sarin

Summary

Summary: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.

Top Publications

  1. Adams T, Capacio B, Smith J, Whalley C, Korte W. The application of the fluoride reactivation process to the detection of sarin and soman nerve agent exposures in biological samples. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2004;27:77-91 pubmed
    The fluoride reactivation process was evaluated for measuring the level of sarin or soman nerve agents reactivated from substrates in plasma and tissue from in vivo exposed guinea pigs (Cava porcellus), in blood from in vivo exposed ..
  2. Spradling K, Lumley L, Robison C, Meyerhoff J, Dillman J. Transcriptional analysis of rat piriform cortex following exposure to the organophosphonate anticholinesterase sarin and induction of seizures. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:83 pubmed publisher
    ..therapeutic targets for such treatments, we analyzed gene expression changes in the rat piriform cortex following sarin (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate)-induced seizure...
  3. Cheng T, DeFrank J, Rastogi V. Alteromonas prolidase for organophosphorus G-agent decontamination. Chem Biol Interact. 1999;119-120:455-62 pubmed
    ..Use of this enzyme for development of a safe and non-corrosive decontamination system is discussed. ..
  4. Hörnberg A, Tunemalm A, Ekström F. Crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase in complex with organophosphorus compounds suggest that the acyl pocket modulates the aging reaction by precluding the formation of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state. Biochemistry. 2007;46:4815-25 pubmed
    ..crystal structures of the non-aged and aged complexes between Mus musculus AChE (mAChE) and the nerve agents sarin, VX, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and the OP-based insecticides methamidophos (MeP) and fenamiphos (FeP)...
  5. Damodaran T, Greenfield S, Patel A, Dressman H, Lin S, Abou Donia M. Toxicogenomic studies of the rat brain at an early time point following acute sarin exposure. Neurochem Res. 2006;31:367-81 pubmed
    We have studied sarin-induced global gene expression patterns at an early time point (2 h: 0.5 x LD50) using Affymetrix Rat Neurobiology U34 chips and male Sprague-Dawley rats...
  6. Jokanovic M. Role of carboxylesterase in soman, sarin and tabun poisoning in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1989;65:181-4 pubmed
    ..phosphate) inhibits carboxylesterase (CarbE) activity in rat plasma and liver and significantly increases soman, sarin and tabun toxicity...
  7. Grigoryan H, Schopfer L, Thompson C, Terry A, Masson P, Lockridge O. Mass spectrometry identifies covalent binding of soman, sarin, chlorpyrifos oxon, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and FP-biotin to tyrosines on tubulin: a potential mechanism of long term toxicity by organophosphorus agents. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;175:180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that OP bind to tubulin by treating purified bovine tubulin with sarin, soman, chlorpyrifos oxon, diisopropylfluorophosphate, and 10-fluoroethoxyphosphinyl-N-biotinamidopentyldecanamide ..
  8. Hill C, Li W, Cheng T, DeFrank J, Raushel F. Stereochemical specificity of organophosphorus acid anhydrolase toward p-nitrophenyl analogs of soman and sarin. Bioorg Chem. 2001;29:27-35 pubmed
    ..acid anhydrolase (OPAA) catalyzes the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl analogs of the organophosphonate nerve agents, sarin and soman...
  9. Khan M, Lo R, Bandyopadhyay T, Ganguly B. Probing the reactivation process of sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase with ?-nucleophiles: hydroxylamine anion is predicted to be a better antidote with DFT calculations. J Mol Graph Model. 2011;29:1039-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated with DFT [B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)] calculations that the reactivation process of sarin-serine adduct 2 with hydroxylamine anion is more efficient than the other nucleophiles reported...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Tokuda Y, Kikuchi M, Takahashi O, Stein G. Prehospital management of sarin nerve gas terrorism in urban settings: 10 years of progress after the Tokyo subway sarin attack. Resuscitation. 2006;68:193-202 pubmed
    ..In 1994 and 1995, sarin nerve gas was used first in peacetime as a weapon of terrorism in Japan...
  2. Page W. Long-term health effects of exposure to sarin and other anticholinesterase chemical warfare agents. Mil Med. 2003;168:239-45 pubmed
    ..In this study, the health effects of self-reported, nonexperimental exposure, which are subject to recall bias, were greater than the health effects of experimental exposure. ..
  3. Black R, Clarke R, Read R, Reid M. Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to the analysis of chemical warfare samples, found to contain residues of the nerve agent sarin, sulphur mustard and their degradation products. J Chromatogr A. 1994;662:301-21 pubmed
    ..samples; isopropyl methylphosphonic acid and methylphosphonic acid, the hydrolysis products of the nerve agent sarin, were detected in six different soil samples...
  4. Chapman S, Kadar T, Gilat E. Seizure duration following sarin exposure affects neuro-inflammatory markers in the rat brain. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27:277-83 pubmed
    ..to characterize for the first time the alterations in the characteristic neuro-inflammatory markers triggered by sarin exposure in the rat's brain, and to investigate its dependency on seizure duration...
  5. Yanagisawa N, Morita H, Nakajima T. Sarin experiences in Japan: acute toxicity and long-term effects. J Neurol Sci. 2006;249:76-85 pubmed
    Two terrorist attacks with the nerve agent Sarin affected citizens in Matsumoto and Tokyo, Japan in 1994 and 1995, killing 19 and injuring more the 6000...
  6. Pena Philippides J, Razani Boroujerdi S, Singh S, Langley R, Mishra N, Henderson R, et al. Long- and short-term changes in the neuroimmune-endocrine parameters following inhalation exposures of F344 rats to low-dose sarin. Toxicol Sci. 2007;97:181-8 pubmed
    Inhalation of subclinical doses of sarin suppresses the antibody-forming cell (AFC) response, T-cell mitogenesis, and serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and high doses of sarin cause lung inflammation...
  7. Eckert S, Eyer P, Herkert N, Bumm R, Weber G, Thiermann H, et al. Comparison of the oxime-induced reactivation of erythrocyte and muscle acetylcholinesterase following inhibition by sarin or paraoxon, using a perfusion model for the real-time determination of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75:698-703 pubmed
    ..determined reactivation rate constants for reactivation with obidoxime (10 microM) or HI 6 (30 microM) of sarin-inhibited human muscle acetylcholinesterase (0.142+/-0.004 min(-1) and 0.166+/-0.008 min(-1), respectively)...
  8. Tan H, Loke W, Tan Y, Nguyen N. A lab-on-a-chip for detection of nerve agent sarin in blood. Lab Chip. 2008;8:885-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarin (C(4)H(10)FO(2)P,O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a colourless, odourless and highly toxic phosphonate that acts as a cholinesterase inhibitor and disrupts neuromuscular transmission...
  9. Kassa J, Misik J, Karasova J. A comparison of the potency of a novel bispyridinium oxime K203 and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract the acute neurotoxicity of sarin in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;111:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..oxime K203 and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with sarin were studied...
  10. Nishiwaki Y, Maekawa K, Ogawa Y, Asukai N, Minami M, Omae K. Effects of sarin on the nervous system in rescue team staff members and police officers 3 years after the Tokyo subway sarin attack. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:1169-73 pubmed
    Although the clinical manifestations of acute sarin poisoning have been reported in detail, no comprehensive study of the chronic physical and psychiatric effects of acute sarin poisoning has been carried out...
  11. Valiyaveettil M, Alamneh Y, Rezk P, Biggemann L, Perkins M, Sciuto A, et al. Protective efficacy of catalytic bioscavenger, paraoxonase 1 against sarin and soman exposure in guinea pigs. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:800-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the protective efficacy of purified human and rabbit serum PON1 against nerve agents sarin and soman in guinea pigs...
  12. Chao L, Rothlind J, Cardenas V, Meyerhoff D, Weiner M. Effects of low-level exposure to sarin and cyclosarin during the 1991 Gulf War on brain function and brain structure in US veterans. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:493-501 pubmed publisher
    Potentially more than 100,000 US troops may have been exposed to the organophosphate chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when a munitions dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the Gulf War (GW) in 1991...
  13. Hoskovcova M, Halamek E, Kobliha Z. Efficacy of structural homoloques and isomers of pralidoxime in reactivation of immobilised acetylcholinesterase inhibited with sarin, cyclosarin and soman. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30 Suppl 1:152-5 pubmed
    ..Biosensor is based on the modificated Ellman's method. The highest reactivation was observed with sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase...
  14. Gilley C, MacDonald M, Nachon F, Schopfer L, Zhang J, Cashman J, et al. Nerve agent analogues that produce authentic soman, sarin, tabun, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonate-modified human butyrylcholinesterase. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1680-8 pubmed publisher
    The goal was to test 14 nerve agent model compounds of soman, sarin, tabun, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GF) for their suitability as substitutes for true nerve agents...
  15. Lee E. Clinical manifestations of sarin nerve gas exposure. JAMA. 2003;290:659-62 pubmed
  16. Millard C, Kryger G, Ordentlich A, Greenblatt H, Harel M, Raves M, et al. Crystal structures of aged phosphonylated acetylcholinesterase: nerve agent reaction products at the atomic level. Biochemistry. 1999;38:7032-9 pubmed
    ..Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP), O-isopropylmethylphosponofluoridate (sarin), or O-pinacolylmethylphosphonofluoridate (soman) by X-ray crystallography to 2.3, 2.6, or 2...
  17. Okumura T, Suzuki K, Fukuda A, Kohama A, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S, et al. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 1: Community emergency response. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:613-7 pubmed
    The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the second documented incident of nerve gas poisoning in Japan. Prior to the Tokyo subway sarin attack, there had never been such a large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas in peacetime history...
  18. Wang J, Roszak S, Gu J, Leszczynski J. Comprehensive global energy minimum modeling of the sarin-serine adduct. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:1006-14 pubmed
    ..molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry theory approaches are combined to investigate the various conformers of sarin-serine adduct. Twenty different conformers have been located as the local minima on the potential energy surface...
  19. Kawada T, Katsumata M, Suzuki H, Li Q, Inagaki H, Nakadai A, et al. Insomnia as a sequela of sarin toxicity several years after exposure in Tokyo subway trains. Percept Mot Skills. 2005;100:1121-6 pubmed
    More than 5,000 passengers on Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas "sarin" on March 20, 1995...
  20. Damodaran T, Patel A, Greenfield S, Dressman H, Lin S, Abou Donia M. Gene expression profiles of the rat brain both immediately and 3 months following acute sarin exposure. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;71:497-520 pubmed
    We have studied sarin-induced global gene expression patterns at an early time point (15 min; 0...
  21. Scremin O, Shih T, Huynh L, Roch M, Booth R, Jenden D. Delayed neurologic and behavioral effects of subtoxic doses of cholinesterase inhibitors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1111-9 pubmed
    We tested the hypothesis that pyridostigmine bromide (PB) intake and/or low-level sarin exposure, suggested by some as causes of the symptoms experienced by Persian Gulf War veterans, induce neurobehavioral dysfunction that outlasts ..
  22. Okumura T, Suzuki K, Fukuda A, Kohama A, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S, et al. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 3: National and international responses. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:625-8 pubmed
    The authors report the national and international responses to the disaster produced by the Tokyo subway sarin attack...
  23. Genovese R, Benton B, Oubre J, Fleming P, Jakubowski E, Mioduszewski R. Determination of miosis threshold from whole-body vapor exposure to sarin in African green monkeys. Toxicology. 2008;244:123-32 pubmed
    We determined the threshold concentration of sarin vapor exposure producing miosis in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Monkeys (n=8) were exposed to a single concentration of sarin (0.069-0.701mg/m3) for 10min...
  24. Gilat E, Kadar T, Levy A, Rabinovitz I, Cohen G, Kapon Y, et al. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: an electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005;209:74-85 pubmed
    ..Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 +/- 90 s)...
  25. Worek F, Reiter G, Eyer P, Szinicz L. Reactivation kinetics of acetylcholinesterase from different species inhibited by highly toxic organophosphates. Arch Toxicol. 2002;76:523-9 pubmed
    ..g. sarin. In the past decades numerous oximes were prepared and tested for their efficacy in OP poisoning, mostly in animal ..
  26. Tochigi M, Umekage T, Otani T, Kato T, Iwanami A, Asukai N, et al. Serum cholesterol, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning: a relation with post-traumatic stress disorder. Neurosci Res. 2002;44:267-72 pubmed
    ..The present study investigated serum cholesterols, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning, 1995, in a series of 5-year follow-ups...
  27. van Helden H, Trap H, Oostdijk J, Kuijpers W, Langenberg J, Benschop H. Long-term, low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapor in air: lowest observable effect level. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;189:170-9 pubmed
    ..05-1.0 microg/m(3) (8-160 ppt) of sarin and other nerve agents...
  28. Damodaran T, Jones K, Patel A, Abou Donia M. Sarin (nerve agent GB)-induced differential expression of mRNA coding for the acetylcholinesterase gene in the rat central nervous system. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:2041-7 pubmed
    We carried out a time-course study on the effects of a single intramuscular (i.m.) dose (0.5x LD(50)) of sarin (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), also known as nerve agent GB, on the mRNA expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) ..
  29. van Helden H, Vanwersch R, Kuijpers W, Trap H, Philippens I, Benschop H. Low levels of sarin affect the EEG in marmoset monkeys: a pilot study. J Appl Toxicol. 2004;24:475-83 pubmed
    ..EEG) upon long-term, low-level exposure of vehicle-pretreated and pyridostigmine-pretreated marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour. This is the C...
  30. Bansal I, Waghmare C, Anand T, Gupta A, Bhattacharya B. Differential mRNA expression of acetylcholinesterase in the central nervous system of rats with acute and chronic exposure of sarin & physostigmine. J Appl Toxicol. 2009;29:386-94 pubmed publisher
    ..measure the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression in the brain of female rats exposed to different doses of sarin and physostigmine. Short-term effects were studied with an acute single subcutaneous dose (s.c...
  31. Okumura T, Suzuki K, Fukuda A, Kohama A, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S, et al. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 2: Hospital response. Acad Emerg Med. 1998;5:618-24 pubmed
    The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the second documented incident of nerve gas poisoning in Japan. The authors report how St. Luke's Hospital dealt with this disaster from the viewpoint of disaster management...
  32. Huang L, Su B, Jao S, Liu K, Li W. Aminopeptidase p mediated detoxification of organophosphonate analogues of sarin: mechanistic and stereochemical study at the phosphorus atom of the substrate. Chembiochem. 2006;7:506-14 pubmed
    The activity of the aminopeptidase P from Escherichia coli in hydrolyzing a series of organophosphonate sarin analogues (1-6) was evaluated...
  33. Sevelová L, Bajgar J, Saxena A, Doctor B. Protective effect of equine butyrylcholinesterase in inhalation intoxication of rats with sarin: determination of blood and brain cholinesterase activities. Inhal Toxicol. 2004;16:531-6 pubmed
    ..25 microg/L for 60 min) of sarin were studied...
  34. Kawana N, Ishimatsu S, Kanda K. Psycho-physiological effects of the terrorist sarin attack on the Tokyo subway system. Mil Med. 2001;166:23-6 pubmed
    The investigation describes the follow-up of the victims of the 1995 Tokyo sarin attack who were followed by a team at the St. Luke's International Hospital. A symptom questionnaire ("St...
  35. Chao L, Abadjian L, Hlavin J, Meyerhoff D, Weiner M. Effects of low-level sarin and cyclosarin exposure and Gulf War Illness on brain structure and function: a study at 4T. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:814-22 pubmed publisher
    More than 100,000 US troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when an ammunition dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the 1991 Persian Gulf War (GW)...
  36. Hemmert A, Otto T, Wierdl M, Edwards C, Fleming C, MacDonald M, et al. Human carboxylesterase 1 stereoselectively binds the nerve agent cyclosarin and spontaneously hydrolyzes the nerve agent sarin. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:508-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the ability of wild-type hCE1 to process the G-type nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin has not been determined...
  37. Okudera H. Clinical features on nerve gas terrorism in Matsumoto. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:17-21 pubmed
    Clinical features on the first unexpected nerve gas terrorism using sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) on citizens in the city of Matsumoto is described. The nerve gas terrorism occurred at midnight on 27 June, 1994...
  38. Pachiappan A, Thwin M, Weng Keong L, Lee F, Manikandan J, Sivakumar V, et al. ETS2 regulating neurodegenerative signaling pathway of human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells exposed to single and repeated low-dose sarin (GB). Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:990-6 pubmed publisher
    The mechanistic understanding of low-level sarin-induced neurotoxicity after single or repeated doses has yet to be explored at a cellular level...
  39. Hoffman A, Eisenkraft A, Finkelstein A, Schein O, Rotman E, Dushnitsky T. A decade after the Tokyo sarin attack: a review of neurological follow-up of the victims. Mil Med. 2007;172:607-10 pubmed
    On March 20, 1995, sarin gas was used in Tokyo by members of the Japanese "Uhm-Shinrikiu" cult, killing 12 and injuring >5,500 innocent people. Most of the casualties were mildly injured...
  40. Heaton K, Palumbo C, Proctor S, Killiany R, Yurgelun Todd D, White R. Quantitative magnetic resonance brain imaging in US army veterans of the 1991 Gulf War potentially exposed to sarin and cyclosarin. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:761-9 pubmed
    ..was destroyed, potentially exposing more than 100,000 US troops to low levels of the organophosphate nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin...
  41. Araki T, Kasai K, Yamasue H, Kato N, Kudo N, Ohtani T, et al. Association between lower P300 amplitude and smaller anterior cingulate cortex volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a study of victims of Tokyo subway sarin attack. Neuroimage. 2005;25:43-50 pubmed
    ..brain morphological abnormalities in never-treated, comorbidity-free patients with PTSD following the Tokyo subway sarin attack. Out of 47 victims recruited, 8 victims with PTSD and 13 victims without PTSD were identified...
  42. Yamasue H, Abe O, Kasai K, Suga M, Iwanami A, Yamada H, et al. Human brain structural change related to acute single exposure to sarin. Ann Neurol. 2007;61:37-46 pubmed
    This study aimed to identify persistent morphological changes subsequent to an acute single-time exposure to sarin, a highly poisonous organophosphate, and the neurobiological basis of long-lasting somatic and cognitive symptoms in ..
  43. Proctor S, Heaton K, Heeren T, White R. Effects of sarin and cyclosarin exposure during the 1991 Gulf War on neurobehavioral functioning in US army veterans. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27:931-9 pubmed
    ..Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphate chemical warfare agents, sarin and cyclosarin...
  44. Shih T, Guarisco J, Myers T, Kan R, McDonough J. The oxime pro-2-PAM provides minimal protection against the CNS effects of the nerve agents sarin, cyclosarin, and VX in guinea pigs. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011;21:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..2-PAM) that can penetrate the brain, could prevent or reverse the central toxic effects of three nerve agents; sarin, cyclosarin, and VX...
  45. Wang J, Gu J, Leszczynski J. Phosphonylation mechanisms of sarin and acetylcholinesterase: a model DFT study. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:7567-73 pubmed
    Potential energy surfaces for the phosphonylation of sarin and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) have been theoretically studied at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory...
  46. Hulet S, McDonough J, Shih T. The dose-response effects of repeated subacute sarin exposure on guinea pigs. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;72:835-45 pubmed
    The present study assessed the effects of repeated subacute exposure to the organophosphorous nerve agent, sarin. Guinea pigs were injected five times per week (Monday-Friday) for 2 weeks with fractions of the established LD(50) dose of ..
  47. Vale A. What lessons can we learn from the Japanese sarin attacks?. Przegl Lek. 2005;62:528-32 pubmed
    On 27 June 1994 a Japanese terrorist group, Aum Shinrikyo, released sarin in Matsumoto...
  48. Loh Y, Swanberg M, Ingram M, Newmark J. Case report: Long-term cognitive sequelae of sarin exposure. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:244-6 pubmed publisher
    The long-term sequelae of acute sarin exposure are not well understood. The largest clinical cohort resulted from the 1994 and 1995 attacks in Japan...
  49. Valiyaveettil M, Alamneh Y, Rezk P, Perkins M, Sciuto A, Doctor B, et al. Recombinant paraoxonase 1 protects against sarin and soman toxicity following microinstillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs. Toxicol Lett. 2011;202:203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a catalytic bioscavenger, we evaluated human recombinant PON1 (rePON1) expressed in Trichoplusia ni larvae against sarin and soman toxicity using microinstillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs...
  50. Damodaran T, Bilska M, Rahman A, Abou Doni M. Sarin causes early differential alteration and persistent overexpression in mRNAs coding for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin genes in the central nervous system of rats. Neurochem Res. 2002;27:407-15 pubmed
    Neurotoxic effects of single dose of 0.5 x LD50 sarin (O-isopropylmethylphosphonoflouridate) on central nervous system (CNS) of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied...
  51. Mahato T, Prasad G, Singh B, Acharya J, Srivastava A, Vijayaraghavan R. Nanocrystalline zinc oxide for the decontamination of sarin. J Hazard Mater. 2009;165:928-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Obtained material was tested as destructive adsorbent for the decontamination of sarin and the reaction was followed by GC-NPD and GC-MS techniques...
  52. Levy A, Chapman S, Cohen G, Raveh L, Rabinovitz I, Manistersky E, et al. Protection and inflammatory markers following exposure of guinea pigs to sarin vapour: comparative efficacy of three oximes. J Appl Toxicol. 2004;24:501-4 pubmed
    ..of three oximes--toxogonine, TMB4 and 2-PAM--in combination with anticholinergic drugs following exposure to sarin vapour by inhalation...
  53. Kassa J, Koupilová M, Herink J, Vachek J. The long-term influence of low-level sarin exposure on behavioral and neurophysiological functions in rats. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2001;44:21-7 pubmed
    1. Long term effects of low doses of highly toxic organophosphorus agent sarin on behavioral and neurophysiological functions were studied in rats exposed to sarin by inhalation...
  54. Dabisch P, To F, Kerut E, Horsmon M, Mioduszewski R. Multiple exposures to sarin vapor result in parasympathetic dysfunction in the eye but not the heart. Toxicol Sci. 2007;99:354-61 pubmed
    ..implanted with telemetric transmitters to investigate the hypothesis that multiple exposures to the nerve agent sarin would result in muscarinic receptor desensitization and parasympathetic dysfunction in the heart...
  55. Wang J, Gu J, Leszczynski J, Feliks M, Sokalski W. Oxime-induced reactivation of sarin-inhibited AChE: a theoretical mechanisms study. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:2404-8 pubmed
    ..perturbation theory at the MP2/6-311G(d,p) level, the formoximate-induced reactivation patterns of the sarin-AChE adduct and the corresponding reaction mechanism have been investigated...
  56. Miyaki K, Nishiwaki Y, Maekawa K, Ogawa Y, Asukai N, Yoshimura K, et al. Effects of sarin on the nervous system of subway workers seven years after the Tokyo subway sarin attack. J Occup Health. 2005;47:299-304 pubmed
    This study was designed to assess the after effects of sarin exposure on the nervous system in victims of the Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, which occurred on 20 March, 1995. We performed a similar study 3 yr after the disaster...
  57. Mioduszewski R, Manthei J, Way R, Burnett D, Gaviola B, Muse W, et al. Interaction of exposure concentration and duration in determining acute toxic effects of sarin vapor in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002;66:176-84 pubmed
    b>Sarin (GB) vapor exposure is associated with both systemic and local toxic effects occurring primarily via the inhalation and ocular routes...
  58. Polhuijs M, Langenberg J, Benschop H. New method for retrospective detection of exposure to organophosphorus anticholinesterases: application to alleged sarin victims of Japanese terrorists. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997;146:156-61 pubmed
    ..the Tokyo incident and of 2 of the 7 samples from the Matsumoto incident, reactivation with fluoride ions yielded sarin concentrations in the range of 0.2-4.1 ng/ml serum...
  59. Ekström F, Hörnberg A, Artursson E, Hammarström L, Schneider G, Pang Y. Structure of HI-6*sarin-acetylcholinesterase determined by X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulation: reactivator mechanism and design. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5957 pubmed publisher
    Organophosphonates such as isopropyl metylphosphonofluoridate (sarin) are extremely toxic as they phosphonylate the catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme essential to humans and other species...
  60. Saxena A, Sun W, Dabisch P, Hulet S, Hastings N, Jakubowski E, et al. Efficacy of human serum butyrylcholinesterase against sarin vapor. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;175:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..places, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Hu BChE against whole-body inhalation exposure to sarin (GB) vapor...
  61. Grauer E, Chapman S, Rabinovitz I, Raveh L, Weissman B, Kadar T, et al. Single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats: long-term neuronal and behavioral deficits. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;227:265-74 pubmed publisher
    Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2+/-0.8 microg/l) for 10 min. Mortality at 24 h was 35% and toxic sings in the surviving rats ranged from sever (prolonged convulsions) through moderate to almost no overt signs...
  62. Bajgar J, Bartosova L, Kuca K, Jun D, Fusek J. Changes of cholinesterase activities in the rat blood and brain after sarin intoxication pretreated with butyrylcholinesterase. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2007;30:351-9 pubmed
    After sarin inhalation exposure of rats pretreated with equine serum butyrylcholinesterase (EqBuChE), cholinesterase activities of the whole blood, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes, pontomedullar area, frontal cortex, and ..
  63. Bueters T, Joosen M, van Helden H, IJzerman A, Danhof M. Adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine affects the inactivation of acetylcholinesterase in blood and brain by sarin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1307-13 pubmed
    ..agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in blood and brain, and the AChE-inhibitor sarin (isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate)...