phosphonoacetic acid


Summary: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.

Top Publications

  1. Klimek Ochab M, Lejczak B, Forlani G. A metal-independent hydrolase from a Penicillium oxalicum strain able to use phosphonoacetic acid as the only phosphorus source. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;222:205-9 pubmed
    A Penicillium oxalicum strain was capable of the phosphate-sensitive utilization of phosphonoacetic acid as the sole source of phosphorus...
  2. Gilbert J, Thomas S, Cooley N, Kulakova A, Field D, Booth T, et al. Potential for phosphonoacetate utilization by marine bacteria in temperate coastal waters. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:111-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that the capacity to utilize phosphonoacetate was evident in each of the three coastal environments suggests the potential for widespread utilization of this bioavailable P source...
  3. Redei I, Green F, Hoffman J, Weiner L, Scher R, O Dwyer P. Phase II trial of PALA and 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (MMPR) in combination with 5-fluorouracil in advanced pancreatic cancer. Invest New Drugs. 1994;12:319-21 pubmed
    ..Among 14 evaluable patients there were no partial responses, and two patients with stable disease. Pretreatment with PALA and MMPR is insufficient to enhance the activity of 5-FU in pancreatic cancer...
  4. Li L, Murphy K, Kanevets U, Reha Krantz L. Sensitivity to phosphonoacetic acid: a new phenotype to probe DNA polymerase delta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2005;170:569-80 pubmed
    ..of the DNA polymerase delta gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that confers sensitivity to the antiviral drug phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) was constructed...
  5. Panas P, Ternan N, Dooley J, McMullan G. Detection of phosphonoacetate degradation and phnA genes in soil bacteria from distinct geographical origins suggest its possible biogenic origin. Environ Microbiol. 2006;8:939-45 pubmed
    ..Such an observation supports the proposition that phosphonoacetate is a compound that may also have a biogenic origin...
  6. Agarwal M, Hastak K, Jackson M, Breit S, Stark G, Agarwal M. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 mediates a p53-dependent protective arrest in S phase in response to starvation for DNA precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16278-83 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of MIC-1-dependent S phase arrest in normal gut epithelial cells might help to revitalize the clinical use of PALA, which has been limited by gut toxicity...
  7. Forlani G, Klimek Ochab M, Jaworski J, Lejczak B, Picco A. Phosphonoacetic acid utilization by fungal isolates: occurrence and properties of a phosphonoacetate hydrolase in some penicillia. Mycol Res. 2006;110:1455-63 pubmed
    ..minioluteum) were capable of growth on phosphonoacetic acid as sole phosphorous source...
  8. Hastak K, Paul R, Agarwal M, Thakur V, Amin A, Agrawal S, et al. DNA synthesis from unbalanced nucleotide pools causes limited DNA damage that triggers ATR-CHK1-dependent p53 activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6314-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Suzuki M, Okuda T, Shiraki K. Synergistic antiviral activity of acyclovir and vidarabine against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus. Antiviral Res. 2006;72:157-61 pubmed
    ..The combined anti-HSV activity of acyclovir and vidarabine against phosphonoacetic acid-resistant HSV-1 with DNA polymerase mutation did not show synergism in contrast to that against wild-type ..

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Yamada K, Koizumi H, Ishikawa Y, Matsumura H. Effect of single-liquid acidic primers on bonding of a composite luting agent joined to a prefabricated alumina coping material. Nihon Hotetsu Shika Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;52:189-93 pubmed
    ..L. Primer, which contains 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA), is recommended for bonding the Procera alumina copings with the Variolink II composite. ..
  2. Santos O, Pant K, Blank E, Ceriani R. 5-Iododeoxyuridine increases the efficacy of the radioimmunotherapy of human tumors growing in nude mice. J Nucl Med. 1992;33:1530-4 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate the potential for increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy of human solid tumors with halogenated pyrimidines. ..
  3. Unger M, Wahl J, Ushmorov A, Buechele B, Simmet T, Debatin K, et al. Enriching suicide gene bearing tumor cells for an increased bystander effect. Cancer Gene Ther. 2007;14:30-8 pubmed
    ..This proof-of-principle study shows that enrichment-eradication may compensate the effects of low in vivo gene transfer efficacy, a major obstacle in cancer gene therapy. ..
  4. Solomon D, Wilkins R, Meredith D, Browning J. Characterisation of inorganic phosphate transport in bovine articular chondrocytes. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:99-108 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analysis confirmed that two members of the NaPi III family, Pit-1 and Pit-2, are expressed, but that NaPi II transporters are not. ..
  5. Beernink P, Endrizzi J, Alber T, Schachman H. Assessment of the allosteric mechanism of aspartate transcarbamoylase based on the crystalline structure of the unregulated catalytic subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5388-93 pubmed
    ..Large differences in structure between the active C trimer and the holoenzyme:bisubstrate-analog complex call into question the view that this complex represents the activated R state of ATCase...
  6. Mondello C, Guasconi V, Giulotto E, Nuzzo F. Gamma-ray and hydrogen peroxide induction of gene amplification in hamster cells deficient in DNA double strand break repair. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:483-93 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of gene amplification by H2O2, which is one of the products of the aerobic metabolism, supports the hypothesis that cellular metabolic products themselves can be a source of genome instability. ..
  7. Daikoku T, Kudoh A, Fujita M, Sugaya Y, Isomura H, Shirata N, et al. Architecture of replication compartments formed during Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication. J Virol. 2005;79:3409-18 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of viral DNA replication with phosphonoacetic acid, a viral DNA Pol inhibitor, eliminated the DNA-bound form of the BMRF1 protein, although the protein was ..
  8. Fetler L, Vachette P. The allosteric activator Mg-ATP modifies the quaternary structure of the R-state of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase without altering the T<-->R equilibrium. J Mol Biol. 2001;309:817-32 pubmed
    ..Based on the crystal structure of the enzyme in the R-state complexed with free ATP, a proposal is made to account for the effect of magnesium. ..
  9. Fetler L, Vachette P. Revisiting the allosteric mechanism of aspartate transcarbamoylase. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:87-9 pubmed
  10. Okuda T, Kurokawa M, Matsuo K, Honda M, Niimura M, Shiraki K. Suppression of generation and replication of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus by a sensitive virus. J Med Virol. 2004;72:112-20 pubmed
    ..viruses, when the susceptibilities of acyclovir-treated HSV population to 5'-iodo-2'deoxyuridine and phosphonoacetic acid were examined...
  11. O Loughlin S, Graham R, McMullan G, Ternan N. A role for carbon catabolite repression in the metabolism of phosphonoacetate by Agromyces fucosus Vs2. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;261:133-40 pubmed
    ..Excision of stained zymogram gel pieces, followed by tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis, allowed the identification of phosphonoacetate hydrolase-derived peptides. ..
  12. Wales M, Madison L, Glaser S, Wild J. Divergent allosteric patterns verify the regulatory paradigm for aspartate transcarbamylase. J Mol Biol. 1999;294:1387-400 pubmed
    ..coli, exhibited no response to ATP. The conserved structure and diverged functional characteristics of the E. herbicola enzyme provides an opportunity for a new evaluation of the common paradigm involving allosteric control of ATCase. ..
  13. Rappocciolo G, Birch J, Ellis S. Down-regulation of MHC class I expression by equine herpesvirus-1. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:293-300 pubmed
    ..Use of the viral DNA synthesis inhibitor phosphonoacetic acid, which prevents late viral gene expression, showed that the effect is mediated by an immediate-early or ..
  14. Nakata A, Kobayashi K, Kogen H. Improved preparation of methyl bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-bromophosphonoacetate for the stereoselective synthesis of (E)-?-bromoacrylates. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2013;61:108-10 pubmed
    ..This improved method enables the reagent to be prepared reproducibly in one step from methyl bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphonoacetate. ..
  15. Shears S, Weaver J, Wang H. Structural insight into inositol pyrophosphate turnover. Adv Biol Regul. 2013;53:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This work includes the analysis of crystal complexes with substrates, products, transition state analogs, and a novel phosphonoacetate substrate analog. ..
  16. Mullins N, Maguire N, Ford A, Das K, Arnold E, Balzarini J, et al. Exploring the role of the α-carboxyphosphonate moiety in the HIV-RT activity of α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonates. Org Biomol Chem. 2016;14:2454-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of the α-carboxy phosphonoacetic acid moiety for achieving reverse transcriptase inhibition, without the need for prior phosphorylation, was ..
  17. Czarnecki M, Traktman P. The vaccinia virus DNA polymerase and its processivity factor. Virus Res. 2017;234:193-206 pubmed publisher
    ..E9 has identified residues and motifs whose alteration can confer temperature-sensitivity, drug resistance (phosphonoacetic acid, aphidicolin, cytosine arabinsode, cidofovir) or altered fidelity...
  18. Jacobson M, Mills J. Serious cytomegalovirus disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108:585-94 pubmed
    ..An important direction for future clinical research is the development of more effective and less toxic therapy, as well as orally bioavailable drugs for maintenance therapy. ..
  19. Elfenbein J, Knodler L, Schaeffer A, Faber F, BAUMLER A, Andrews Polymenis H. A Salmonella Regulator Modulates Intestinal Colonization and Use of Phosphonoacetic Acid. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:69 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?STM3602 mutant grows poorly in phosphonoacetic acid (PA) as the sole phosphorus source, but can use 2-aminoethylphosphonate...
  20. Laval M, Azou Y, Giorgi D, Rosset R. Overproduction of the first three enzymes of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in Drosophila cells resistant to N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Exp Cell Res. 1986;163:381-95 pubmed
    ..The data from immunotitration and immunoblotting experiments indicate that the increased enzyme activities result from the overproduction of CAD. ..
  21. Ramachandran B, Houben K, Rozenberg Y, Haigh J, Varpetian A, Howard B. Differential expression of transporters for norepinephrine and glutamate in wild type, variant, and WNT1-expressing PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23891-7 pubmed
  22. Dellinger D, Sheehan D, Christensen N, Lindberg J, Caruthers M. Solid-phase chemical synthesis of phosphonoacetate and thiophosphonoacetate oligodeoxynucleotides. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:940-50 pubmed
    ..These synthons when activated with tetrazole were used with an automated DNA synthesizer to prepare phosphonoacetic acid modified internucleotide linkages on controlled pore glass...
  23. Hollander M, Philburn R, Patterson A, Wyatt M, Fornace A. Genomic instability in Gadd45a-/- cells is coupled with S-phase checkpoint defects. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:704-9 pubmed
    ..This is of particular importance for solid tumors, which may lack sufficient nutrients yet are unable to elicit checkpoints preventing genomic instability under these conditions. ..
  24. Sandy E, Blake R, Chang S, Jun Y, Yu C. Oxygen isotope signature of UV degradation of glyphosate and phosphonoacetate: tracing sources and cycling of phosphonates. J Hazard Mater. 2013;260:947-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The two model phosphonates used, glyphosate and phosphonoacetic acid were effectively degraded after exposure to UV irradiation...
  25. Colofiore J, Stolfi R, Nord L, Martin D. Biochemical modulation of tumor cell energy. IV. Evidence for the contribution of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion to chemotherapeutically-induced tumor regression. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995;50:1943-8 pubmed
    ..The correlative biochemical and therapeutic results are consistent with, and support, the hypothesis that ATP depletion is a significant factor and, therefore, is a worthy therapeutic target in the production of apoptosis. ..
  26. Panas P, McMullan G, Dooley J. RT-TGGE as a guide for the successful isolation of phosphonoacetate degrading bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:237-44 pubmed
    ..RT-TGGE analysis can be used to guide the successful isolation of micro-organisms difficult to obtain by culture-dependent methods alone. ..
  27. Noordhuis P, Kazemier K, Kasperrs G, Peters G. Modulation of metabolism and cytotoxicity of cytosine arabinoside with N-(phosphon)-acetyl-L-aspartate in human leukemic blast cells and cell lines. Leuk Res. 1996;20:127-34 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possibility for selective modulation of other agents by PALA on non-hematological cells. ..
  28. Beernink P, Yang Y, Graf R, King D, Shah S, Schachman H. Random circular permutation leading to chain disruption within and near alpha helices in the catalytic chains of aspartate transcarbamoylase: effects on assembly, stability, and function. Protein Sci. 2001;10:528-37 pubmed
    ..For seven of the variants, continuity within the helices in the catalytic chains is important for enzyme activity but not necessary for proper folding, assembly, and stability of the holoenzyme. ..
  29. Ikemura K, Ichizawa K, Yoshida M, Ito S, Endo T. UV-VIS spectra and photoinitiation behaviors of acylphosphine oxide and bisacylphosphine oxide derivatives in unfilled, light-cured dental resins. Dent Mater J. 2008;27:765-74 pubmed
    ..2(6.5)-51.2(4.3)] and CQ/EDAB [42.4(4.4)-47.5(3.7)] (p < 0.05). It was concluded that APO and BAPO photoinitiators exhibited reactivity comparable to that of CQ/tertiary amine system. ..
  30. Alandijany T, Roberts A, Conn K, Loney C, McFarlane S, Orr A, et al. Distinct temporal roles for the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein in the sequential regulation of intracellular host immunity to HSV-1 infection. PLoS Pathog. 2018;14:e1006769 pubmed publisher
    ..occurred in a PML-, IFI16-, and Janus-Associated Kinase (JAK)-dependent manner and was restricted by phosphonoacetic acid, demonstrating that vDNA polymerase activity is required for the robust induction of ISG expression during ..
  31. Van Boxstael S, Cunin R, Khan S, Maes D. Aspartate transcarbamylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi: thermostability and 1.8A resolution crystal structure of the catalytic subunit complexed with the bisubstrate analogue N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:203-16 pubmed
    ..Other known thermostabilizing devices such as increased packing density or reduction of cavity volumes do not appear to contribute to the high thermostability of the P.abyssi enzyme...
  32. Roy A, Dutta D, Iqbal J, Pisano G, Gjyshi O, Ansari M, et al. Nuclear Innate Immune DNA Sensor IFI16 Is Degraded during Lytic Reactivation of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV): Role of IFI16 in Maintenance of KSHV Latency. J Virol. 2016;90:8822-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The degradation of IFI16 was absent in phosphonoacetic acid-treated cells, which blocks KSHV DNA replication and, consequently, late lytic gene expression...
  33. Ljungman P, Ellis M, Hackman R, Shepp D, Meyers J. Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus causing pneumonia after marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis. 1990;162:244-8 pubmed
    ..They also highlight the need to test HSV strains for antiviral sensitivity and to consider alternative therapies to acyclovir in appropriate clinical situations. ..
  34. Witte R, Ryan L, Schutt A, Carbone P, Engstrom P. PALA versus streptozotocin, doxorubicin, and MeCCNU in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Invest New Drugs. 1998;16:315-8 pubmed
    ..One patient receiving SAM had lethal leukopenic sepsis during the first cycle as the only treatment-related death. Neither PALA nor SAM offer any therapeutic utility to patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. ..
  35. Zanotti J, Herve G, Bellissent Funel M. Picosecond dynamics of T and R forms of aspartate transcarbamylase: a neutron scattering study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1527-35 pubmed
    ..This caveat holds particularly when comparing dynamics of a mesophile with the corresponding extremophile. ..
  36. Penninckx M, Gigot D. Synthesis of a peptide form of N-delta-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-ornithine. Its antibacterial effect through the specific inhibition of Escherichia coli L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:6392-6 pubmed
    ..The P4XB2 strain, which is an arg R regulatory mutant, has a reduced lag effect in the presence of the tripeptide and appears to react to the intoxication by a further adjustment of the L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase cellular level. ..
  37. Zhou B, Waldrop G, Lum L, Schachman H. A 70-amino acid zinc-binding polypeptide fragment from the regulatory chain of aspartate transcarbamoylase causes marked changes in the kinetic mechanism of the catalytic trimer. Protein Sci. 1994;3:967-74 pubmed
    ..The rate of dissociation of carbamoyl phosphate from the Zn domain-C trimer complex was about 10(-2) that from C trimer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  38. O Dwyer P, Hudes G, Colofiore J, Walczak J, Hoffman J, LaCreta F, et al. Phase I trial of fluorouracil modulation by N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate and 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside: optimization of 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside dose and schedule through biochemical analysis of sequential tumor biopsy specimens. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83:1235-40 pubmed
    ..Tumor levels of PRPP decreased between 12 hours and 24 hours in nine (56%) of 16 patients. This time course indicates that MMPR should be administered at the beginning of the 24-hour infusion of 5-FU. ..
  39. Piao C, Hei T. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions. Radiat Res. 2001;155:263-267 pubmed
    ..No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions. ..
  40. Mathew R, Kongara S, Beaudoin B, Karp C, Bray K, Degenhardt K, et al. Autophagy suppresses tumor progression by limiting chromosomal instability. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1367-81 pubmed
    ..Identification of this novel role of autophagy may be important for rational chemotherapy and therapeutic exploitation of autophagy inducers as potential chemopreventive agents. ..
  41. Komine F, Kobayashi K, Saito A, Fushiki R, Koizumi H, Matsumura H. Shear bond strength between an indirect composite veneering material and zirconia ceramics after thermocycling. J Oral Sci. 2009;51:629-34 pubmed
  42. Charles S, Gray J. Ocular herpes simplex virus infections: reduced sensitivity to acyclovir in primary disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990;74:286-8 pubmed
    ..Reduced sensitivity to acyclovir was seen in four isolates, all of which were from primary infections acquired in the community and without a previous history of treatment with antiviral drugs...
  43. Wedekind J, Poyner R, Reed G, Rayment I. Chelation of serine 39 to Mg2+ latches a gate at the active site of enolase: structure of the bis(Mg2+) complex of yeast enolase and the intermediate analog phosphonoacetohydroxamate at 2.1-A resolution. Biochemistry. 1994;33:9333-42 pubmed
    ..The position of the second Mg2+ in the active site provides new insight into the stereochemistry of substrate binding...
  44. Hata H, Niimura M, Yano A. Effects of nucleic acid inhibitors on the development of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in vitro. J Vet Med Sci. 1998;60:1153-5 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that A. costaricensis possessed functional purine and pyrimidine de novo biosynthetic pathways and also that they could utilize exogenous sources of purines and pyrimidines by salvage pathways for their development...
  45. Blanchard C, Amspacher D, Strongin R, Waldrop G. Inhibition of biotin carboxylase by a reaction intermediate analog: implications for the kinetic mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;266:466-71 pubmed
    ..1, 99-102, 1999). The inhibitor is formed by coupling phosphonoacetic acid to the 1'-N of biotin...
  46. Andronova V, Grokhovsky S, Surovaya A, Gursky G, Galegov G. The antiviral activity of the combinations of netropsin derivatives with modified nucleosides and phosphonoacetic acid as estimated in the model of herpesvirus type 1 in a vero cell culture. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2005;400:84-7 pubmed
  47. Solomon D, Browning J, Wilkins R. Inorganic phosphate transport in matrix vesicles from bovine articular cartilage. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2007;190:119-25 pubmed
    ..MV are also present in articular cartilage, and hydroxyapatite crystals are believed to promote cartilage degradation in osteoarthritic joints. This study characterizes P(i) transport in MV derived from articular cartilage...
  48. Yamada C, Dellinger D, Caruthers M. Synthesis and biological activity of phosphonocarboxylate DNA. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2007;26:539-46 pubmed
    ..These oligonucleotides also are active in stimulating RNase H and are stable toward nucleases...
  49. Cooley N, Kulakova A, Villarreal Chiu J, Gilbert J, McGrath J, Quinn J. Phosphonoacetate biosynthesis: in vitro detection of a novel NADP(+)-dependent phosphonoacetaldehyde-oxidizing activity in cell-extracts of the marine Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM. Mikrobiologiia. 2011;80:329-34 pubmed
    ..The three enzymes appear to constitute a previously-unreported pathway for the mineralization of 2-AEP which is a potentially important source of phosphorus in the nutrient-stressed marine environment...
  50. Otto E, McCord S, Tlsty T. Increased incidence of CAD gene amplification in tumorigenic rat lines as an indicator of genomic instability of neoplastic cells. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:3390-6 pubmed
    ..The method developed in this study provides a quantitative, rapid indicator of tumorigenicity and should prove useful in trying to elucidate the underlying basis of genomic instability in neoplastic cells...
  51. Tauc P, Keiser R, Kantrowitz E, Vachette P. Glu-50 in the catalytic chain of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase plays a crucial role in the stability of the R quaternary structure. Protein Sci. 1994;3:1998-2004 pubmed
  52. Hostetler K, Kini G, Beadle J, Aldern K, Gardner M, Border R, et al. Lipid prodrugs of phosphonoacids: greatly enhanced antiviral activity of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphonoformate in HIV-1, HSV-1 and HCMV-infected cells, in vitro. Antiviral Res. 1996;31:59-67 pubmed
    ..In view of its greatly increased in vitro potency and selectivity, 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphonoformate may be useful in treating viral diseases...
  53. Kim J, Heath T. In vitro cytotoxic effect of N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartic acid in liposome against C-26 murine colon carcinoma. Arch Pharm Res. 2000;23:167-71 pubmed
    ..Physical characteristics of PALA-liposomes, such as the size and drug:lipid ratio were also determined. In conclusion, negatively-charged DSPG-PALA liposome showed the highest cytotoxic effect among tested on the C-26 cells in vitro...
  54. Chan R, Sakash J, Macol C, West J, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz E. The role of intersubunit interactions for the stabilization of the T state of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49755-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that three of the six intersubunit interactions involving D236A are sufficient to stabilize a T-like state of the enzyme and allow for an allosteric transition...
  55. Ebrahimi B, Dutia B, Roberts K, Garcia Ramirez J, Dickinson P, Stewart J, et al. Transcriptome profile of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 lytic infection. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:99-109 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we detected all eight tRNA-like transcripts in the presence of cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. Lytic infection with MHV-68 also resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of cellular ..
  56. Tsao E, Kellam P, Sin C, Rasaiyaah J, Griffiths P, Clark D. Microarray-based determination of the lytic cascade of human herpesvirus 6B. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..together with kinetic classification of the HHV-6B genes in the presence of either cycloheximide or phosphonoacetic acid, allowed the placement of HHV-6B genes into defined kinetic classes...
  57. Ikemura K, Fujii T, Negoro N, Endo T, Kadoma Y. Design of a metal primer containing a dithiooctanoate monomer and a phosphonic acid monomer for bonding of prosthetic light-curing resin composite to gold, dental precious and non-precious metal alloys. Dent Mater J. 2011;30:300-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a combined primer application consisting of a dithiooctanoate monomer and a phosphonic acid monomer provided efficacious bonding to Au as well as precious and non-precious metal alloys...
  58. Mahmoudian A, Markham P, Noormohammadi A, Browning G. Kinetics of transcription of infectious laryngotracheitis virus genes. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;35:103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study examining global expression of ILTV genes and the data provide a basis for future investigations of the pathogenesis of infection with ILTV...
  59. Muller F, Colla S, Aquilanti E, Manzo V, Genovese G, Lee J, et al. Passenger deletions generate therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer. Nature. 2012;488:337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger-deleted genes encoding functionally redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers containing such genomic events...
  60. Endrizzi J, Beernink P, Alber T, Schachman H. Binding of bisubstrate analog promotes large structural changes in the unregulated catalytic trimer of aspartate transcarbamoylase: implications for allosteric regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5077-82 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the conformational changes attributable to the allosteric transition of the holoenzyme remain to be defined...
  61. Mondello C, Faravelli M, Pipitone L, Rollier A, Di Leonardo A, Giulotto E. Gene amplification in fibroblasts from ataxia telangiectasia (AT) patients and in X-ray hypersensitive AT-like Chinese hamster mutants. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:141-5 pubmed
  62. El Hizawi S, Lagowski J, Kulesz Martin M, Albor A. Induction of gene amplification as a gain-of-function phenotype of mutant p53 proteins. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3264-70 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are needed to assess the potential of targeting mutant p53 interaction with topoisomerase I for the reduction of drug resistance development during chemotherapy...
  63. Raibekas A, Bures E, Siska C, Kohno T, Latypov R, Kerwin B. Anion binding and controlled aggregation of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Biochemistry. 2005;44:9871-9 pubmed
  64. Chen Y, Morera S, Pasti C, Angusti A, Solaroli N, Veron M, et al. Adenosine phosphonoacetic acid is slowly metabolized by NDP kinase. Med Chem. 2005;1:529-36 pubmed
    ..Adenosine phosphonoacetic acid, a close analog of ADP already proposed as an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, was found to be a poor ..
  65. Ikemura K, Endo T, Kadoma Y. A review of the developments of multi-purpose primers and adhesives comprising novel dithiooctanoate monomers and phosphonic acid monomers. Dent Mater J. 2012;31:1-25 pubmed
  66. Schröder Tittmann K, Meyer D, Arens J, Wechsler C, Tietzel M, Golbik R, et al. Alternating sites reactivity is a common feature of thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes as evidenced by isothermal titration calorimetry studies of substrate binding. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2505-7 pubmed publisher
  67. Li Y, Owusu A, Lehnert S. Treatment of intracranial rat glioma model with implant of radiosensitizer and biomodulator drug combined with external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;58:519-27 pubmed
    ..To evaluate an intracranial polymer implant containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) and N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartic acid (PALA) in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of a rat glioma...
  68. Ikemura K, Ichizawa K, Endo T. Design of a new self-etching HEMA-free adhesive. Dent Mater J. 2009;28:558-64 pubmed
    ..05). Based on SEM observation, non-aged and 6-week-aged adhesive SA-1 appeared to be strongly adhered to both enamel and dentin. It was found that the stability of the self-etching adhesive was influenced by its pH value...
  69. Ikemura K, Kojima K, Endo T, Kadoma Y. Effect of the combination of dithiooctanoate monomers and acidic adhesive monomers on adhesion to precious metals, precious metal alloys and non-precious metal alloys. Dent Mater J. 2011;30:469-77 pubmed
    ..0 wt% 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl phosphonoacetate (6-MHPA). Therefore, 5.0 wt% 10-MDDT and 1.0 wt% 6-MHPA was determined as the optimal combination for bonding to precious metals, precious and non-precious metal alloys...
  70. Agarwal V, Borisova S, Metcalf W, van der Donk W, Nair S. Structural and mechanistic insights into C-P bond hydrolysis by phosphonoacetate hydrolase. Chem Biol. 2011;18:1230-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily...
  71. Baker D, Stebbins J, DeSena E, Kantrowitz E. Glutamic acid 86 is important for positioning the 80's loop and arginine 54 at the active site of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase and for the structural stabilization of the C1-C2 interface. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24608-14 pubmed
  72. Nord L, Stolfi R, Alfieri A, Netto G, Reuter V, Sternberg S, et al. Apoptosis induced in advanced CD8F1-murine mammary tumors by the combination of PALA, MMPR and 6AN precedes tumor regression and is preceded by ATP depletion. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1997;40:376-84 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that the depletion of ATP by PMA treatment may be a component of the biochemical apoptotic cascade in the CD8F1 tumor...
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    ..The enhanced response to the combination of PALA, MMPR and 6AN vs 6AN alone, both with regard to cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, may be due to energy depletion...
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