarnet against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cutaneous lesions and on the establishment and reactivation of latent virus has been evaluated in ..
  6. Ghislanzoni M, Cusini M, Zerboni R, Alessi E. Chronic hypertrophic acyclovir-resistant genital herpes treated with topical cidofovir and with topical foscarnet at recurrence in an HIV-positive man. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:887-9 pubmed
  7. Chou S, Marousek G, Parenti D, Gordon S, LaVoy A, Ross J, et al. Mutation in region III of the DNA polymerase gene conferring foscarnet resistance in cytomegalovirus isolates from 3 subjects receiving prolonged antiviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 1998;178:526-30 pubmed
    ..despite prolonged antiviral therapy had buffy coat CMV isolates that were resistant to both ganciclovir and foscarnet. Genetic analysis of the resistant isolates showed that each contained a well-known ganciclovir resistance ..
  8. Maggs D, Clarke H. In vitro efficacy of ganciclovir, cidofovir, penciclovir, foscarnet, idoxuridine, and acyclovir against feline herpesvirus type-1. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65:399-403 pubmed
    To establish the in vitro efficacy of 4 novel drugs (ie, ganciclovir, cidofovir, penciclovir, and foscarnet) against feline herpesvirus type-1 (FHV-1) and compare their antiviral efficacy with that of acyclovir and idoxuridine.
  9. Meyer P, Rutvisuttinunt W, Matsuura S, So A, Scott W. Stable complexes formed by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at distinct positions on the primer-template controlled by binding deoxynucleoside triphosphates or foscarnet. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:41-54 pubmed
    ..Distinguishable stable complexes were formed in the presence of foscarnet (an analog of pyrophosphate), the dNTP complementary to the first (+1) templating nucleotide or the dNTP ..
  10. Claro C, Ruiz R, Cordero E, Pastor M, Lopez Cortes L, Jiménez Castellanos M, et al. Determination and pharmacokinetic profile of liposomal foscarnet in rabbit ocular tissues after intravitreal administration. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88:528-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Foscarnet inhibits replication of herpesviruses, including CMV...
  11. Behrens Baumann W. Phosphonoformate (foscarnet, PFA) versus trifluorthymidine in the treatment of keratitis dendritica in the human. A double-blind, randomized, preliminary trial. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1992;70:690-2 pubmed
    ..16 days) than for trifluorthymidine (5.83 days). There was no significant difference between phosphonoformate and trifluorthymidine. One drug failure was registered in each series. No side effects were observed...
  12. Eid A, Bakri S, Kijpittayarit S, Razonable R. Clinical features and outcomes of cytomegalovirus retinitis after transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2008;10:13-8 pubmed
    ..All patients received induction therapy with intravenous ganciclovir (n=8) or foscarnet (n=1) for a median of 43 days (range, 14-100 days) followed by maintenance therapy with intravenous or oral ..
  13. Weinberg A, Jabs D, Chou S, Martin B, Lurain N, Forman M, et al. Mutations conferring foscarnet resistance in a cohort of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:777-84 pubmed
    The clinical significance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) foscarnet resistance was studied in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and CMV retinitis. Sequencing of the CMV pol gene was performed in 30 isolates...
  14. Cruchaga C, Anso E, Rouzaut A, Martinez Irujo J. Selective excision of chain-terminating nucleotides by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with phosphonoformate as substrate. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27744-52 pubmed
    ..The relevance of these findings in combined chemotherapy is discussed...
  15. Ehlert K, Groll A, Kuehn J, Vormoor J. Treatment of refractory CMV-infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with the combination of foscarnet and leflunomide. Klin Padiatr. 2006;218:180-4 pubmed
    ..Here we report the control of refractory CMV disease by the combined use of foscarnet and leflunomide.
  16. Ausayakhun S, Watananikorn S, Ngamtiphakorn S, Prasitsilp J. Intravitreal foscarnet for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88:103-7 pubmed
    ..Involvement of the fellow eye occurred in 35% of the patients during treatment of the first eye. Intravitreal foscarnet appeared to be a useful alternative treatment for patients intolerant or unaffordable to intravenous anti-CMV ..
  17. Boeckh M, Nichols W, Papanicolaou G, Rubin R, Wingard J, Zaia J. Cytomegalovirus in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: Current status, known challenges, and future strategies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2003;9:543-58 pubmed
  18. Nigro G, Sali E, Anceschi M, Mazzocco M, Maranghi L, Clerico A, et al. Foscarnet therapy for congenital cytomegalovirus liver fibrosis following prenatal ascites. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;15:325-9 pubmed
    ..Although CMV culture and DNA detection were negative in the urine, the infant was given foscarnet because CMV infection was demonstrated in the liver by DNA detection and immunohistochemical staining...
  19. Mattes F, Hainsworth E, Geretti A, Nebbia G, Prentice G, Potter M, et al. A randomized, controlled trial comparing ganciclovir to ganciclovir plus foscarnet (each at half dose) for preemptive therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:1355-61 pubmed
    ..5 mg/kg intravenously [iv] twice daily) or half-dose ganciclovir (5 mg/kg iv once daily) plus half-dose foscarnet (90 mg/kg iv once daily) for 14 days...
  20. Drew W, Miner R, Marousek G, Chou S. Maribavir sensitivity of cytomegalovirus isolates resistant to ganciclovir, cidofovir or foscarnet. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:124-7 pubmed
    ..The cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL97 inhibitor drug maribavir (MBV) is undergoing clinical antiviral trials...
  21. Holbrook J, Jabs D, Weinberg D, Lewis R, Davis M, Friedberg D. Visual loss in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome before widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:99-107 pubmed
    ..To evaluate rates and causes of visual loss among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis before widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  22. Bernstein D, Schleupner C, Evans T, Blumberg D, Bryson Y, Grafford K, et al. Effect of foscarnet cream on experimental UV radiation-induced herpes labialis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:1961-4 pubmed
    A topical 3% foscarnet cream formulation was evaluated for its ability to treat experimental UV radiation (UVR)-induced herpes labialis in a double-blind study...
  23. Wong R, Pavesio C, Laidlaw D, Williamson T, Graham E, Stanford M. Acute retinal necrosis: the effects of intravitreal foscarnet and virus type on outcome. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:556-60 pubmed publisher
    To study the effects of intravitreal foscarnet and the clinical differences between varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN).
  24. Tchesnokov E, Gilbert C, Boivin G, Gotte M. Role of helix P of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase in resistance and hypersusceptibility to the antiviral drug foscarnet. J Virol. 2006;80:1440-50 pubmed
    ..polymerase (UL54) can not only decrease but also increase susceptibility to the pyrophosphate (PP(i)) analogue foscarnet. The proximity of L802M, which confers resistance, and K805Q, which confers hypersusceptibility, suggests a ..
  25. Jabs D, Enger C, Forman M, Dunn J. Incidence of foscarnet resistance and cidofovir resistance in patients treated for cytomegalovirus retinitis. The Cytomegalovirus Retinitis and Viral Resistance Study Group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:2240-4 pubmed
    ..In a prospective study of 122 patients with CMV retinitis, 2.4 and 0.8% of patients had foscarnet-resistant blood culture isolates (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >400 microM) and urine culture ..
  26. Velez G, Roy C, Whitcup S, Chan C, Robinson M. High-dose intravitreal ganciclovir and foscarnet for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:396-7 pubmed
    To describe the chronic use of high doses of intravitreal ganciclovir, in combination with foscarnet, for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis.
  27. Kim K, Choi Y, Kim K, Lee Y, Kim C, Moon S, et al. Protective and anti-arthritic effects of deer antler aqua-acupuncture (DAA), inhibiting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, on phosphate ions-mediated chondrocyte apoptosis and rat collagen-induced arthritis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:963-73 pubmed
    ..DAA is a novel immunosuppressant which inhibits DHO-DHase and its effects in CIA suggest that it could be useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  28. Jacobson M, Mills J. Serious cytomegalovirus disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108:585-94 pubmed
    ..Based on limited data, foscarnet, a pyrophosphate analogue, also appears to have some efficacy in treating cytomegalovirus infection...
  29. Piret J, Goyette N, Boivin G. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54:2120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 ?M and 32...
  30. Ren X, Li G, Sui X. Antiviral activities of phosphonoformate sodium to pseudorabies herpesvirus infection in vitro. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..PFS has inhibitory effects on cell infection by PrV, which may be used as an anti-PrV agent or combined with other anti-PrV agents. PrV-induced cell apoptotic cells and viral DNA copies decreased in the presence of the PFS. ..
  31. Money D. Antiviral and antiretroviral use in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2003;30:731-49, vii pubmed
    ..This article reviews the most commonly used antiviral and antiretroviral agents and places emphasis on the issues regarding use in pregnancy. ..
  32. Reddy A, Zaas A, Hanson K, Palmer S. A single-center experience with ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus in lung transplant recipients: treatment and outcome. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26:1286-92 pubmed
    ..Treatment with a combination of foscarnet and ganciclovir or foscarnet alone for ganciclovir-resistant infection led to a significant reduction in ..
  33. Wong K, Chan Y, Chan S, Mak C, Chau K, Li C. Cytomegalovirus-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis in a renal allograft treated by foscarnet therapy. Am J Nephrol. 2000;20:222-4 pubmed
    ..She was successfully treated by foscarnet therapy and a reduction in immunosuppression. Her renal function returned to baseline afterwards.
  34. De Bolle L, Balzarini J, De Clercq E, Naesens L. Characterization of the catalytic subunit of the human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) DNA polymerase expressed in an in vitro transcription/translation assay. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2003;22:999-1001 pubmed
  35. Agut H. Deciphering the clinical impact of acute human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The antiviral drugs ganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir have proven to be efficient against AIs and related diseases but the indications and conditions of ..
  36. Chibo D, Mijch A, Doherty R, Birch C. Novel mutations in the thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase genes of acyclovir and foscarnet resistant herpes simplex viruses infecting an immunocompromised patient. J Clin Virol. 2002;25:165-70 pubmed
    ..2 (HSV-2) TK and DNA pol genes in an immunocompromised patient with clinical resistance to both acyclovir and foscarnet. The TK and DNA pol genes of isolates obtained over a 2-year period from an AIDS patient with severe genital ..
  37. Kitajima N. [Therapy for cytomegalovirus infection]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64 Suppl 3:500-3 pubmed
  38. Marzal Alfaro M, Manrique Rodríguez S, Alcaraz Romero A, García San Prudencio M, Fernandez Llamazares C. [Systemic cytomegalovirus infection: changes in serum calcium and magnesium levels with foscarnet treatment]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2015;82:e170-4 pubmed publisher
    Cytomegalovirus infection is common in cardiac transplant patients. Foscarnet is used, with limited evidence, as second-line treatment after ganciclovir failure in these patients...
  39. Lurain N, Chou S. Antiviral drug resistance of human cytomegalovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:689-712 pubmed publisher
    ..The currently approved drugs, ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (FOS), and cidofovir (CDV), target the viral DNA polymerase...
  40. Stegmann S, Manea M, Charpentier C, Damond F, Karmochkine M, Laureillard D, et al. Foscarnet as salvage therapy in HIV-2-infected patient with antiretroviral treatment failure. J Clin Virol. 2010;47:79-81 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have suggested the efficacy of foscarnet combined with thymidine analogues as salvage therapy in late-stage HIV-1 infection...
  41. Kang G, Hong H, Lee I, Ahn K, Kim J, Choi D. Ganciclovir and Foscarnet Therapy of Cytomegalovirus-Associated Meningoencephalitis in a Hemodialysis Patient With Liver Transplantation: Case Report. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:1208-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present report is to review the experience of successful treatment with combined ganciclovir and foscarnet of CMV-associated meningoencephalitis refractory to ganciclovir alone in a hemodialysis (HD) patient after LT...
  42. Valdez O, Gaspar A, Dickson J, Weigert A, Machado D. Cytomegalovirus infection resistant to ganciclovir in a renal transplant patient. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:1081-2 pubmed
  43. Moss R, Morales Rojas H, Vijayaraghavan S, Tian J. Metal-cation-mediated hydrolysis of phosphonoformate diesters: chemoselectivity and catalysis(1). J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:10923-36 pubmed
    ..The origins of the P-OR/C-OR selectivity are discussed in terms of the metal cation hydroxo species likely to be present in solution and the kinetics of the reactions. ..
  44. Shaw Reid C, Feuston B, Munshi V, Getty K, Krueger J, Hazuda D, et al. Dissecting the effects of DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H inhibitor combinations on HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase activities. Biochemistry. 2005;44:1595-606 pubmed
  45. Chau Tran T, Cassoux N, Bodaghi B, Lehoang P. Successful treatment with combination of systemic antiviral drugs and intravitreal ganciclovir injections in the management of severe necrotizing herpetic retinitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2003;11:141-4 pubmed
    ..To report the use of intravenous (IV) antiviral agents and intravitreal ganciclovir injections in three immunocompetent patients with severe acute retinal necrosis (ARN)...
  46. Gundlapalli A, Beekmann S, Graham D, Polgreen P. Perspectives and concerns regarding antimicrobial agent shortages among infectious disease specialists. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;75:256-9 pubmed publisher
    ..were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole injection (by 65% of respondents), amikacin (by 58%), aztreonam (by 31%), and foscarnet (by 22%)...
  47. Eizuru Y. [Mechanism of drug-resistance in human cytomegalovirus]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 2 Pt. 1:476-9 pubmed
  48. Chang S, Yu K, Lee Y, An G, Beck G, Colburn N, et al. Elevated inorganic phosphate stimulates Akt-ERK1/2-Mnk1 signaling in human lung cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;35:528-39 pubmed
    ..As a result, Pi stimulates cap-dependent protein translation. Such Akt-mediated signaling of inorganic phosphate may provide critical clues for treatment as well as prevention of diverse lung diseases. ..
  49. Escobar Villalba A, Sainz de la Maza S, Pérez Torre P, Galán J, Rodríguez Domínguez M, Monreal Laguillo E, et al. Acute myelitis by human herpes virus 7 in an HIV-infected patient. J Clin Virol. 2016;77:63-5 pubmed publisher
    ..patient, with sustained HHV-7 DNA amplification in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a favourable response to foscarnet. A 40 year-old man with HIV infection was admitted with asymmetric hypoesthesia in legs and paraparesis...
  50. Goldschmidt V, Marquet R. Primer unblocking by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and resistance to nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs). Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:1687-705 pubmed
  51. Auwerx J, Esnouf R, De Clercq E, Balzarini J. Susceptibility of feline immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase chimeras to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:244-51 pubmed
  52. Gupta S, Vemulakonda G, Suhler E, Yeh S, Albini T, Mandelcorn E, et al. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in the absence of AIDS. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013;48:126-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate systemic and ophthalmic features associated with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in immunocompetent patients...
  53. Andrei G, De Clercq E, Snoeck R. In vitro selection of drug-resistant varicella-zoster virus (VZV) mutants (OKA strain): differences between acyclovir and penciclovir?. Antiviral Res. 2004;61:181-7 pubmed
    ..e. foscarnet (PFA)...
  54. Bergdahl S, Jacobsson B, Moberg L, Sonnerborg A. Pronounced anti-HIV-1 activity of foscarnet in patients without cytomegalovirus infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18:51-3 pubmed
    ..b>Foscarnet is an RT inhibitor that is a product analogue, in contrast to the widely used nucleoside analogues...
  55. Salmon Ceron D, Fillet A, Aboulker J, Gerard L, Houhou N, Carriere I, et al. Effect of a 14-day course of foscarnet on cytomegalovirus (CMV) blood markers in a randomized study of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with persistent CMV viremia. Agence National de Recherche du SIDA 023 Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:901-5 pubmed
    ..the virological and clinical effects on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of a 14-day course of intravenous foscarnet (100 mg/[kg x 12 h]) or no treatment in 42 HIV-infected patients with < 100 CD4 cells/mm3 and persistent ..
  56. Otegui M, Rabella N, Labeaga R, Herrero M, Margall R, Munoz J, et al. [In vitro susceptibility to ganciclovir and foscarnet of cytomegaloviruses]. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2001;14:155-64 pubmed
    ..b>Foscarnet is used to treat immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant recipients and AIDS patients with ..
  57. Meghpara B, Sulkowski G, Kesen M, Tessler H, Goldstein D. Long-term follow-up of acute retinal necrosis. Retina. 2010;30:795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to report long-term visual outcome of acute retinal necrosis...
  58. Cañizares M, Losada I, Perez Elias M, Gonzalez J, Rubio R, Casado J, et al. [Cytomegalovirus sensitivity to anti-retroviral agents in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus with chorioretinitis in Spain]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2001;19:471-4 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of the in vitro resistance rate of cytomegalovirus (CMV) to gancyclovir (GCV) and foscarnet (FOS) among patients with AIDS and chorioretinitis...
  59. Aoki F. Management of genital herpes in HIV-infected patients. Herpes. 2001;8:41-5 pubmed
  60. Yudin M, Kaul R. Progressive hypertrophic genital herpes in an HIV-infected woman despite immune recovery on antiretroviral therapy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2008;2008:592532 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART...
  61. Tomonari A, Takahashi S, Takasugi K, Ooi J, Tsukada N, Konuma T, et al. Pancreatic hyperamylasemia and hyperlipasemia in association with cytomegalovirus infection following unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2006;84:438-40 pubmed
    ..results for CMV antigenemia on days +35 and +67 prompted 2 courses of preemptive therapy with ganciclovir or foscarnet. The CMV antigenemia value again became positive on day +134...
  62. Mousavi Jazi M, Schloss L, Wahren B, Brytting M. Point mutations induced by foscarnet (PFA) in the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase. J Clin Virol. 2003;26:301-6 pubmed
    ..In vitro selection of viruses with decreased drug susceptibility is a useful tool for mapping drug resistance-associated alterations, evaluating cross-resistance profiles, and elucidating molecular mechanisms of antiviral activity...
  63. Benz M, Glaser J, Davis J. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompetent patients treated initially for optic neuropathy with systemic corticosteroids. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:551-3 pubmed
    ..To report two cases of progressive outer retinal necrosis occurring in immunocompetent individuals after treatment with corticosteroids for presumed optic neuropathy...
  64. Borucki M, Spritzler J, Asmuth D, Gnann J, Hirsch M, Nokta M, et al. A phase II, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of a human monoclonal anti-Cytomegalovirus antibody (MSL-109) in combination with standard therapy versus standard therapy alone in the treatment of AIDS patients with Cytomegalovir. Antiviral Res. 2004;64:103-11 pubmed
  65. Hubacek P, Keslova P, Formankova R, Pochop P, Cinek O, Zajac M, et al. Cytomegalovirus encephalitis/retinitis in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient treated successfully with combination of cidofovir and foscarnet. Pediatr Transplant. 2009;13:919-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful CMV treatment with a combination of CDV and FCV...
  66. Yoshiko Y, Candeliere G, Maeda N, Aubin J. Osteoblast autonomous Pi regulation via Pit1 plays a role in bone mineralization. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4465-74 pubmed
    ..b>Foscarnet, an inhibitor of NaP(i) transport, blocked mineralization of osteoid formation in osteoblast cultures and local ..
  67. Guo Z, Chen H, Liu X, Bian J, He X, Lou J, et al. [Clinical analysis of cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2012;20:971-4 pubmed
    ..2%) were accompanied with CMV infection, CMV-DNA negative in patients treated with ganciclovir, foscarnet sodium anti-CMV was at day 45 (33 to 68) with the effective rate of 100%...
  68. Yamanouchi K, Eguchi S, Takatsuki M, Kamohara Y, Hidaka M, Miyazaki K, et al. Management of cytomegalovirus infection after living donor liver transplantation. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59:231-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Few studies on Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence, risk factors and management of CMV infection after LDLT...
  69. Lascaux A, Caumes E, Deback C, Melica G, Challine D, Agut H, et al. Successful treatment of aciclovir and foscarnet resistant Herpes simplex virus lesions with topical imiquimod in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Med Virol. 2012;84:194-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of foscarnet (FOS) in these patients may also lead to resistance. This situation can become a difficult therapeutic challenge...
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    ..of an AIDS patient, whose persistant HSV2 ulceration was clinically and phenotypically resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet. Only five clinical isolates of simultaneous acyclovir and foscarnet resistance have been previously described.
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    ..The isolate was resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet in vitro. The lesions responded to a course of cidofovir.
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    ..Significantly, in contrast to type II Na(+)-P(i) cotransporters, the transport inhibitor phosphonoformic acid did not inhibit PiT-1 or PiT-2 activity...
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    ..high-dose acyclovir (or similar agents) or low-dose or intermittent acyclovir; those treated with ganciclovir/foscarnet for <1 year; and those who had not previously been treated with acyclovir, ganciclovir, or foscarnet...
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    ..These findings were incorporated into an ordered kinetic model whereby Na+ is the first and last substrate to bind, and the observed voltage dependence arises from the unloaded carrier and first Na+ binding step...