soman

Summary

Summary: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.

Top Publications

  1. Dillman J, Phillips C, Kniffin D, Tompkins C, Hamilton T, Kan R. Gene expression profiling of rat hippocampus following exposure to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor soman. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:633-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a potent neurotoxicant. Acute exposure to soman causes acetylcholinesterase inhibition, resulting in excessive levels of acetylcholine...
  2. de Araujo Furtado M, Lumley L, Robison C, Tong L, Lichtenstein S, Yourick D. Spontaneous recurrent seizures after status epilepticus induced by soman in Sprague-Dawley rats. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The cholinesterase inhibitor soman belongs to the class of OP nerve agents and can cause status epilepticus (SE) and brain damage due to ..
  3. Kassa J, Cabal J. A comparison of the efficacy of a new asymmetric bispyridinium oxime BI-6 with currently available oximes and H oximes against soman by in vitro and in vivo methods. Toxicology. 1999;132:111-8 pubmed
    ..2-butene dibromide), against the organophosphate soman was compared with oximes at present used (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime) and H oximes (HI-6, HLö-7) using in ..
  4. Dorandeu F, Baille V, Mikler J, Testylier G, Lallement G, Sawyer T, et al. Protective effects of S+ ketamine and atropine against lethality and brain damage during soman-induced status epilepticus in guinea-pigs. Toxicology. 2007;234:185-93 pubmed
    b>Soman poisoning is known to induce full-blown tonic-clonic seizures, status epilepticus (SE), seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) and lethality...
  5. Svensson I, Waara L, Johansson L, Bucht A, Cassel G. Soman-induced interleukin-1 beta mRNA and protein in rat brain. Neurotoxicology. 2001;22:355-62 pubmed
    Exposure to high doses of the toxic organophosphate compound soman, also known as a chemical warfare agent, causes a progression of toxic symptoms including hyper-secretions, convulsions, respiratory depression, and finally death...
  6. Wang Y, Wei Y, Oguntayo S, Doctor B, Nambiar M. A combination of [+] and [-]-Huperzine A improves protection against soman toxicity compared to [+]-Huperzine A in guinea pigs. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;203:120-4 pubmed publisher
    ..NMDA)-induced seizure in rats, reduce excitatory amino acid induced neurotoxicity and also prevent soman induced toxicity with minimum performance decrement...
  7. Choi E, Park D, Yon J, Hur G, Ha Y, Che J, et al. Protection by sustained release of physostigmine and procyclidine of soman poisoning in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;505:83-91 pubmed
    ..convulsions, and loss of morphological and functional integrities of the brain induced by an organophosphate soman was investigated in rats...
  8. Williams A, Berti R, Yao C, Price R, Velarde L, Koplovitz I, et al. Central neuro-inflammatory gene response following soman exposure in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2003;349:147-50 pubmed
    Effective treatments to improve survivability following exposure to the nerve agent soman have been established and are currently available...
  9. Apland J, Aroniadou Anderjaska V, Braga M. Soman induces ictogenesis in the amygdala and interictal activity in the hippocampus that are blocked by a GluR5 kainate receptor antagonist in vitro. Neuroscience. 2009;159:380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that application of 1 muM soman for 30 min, in rat coronal brain slices containing both the hippocampus and the amygdala, produces prolonged ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Reiner E, Simeon Rudolf V. Pyridinium, imidazolium and quinuclidinium compounds: toxicity and antidotal effects against the nerve agents Tabun and Soman. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2006;57:171-9 pubmed
    ..compounds combined with atropine are effective antidotes against the organophosphate nerve agents Tabun and/or Soman, having a therapeutic factor equal or greater than 2.0 when tested in mice or rats...
  2. Cho Y, Kim W, Hur G, Ha Y. Minimum effective drug concentrations of a transdermal patch system containing procyclidine and physostigmine for prophylaxis against soman poisoning in rhesus monkeys. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;33:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and physostigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, was developed, and its prophylactic efficacy against soman intoxication was investigated...
  3. Joosen M, Smit A, van Helden H. Treatment efficacy in a soman-poisoned guinea pig model: added value of physostigmine?. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..on the development of clinical signs, EEG, heart rate, respiration and AChE activity in blood and brain after soman poisoning...
  4. Kassa J, Karasova J, Tesarova S, Kuca K, Musilek K. A comparison of the ability of newly-developed bispyridinium oxime K203 and currently available oximes (trimedoxime, obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract the acute neurotoxicity of soman in rats. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010;20:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..and currently available oximes (trimedoxime, obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with soman were studied...
  5. Filliat P, Baubichon D, Burckhart M, Pernot Marino I, Foquin A, Masqueliez C, et al. Memory impairment after soman intoxication in rat: correlation with central neuropathology. Improvement with anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic therapeutics. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:535-49 pubmed
    The effects of soman, a potent irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, on central neuropathology in rats were studied in relation with subsequent spatial memory impairments...
  6. Dabisch P, Horsmon M, Taylor J, Muse W, Miller D, Sommerville D, et al. Gender difference in the miotic potency of soman vapor in rats. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2008;27:123-33 pubmed publisher
    The present study was undertaken to investigate the miotic potency of soman vapor in the rat, as well as gender differences in the miotic response to soman vapor that have been reported previously for other nerve agents...
  7. Genovese R, Benton B, Johnson C, Jakubowski E. Assessment of low level whole-body soman vapor exposure in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2009;31:110-8 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated biochemical and behavioral effects of single, low-level exposures to the chemical warfare nerve agent soman (GD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a variable-interval, 56-sec schedule of food reinforcement (VI56)...
  8. Baille V, Dorandeu F, Carpentier P, Bizot J, Filliat P, Four E, et al. Acute exposure to a low or mild dose of soman: biochemical, behavioral and histopathological effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001;69:561-9 pubmed
    Effects of low to mild doses of soman on central and blood cholinesterase (ChE) activities and anxiety behavior were studied in mice 30 min, 24 h and 7 days after poisoning...
  9. de Groot D, Bierman E, Bruijnzeel P, Carpentier P, Kulig B, Lallement G, et al. Beneficial effects of TCP on soman intoxication in guinea pigs: seizures, brain damage and learning behaviour. J Appl Toxicol. 2001;21 Suppl 1:S57-65 pubmed
    Poisoning with the potent nerve agent soman produces a cascade of central nervous system (CNS) effects characterized by severe convulsions and eventually death...
  10. Valiyaveettil M, Alamneh Y, Rezk P, Perkins M, Sciuto A, Doctor B, et al. Recombinant paraoxonase 1 protects against sarin and soman toxicity following microinstillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs. Toxicol Lett. 2011;202:203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..bioscavenger, we evaluated human recombinant PON1 (rePON1) expressed in Trichoplusia ni larvae against sarin and soman toxicity using microinstillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs...
  11. Johnson E, Dao T, Guignet M, Geddes C, Koemeter Cox A, Kan R. Increased expression of the chemokines CXCL1 and MIP-1? by resident brain cells precedes neutrophil infiltration in the brain following prolonged soman-induced status epilepticus in rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:41 pubmed publisher
    Exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) causes neuronal cell death and impaired behavioral function dependent on the induction of status epilepticus (SE)...
  12. Figueiredo T, Aroniadou Anderjaska V, Qashu F, Apland J, Pidoplichko V, Stevens D, et al. Neuroprotective efficacy of caramiphen against soman and mechanisms of its action. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:1495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the efficacy of caramiphen against behavioural seizures and neuropathology induced by the nerve agent soman, and revealed two mechanisms that may underlie the anticonvulsant efficacy of caramiphen...
  13. Myhrer T, Andersen J, Nguyen N, Aas P. Soman-induced convulsions in rats terminated with pharmacological agents after 45 min: neuropathology and cognitive performance. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:39-48 pubmed
    ..consisting of procyclidine (6 mg/kg), diazepam (10 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (30 mg/kg) can effectively terminate soman-induced (1 x LD50) seizures/convulsions in rats when administered 30-40 min following onset...
  14. Svensson I, Waara L, Cassel G. Effects of HI 6, diazepam and atropine on soman-induced IL-1 beta protein in rat brain. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:173-81 pubmed
    The current treatment for soman-intoxication is the oxime HI 6 together with the anticholinergic drug atropine...
  15. Joosen M, Jousma E, van den Boom T, Kuijpers W, Smit A, Lucassen P, et al. Long-term cognitive deficits accompanied by reduced neurogenesis after soman poisoning. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, long-term effects of soman poisoning on learning ability, memory and neurogenesis were investigated in rats, treated with the anticholinergic ..
  16. Myers T, Langston J. Diet composition exacerbates or attenuates soman toxicity in rats: implied metabolic control of nerve agent toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0 LD(50), sc) soman. The four diets used were a standard rodent diet, a choline-enriched diet, a glucose-enriched diet, and a ..
  17. Collombet J, Mourcin F, Grenier N, Four E, Masqueliez C, Baubichon D, et al. Effect of soman poisoning on populations of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells in mice. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:89-98 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, for brain lesions resulting from organophosphate poisoning, nerve agents such as soman (pinacolyl methylphosphono-fluoridate) could affect blood and bone marrow (BM) micro-environments, thus preventing ..
  18. Lallement G, Baubichon D, Clarencon D, Galonnier M, Peoc h M, Carpentier P. Review of the value of gacyclidine (GK-11) as adjuvant medication to conventional treatments of organophosphate poisoning: primate experiments mimicking various scenarios of military or terrorist attack by soman. Neurotoxicology. 1999;20:675-84 pubmed
    ..data obtained from experiments on primates in several scenarios mimicking military or terrorist attacks, using soman as the nerve agent, were used...
  19. Shih T, McDonough J. Efficacy of biperiden and atropine as anticonvulsant treatment for organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication. Arch Toxicol. 2000;74:165-72 pubmed
    The ability of the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, GF, VR, and VX to produce brain seizures and the effectiveness of the anticholinergics biperiden HCl or atropine SO4 as an anticonvulsant treatment were studied in a guinea-pig model...
  20. Schultz M, Wright L, Stone M, Schwartz J, Kelley N, Moffett M, et al. The anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic drug caramiphen reduces seizure duration in soman-exposed rats: synergism with the benzodiazepine diazepam. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;259:376-86 pubmed publisher
    Therapy of seizure activity following exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) includes treatment with the anticonvulsant diazepam (DZP), an allosteric modulator of ?-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors...
  21. Kassa J, Fusek J. Effect of Panpal pretreatment and antidotal treatment (HI-6 plus benactyzine) on respiratory and circulatory function in soman-poisoned rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1997;16:563-9 pubmed
    ..benactyzine and trihexyphenidyle), designated Panpal, and antidotal treatment (the oxime HI-6 plus benactyzine) in soman poisoning was investigated in a rat model with on-line monitoring of respiratory and circulatory parameters...
  22. Sirin G, Zhou Y, Lior Hoffmann L, Wang S, Zhang Y. Aging mechanism of soman inhibited acetylcholinesterase. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:12199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..The catalytic serine of AChE can be phosphonylated by soman, one of the most potent nerve agents, and subsequently undergo an aging reaction...
  23. Berend S, Vrdoljak A, Radic B, Kuca K. New bispyridinium oximes: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of their biological efficiency in soman and tabun poisoning. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;175:413-6 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions of four bispyridinium oximes with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their effects on soman- and tabun-poisoned mice. Oximes HI-6 and TMB-4 were used for comparison...
  24. Kassa J, Jun D, Kuca K, Bajgar J. Comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two salts of the oxime HI-6 against tabun, soman and cyclosarin in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;101:328-32 pubmed
    ..efficacy of two salts of the oxime HI-6 (dichloride and dimethanesulphonate) against chosen nerve agents (tabun, soman and cyclosarin) was compared in rats...
  25. Fleming C, Edwards C, Kirby S, Maxwell D, Potter P, Cerasoli D, et al. Crystal structures of human carboxylesterase 1 in covalent complexes with the chemical warfare agents soman and tabun. Biochemistry. 2007;46:5063-71 pubmed
    The organophosphorus nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX exert their toxic effects by inhibiting the action of human acetylcholinesterase, a member of the serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes...
  26. Gordon R, Haigh J, Garcia G, Feaster S, Riel M, Lenz D, et al. Oral administration of pyridostigmine bromide and huperzine A protects human whole blood cholinesterases from ex vivo exposure to soman. Chem Biol Interact. 2005;157-158:239-46 pubmed
    ..Following soman (GD) exposure, recovered AChE activity was similar to levels that were reversibly protected by the PB ..
  27. Wang Y, Zhou W, Li J, Liu Y, Yue Y, Zheng J, et al. Anticonvulsant effects of phencynonate hydrochloride and other anticholinergic drugs in soman poisoning: neurochemical mechanisms. Life Sci. 2005;78:210-23 pubmed
    ..anticonvulsant effect of anticholinergic drugs that act on both muscarinic (M) and nicotinic (N) receptors during soman-induced seizures...
  28. Capacio B, Byers C, Merk K, Smith J, McDonough J. Pharmacokinetic studies of intramuscular midazolam in guinea pigs challenged with soman. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2004;27:95-110 pubmed
    ..are effective at antagonizing seizure activity produced by the organophosphate (OP) cholinesterase inhibitor soman. In this present study we have investigated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its associated effects on ..
  29. Fauvelle F, Dorandeu F, Carpentier P, Foquin A, Rabeson H, Graveron Demilly D, et al. Changes in mouse brain metabolism following a convulsive dose of soman: a proton HRMAS NMR study. Toxicology. 2010;267:99-111 pubmed publisher
    b>Soman, an irreversible organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor, induces status epilepticus and, in sensitive brain areas, seizure-related brain damage (e.g. brain edema and neuronal loss)...
  30. Adams T, Capacio B, Smith J, Whalley C, Korte W. The application of the fluoride reactivation process to the detection of sarin and soman nerve agent exposures in biological samples. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2004;27:77-91 pubmed
    The fluoride reactivation process was evaluated for measuring the level of sarin or soman nerve agents reactivated from substrates in plasma and tissue from in vivo exposed guinea pigs (Cava porcellus), in blood from in vivo exposed ..
  31. Hill C, Li W, Cheng T, DeFrank J, Raushel F. Stereochemical specificity of organophosphorus acid anhydrolase toward p-nitrophenyl analogs of soman and sarin. Bioorg Chem. 2001;29:27-35 pubmed
    ..OPAA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl analogs of the organophosphonate nerve agents, sarin and soman. The enzyme is stereoselective toward the chiral phosphorus center by displaying a preference for the R(P)-..
  32. Chen K, Seng K. Calibration and validation of a physiologically based model for soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:673-86 pubmed publisher
    ..based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed for low, medium and high levels of soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig...
  33. Myhrer T, Enger S, Aas P. Efficacy of immediate and subsequent therapies against soman-induced seizures and lethality in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;98:184-91 pubmed
    ..after exposure to a soman dose of 4 x LD(50) completely terminated seizures with a moderate mortality rate (25%)...
  34. Grigoryan H, Schopfer L, Thompson C, Terry A, Masson P, Lockridge O. Mass spectrometry identifies covalent binding of soman, sarin, chlorpyrifos oxon, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and FP-biotin to tyrosines on tubulin: a potential mechanism of long term toxicity by organophosphorus agents. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;175:180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that OP bind to tubulin by treating purified bovine tubulin with sarin, soman, chlorpyrifos oxon, diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 10-fluoroethoxyphosphinyl-N-biotinamidopentyldecanamide (FP-..
  35. Cassel G, Karlsson L, Waara L, Ang K, Göransson Nyberg A. Pharmacokinetics and effects of HI 6 in blood and brain of soman-intoxicated rats: a microdialysis study. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;332:43-52 pubmed
    ..The protective action of HI 6 in soman poisoning has been attributed mainly to its peripheral reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase...
  36. McDonough J, McMonagle J, Shih T. Time-dependent reduction in the anticonvulsant effectiveness of diazepam against soman-induced seizures in guinea pigs. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2010;33:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Seizures elicited by the nerve agent, soman, were produced in guinea pigs instrumented to record brain electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity...
  37. Ramarao G, Waghmare C, Srivastava N, Bhattacharya B. Regional alterations of JNK3 and CaMKII? subunit expression in the rat brain after soman poisoning. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:448-59 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their role in nerve agent poisoning is poorly understood. In the present study, rats were exposed to soman (80 µg/kg) subcutaneously to study the changes in the protein levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein ..
  38. Baille V, Clarke P, Brochier G, Dorandeu F, Verna J, Four E, et al. Soman-induced convulsions: the neuropathology revisited. Toxicology. 2005;215:1-24 pubmed
    The organophosphorus compound soman, an irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterases, produces seizure activity and related brain damage...
  39. Christin D, Daulon S, Delamanche S, Perrier N, Breton P, Taysse L. Effects of repeated low-dose soman exposure on monoamine levels in different brain structures in mice. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:919-26 pubmed
    ..monoamines (serotonin and dopamine) in different brain areas after repeated exposure of mice to sublethal dose of soman. Animals were injected once a day for 3 days with 0.12 LD50 of soman (47 microg/kg, i.p.)...
  40. Kassa J. Therapeutic and neuroprotective efficacy of pharmacological pretreatment and antidotal treatment of acute tabun or soman poisoning with the emphasis on pretreatment drug PANPAL. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2006;57:427-34 pubmed
    ..To increase the effectiveness of pharmacological pretreatment of soman or tabun poisoning, a prophylactic mixture called PANPAL and consisting of pyridostigmine and two anticholinergic ..
  41. Rossetti F, de Araujo Furtado M, Pak T, Bailey K, Shields M, Chanda S, et al. Combined diazepam and HDAC inhibitor treatment protects against seizures and neuronal damage caused by soman exposure. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work demonstrated the convulsive and widespread neuropathological effects of soman, an organophosphorus compound that causes SE and severe recurrent seizures as a result of exposure...
  42. McDonough J, Zoeffel L, McMonagle J, Copeland T, Smith C, Shih T. Anticonvulsant treatment of nerve agent seizures: anticholinergics versus diazepam in soman-intoxicated guinea pigs. Epilepsy Res. 2000;38:1-14 pubmed
    ..were tested in parallel with diazepam for the ability to terminate seizure activity induced by the nerve agent soman. Guinea pigs, implanted with electrodes to record cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, were pretreated ..
  43. Cheng T, DeFrank J, Rastogi V. Alteromonas prolidase for organophosphorus G-agent decontamination. Chem Biol Interact. 1999;119-120:455-62 pubmed
    ..Use of this enzyme for development of a safe and non-corrosive decontamination system is discussed. ..
  44. Jokanovic M. Role of carboxylesterase in soman, sarin and tabun poisoning in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1989;65:181-4 pubmed
    ..phosphate) inhibits carboxylesterase (CarbE) activity in rat plasma and liver and significantly increases soman, sarin and tabun toxicity...
  45. Valiyaveettil M, Alamneh Y, Rezk P, Biggemann L, Perkins M, Sciuto A, et al. Protective efficacy of catalytic bioscavenger, paraoxonase 1 against sarin and soman exposure in guinea pigs. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:800-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the protective efficacy of purified human and rabbit serum PON1 against nerve agents sarin and soman in guinea pigs...
  46. McDonough J, Shih T. Pharmacological modulation of soman-induced seizures. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1993;17:203-15 pubmed
    ..the oxime HI-6 (125 mg/kg, IP) to prolong survival, and then challenged with a convulsant dose of the nerve agent soman (180 micrograms/kg, SC); treatment compounds (scopolamine, diazepam, MK-801, atropine, benactyzine, and ..
  47. Figueiredo T, Qashu F, Apland J, Aroniadou Anderjaska V, Souza A, Braga M. The GluK1 (GluR5) Kainate/{alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist LY293558 reduces soman-induced seizures and neuropathology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we tested whether LY293558 is effective against soman-induced seizures and neuropathology, when administered 1 h after soman exposure, in rats...
  48. Pan H, Hu X, Jacobowitz D, Chen C, McDonough J, Van Shura K, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid is a potent neuroprotective agent against soman-induced neuropathology. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1219-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that ?-linolenic acid is neuroprotective against soman-induced neuropathology in either a pretreatment or post-treatment paradigm...
  49. Perkins M, Pierre Z, Rezk P, Sabnekar P, Kabra K, Chanda S, et al. Acute respiratory toxicity following inhalation exposure to soman in guinea pigs. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;245:171-8 pubmed publisher
    Respiratory toxicity and lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent soman was examined in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival...
  50. Sanson B, Nachon F, Colletier J, Froment M, Toker L, Greenblatt H, et al. Crystallographic snapshots of nonaged and aged conjugates of soman with acetylcholinesterase, and of a ternary complex of the aged conjugate with pralidoxime. J Med Chem. 2009;52:7593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of AChEs by the OP soman involves phosphonylation of the catalytic serine, and subsequent dealkylation produces a form known as the "..
  51. Johnson E, Kan R. The acute phase response and soman-induced status epilepticus: temporal, regional and cellular changes in rat brain cytokine concentrations. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:40 pubmed publisher
    Neuroinflammation occurs following brain injury, including soman (GD) induced status epilepticus (SE), and may contribute to loss of neural tissue and declined behavioral function...
  52. Allert M, Rizk S, Looger L, Hellinga H. Computational design of receptors for an organophosphate surrogate of the nerve agent soman. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7907-12 pubmed
    ..receptors for pinacolyl methyl phosphonic acid (PMPA), the predominant hydrolytic product of the nerve agent soman. Using recently developed computational protein design techniques, the ligand-binding pockets of two periplasmic ..
  53. Myhrer T, Enger S, Aas P. Cognitive side effects in rats caused by pharmacological agents used to prevent soman-induced lethality. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;483:271-9 pubmed
    ..By combining physostigmine with anticholinergics, a potentiation of adverse effects on behavior was seen. It is concluded that a slight cognitive impairment might be unavoidable with effective prophylactics. ..
  54. Gilley C, MacDonald M, Nachon F, Schopfer L, Zhang J, Cashman J, et al. Nerve agent analogues that produce authentic soman, sarin, tabun, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonate-modified human butyrylcholinesterase. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1680-8 pubmed publisher
    The goal was to test 14 nerve agent model compounds of soman, sarin, tabun, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GF) for their suitability as substitutes for true nerve agents...
  55. McDonough J, Van Shura K, LaMont J, McMonagle J, Shih T. Comparison of the intramuscular, intranasal or sublingual routes of midazolam administration for the control of soman-induced seizures. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;104:27-34 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the anticonvulsant effectiveness of midazolam to stop seizures elicited by the nerve agent soman when midazolam was administered by different routes (intramuscular, intranasal or sublingual) at one of two different ..
  56. Li B, Nachon F, Froment M, Verdier L, Debouzy J, Brasme B, et al. Binding and hydrolysis of soman by human serum albumin. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:421-31 pubmed publisher
    Human plasma and fatty acid free human albumin were incubated with soman at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C...
  57. Albuquerque E, Pereira E, Aracava Y, Fawcett W, Oliveira M, Randall W, et al. Effective countermeasure against poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and nerve agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13220-5 pubmed
    The nerve agents soman, sarin, VX, and tabun are deadly organophosphorus (OP) compounds chemically related to OP insecticides...
  58. Tonduli L, Testylier G, Masqueliez C, Lallement G, Monmaur P. Effects of Huperzine used as pre-treatment against soman-induced seizures. Neurotoxicology. 2001;22:29-37 pubmed
    ..We tested, in vivo, its efficiency in protecting cortical AChE from soman inhibition and preventing subsequent seizures...
  59. Myhrer T, Enger S, Aas P. Anticonvulsant effects of damage to structures involved in seizure induction in rats exposed to soman. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:819-28 pubmed
    ..pathways and seizure controlling areas involved in the induction of epileptiform activity in rats challenged with soman. The results showed that rats with bilateral aspiration lesion of the seizure controlling substrate, area ..
  60. Lallement G, Clarencon D, Galonnier M, Baubichon D, Burckhart M, Peoc h M. Acute soman poisoning in primates neither pretreated nor receiving immediate therapy: value of gacyclidine (GK-11) in delayed medical support. Arch Toxicol. 1999;73:115-22 pubmed
    ..data demonstrated that atropine/diazepam/pralidoxime alone or combined with gacyclidine did not prevent signs of soman toxicity when treatment was delayed 45 min after poisoning...
  61. Millard C, Kryger G, Ordentlich A, Greenblatt H, Harel M, Raves M, et al. Crystal structures of aged phosphonylated acetylcholinesterase: nerve agent reaction products at the atomic level. Biochemistry. 1999;38:7032-9 pubmed
    ..DFP), O-isopropylmethylphosponofluoridate (sarin), or O-pinacolylmethylphosphonofluoridate (soman) by X-ray crystallography to 2.3, 2.6, or 2.2 A resolution, respectively...
  62. Raveh L, Brandeis R, Gilat E, Cohen G, Alkalay D, Rabinovitz I, et al. Anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic agents protect against soman-induced brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Toxicol Sci. 2003;75:108-16 pubmed
    b>Soman, a powerful inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, causes an array of toxic effects in the central nervous system including convulsions, learning and memory impairments, and, ultimately, death...
  63. Fu A, Wang Y, Sun M. Naked DNA prevents soman intoxication. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;328:901-5 pubmed
    Paraoxonase (Q isoenzyme, PON1) can effectively hydrolyze chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), soman, sarin, and other organophosphates...
  64. Hoskovcova M, Halamek E, Kobliha Z. Efficacy of structural homoloques and isomers of pralidoxime in reactivation of immobilised acetylcholinesterase inhibited with sarin, cyclosarin and soman. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30 Suppl 1:152-5 pubmed
    ..Substantially lower reactivation was found with the cyclosarin-inhibited enzyme whereas AChE, inhibited by soman could not be effectively reactivated under the given conditions (enzyme inhibition for 2 minutes and subsequent ..
  65. Myhrer T, Enger S, Aas P. Modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptors microinfused into perirhinal cortex: anticonvulsant effects in rats challenged with soman. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;636:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..has revealed that microinfusion of ionotropic glutamatergic antagonists can exert anticonvulsant efficacy against soman-induced seizures...