Summary: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.

Top Publications

  1. Kwan K, Wadke D, Foltz E. Pharmacokinetics of phosphonomycin in Man. I. Intravenous administration. J Pharm Sci. 1971;60:678-85 pubmed
  2. Janssen H, Sonneveld M, Brunetto M. Quantification of serum hepatitis B surface antigen: is it useful for the management of chronic hepatitis B?. Gut. 2012;61:641-5 pubmed publisher
  3. Rosenwirth B, ten Haaft P, Bogers W, Nieuwenhuis I, Niphuis H, Kuhn E, et al. Antiretroviral therapy during primary immunodeficiency virus infection can induce persistent suppression of virus load and protection from heterologous challenge in rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2000;74:1704-11 pubmed
    ..By this chemotherapeutic attenuation, the replication kinetics of attenuated viruses could be mimicked and a vaccination effect similar to that induced by live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines was achieved. ..
  4. Robbins B, Srinivas R, Kim C, Bischofberger N, Fridland A. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity and cellular metabolism of a potential prodrug of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate 9-R-(2-phosphonomethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA), Bis(isopropyloxymethylcarbonyl)PMPA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:612-7 pubmed
  5. Barditch Crovo P, Toole J, Hendrix C, Cundy K, Ebeling D, Jaffe H, et al. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of adefovir dipivoxil (9-[2-(bis-pivaloyloxymethyl)-phosphonylmethoxyethyl]adenine) in HIV-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:406-13 pubmed
    ..Decreases in serum free carnitine occurred in each drug-treated group during treatment. After 14 days of dosing, adefovir dipivoxil demonstrated anti-HIV activity and was best tolerated at the lowest dosage studied, 125 mg daily. ..
  6. Tsai C, Follis K, Sabo A, Beck T, Grant R, Bischofberger N, et al. Prevention of SIV infection in macaques by (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine. Science. 1995;270:1197-9 pubmed
    ..PMPA prevented SIV infection in all macaques without toxicity, whereas all control macaques became infected. These results suggest a potential role for PMPA prophylaxis against early HIV infection in cases of known exposure. ..
  7. Cundy K, Petty B, Flaherty J, Fisher P, Polis M, Wachsman M, et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics of cidofovir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:1247-52 pubmed
    ..0-mg/kg dose. At higher cidofovir doses, probenecid appeared to block tubular secretion of cidofovir and reduce its renal clearance to a level approaching glomerular filtration. ..
  8. Saag M. Preventing HIV in women--still trying to find their VOICE. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:564-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Zhang W, Wang X, Wang Y, Zhao X, Duan W, Wang Q, et al. Effective viral suppression is necessary to reduce hepatocellular carcinoma development in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B: Results of a 10-year follow up. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8454 pubmed publisher
    ..Cirrhosis at baseline and failure to achieve VR during antiviral therapy were significant risk factors for HCC development in CHB patients. Effective viral suppression is necessary to reduce HCC development in cirrhotic CHB patients. ..

More Information


  1. Beyersdorf M, Sircar R, Lookadoo D, Bottone C, Lynch M, Crane B, et al. Production, characterization, and assessment of a stable analog of the response regulator CheY-phosphate from Thermotoga maritima. Protein Sci. 2017;26:1547-1554 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these results suggest that Tm phosphono-CheY is a useful and unique analog of Tm CheY-phosphate. ..
  2. Tsai C, Follis K, Sabo A, Grant R, Bartz C, Nolte R, et al. Preexposure prophylaxis with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine against simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:260-6 pubmed
    ..Since PMEA demonstrates profound inhibition of retrovirus infection, it may have utility as a chemoprophylactic agent for humans exposed to SIV or human immunodeficiency virus. ..
  3. van Griensven J, Lynen L, Colebunders R. Substituting tenofovir for stavudine in resource-limited settings: there are challenges ahead. AIDS. 2009;23:1027 pubmed publisher
  4. Halik M, Hirsch A. The potential of molecular self-assembled monolayers in organic electronic devices. Adv Mater. 2011;23:2689-95 pubmed
    ..Mixed SAMs make new and tunable device features possible, by stoichiometric control of the composition of different SAM-forming molecules. ..
  5. Cundy K, Barditch Crovo P, Walker R, Collier A, Ebeling D, Toole J, et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics of adefovir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:2401-5 pubmed
    ..0-mg/kg dose was 102% +/- 8.3% (n = 5) on the basis of concentrations in serum or 84.8% +/- 28.5% on the basis of urinary recovery. These data are consistent with preclinical observations in various species. ..
  6. Liu Y, Wang C, Cheng J, Liang Z, Zhong Y, Ren X, et al. Hepatitis B virus in tenofovir-naive Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B contains no mutation of rtA194T conferring a reduced tenofovir susceptibility. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:1585-6 pubmed
  7. Lalezari J, Drew W, Glutzer E, Miner D, Safrin S, Owen W, et al. Treatment with intravenous (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]-cytosine of acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus in a patient with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1994;170:570-2 pubmed
    ..7 mg/dL). HPMPC is a potent antiviral agent that holds promise as a potential treatment for acyclovir-resistant HSV infection. ..
  8. Karim S, Kashuba A, Werner L, Karim Q. Drug concentrations after topical and oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis: implications for HIV prevention in women. Lancet. 2011;378:279-81 pubmed publisher
  9. Vermund S, Van Damme L. HIV prevention in women: next steps. Science. 2011;331:284 pubmed publisher
  10. Cohen M, Baden L. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV--where do we go from here?. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:459-61 pubmed publisher
  11. Balzarini J, Menni M, Das K, Van Berckelaer L, Ford A, Maguire N, et al. Guanine ?-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (G-?-CNP) shows a different inhibitory kinetic profile against the DNA polymerases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;136:51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique properties of the ?-CNPs make this class of compounds, including G-?-CNP, direct acting inhibitors of multiple viral DNA polymerases. ..
  12. Grandcoin A, Piel S, Baurès E. AminoMethylPhosphonic acid (AMPA) in natural waters: Its sources, behavior and environmental fate. Water Res. 2017;117:187-197 pubmed publisher
    ..Fortunately, well operated water treatment plants remove a significant proportion of the AMPA from water, even though there are not sufficient regulatory limits for metabolites. ..
  13. Mattila J, Beaino W, Maiello P, Coleman M, White A, Scanga C, et al. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Macaques with Tuberculosis Identifies Temporal Changes in Granuloma Glucose Metabolism and Integrin ?4?1-Expressing Immune Cells. J Immunol. 2017;199:806-815 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate [64Cu]-LLP2A is a PET probe for VLA-4, which when used in conjunction with [18F]-FDG, may be a useful tool for understanding granuloma biology in TB. ..
  14. Lacy S, Hitchcock M, Lee W, Tellier P, Cundy K. Effect of oral probenecid coadministration on the chronic toxicity and pharmacokinetics of intravenous cidofovir in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol Sci. 1998;44:97-106 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that oral probenecid coadministration protects against the morphological evidence of nephrotoxicity and the accompanying decrease in renal clearance in monkeys receiving chronic intravenous cidofovir treatment. ..
  15. Qasim W, Gilmour K, Zhan H, Derniame S, McNicol A, Ip W, et al. Interferon-? capture T cell therapy for persistent Adenoviraemia following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Br J Haematol. 2013;161:449-52 pubmed publisher
  16. Chirilă M, Bolboaca S. Clinical efficiency of quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;271:1135-42 pubmed
    ..Silgard® vaccination had a good effect and proved to be efficient in the treatment of our patients with RRR without appearance of recurrence in 85% of the patients during 1-year follow-up. ..
  17. Sherman M, Lee S. Canadian patients with chronic hepatitis B cannot access appropriate drug treatments: a call for change. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011;25:538-41 pubmed
  18. Sato S, Kudo F, Kim S, Kuzuyama T, Eguchi T. Methylcobalamin-Dependent Radical SAM C-Methyltransferase Fom3 Recognizes Cytidylyl-2-hydroxyethylphosphonate and Catalyzes the Nonstereoselective C-Methylation in Fosfomycin Biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3519-3522 pubmed publisher
  19. Mucha A, Kafarski P, Berlicki Ł. Remarkable potential of the ?-aminophosphonate/phosphinate structural motif in medicinal chemistry. J Med Chem. 2011;54:5955-80 pubmed publisher
  20. Underhill K. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1374; author reply 1374-5 pubmed publisher
  21. Fabbiani M, Bracciale L, Doino M, D Avino A, Marzocchetti A, Navarra P, et al. Tenofovir discontinuation could predispose to urolithiasis in atazanavir-treated patients. J Infect. 2011;62:319-21 pubmed publisher
  22. Hogben M, Liddon N. Disinhibition and risk compensation: scope, definitions, and perspective. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:1009-10 pubmed publisher
  23. Lok A, McMahon B. Chronic hepatitis B: update 2009. Hepatology. 2009;50:661-2 pubmed publisher
  24. Longhi S, Cambillau C. Structure-activity of cutinase, a small lipolytic enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1441:185-96 pubmed
    ..Besides the native enzyme, tens of mutants and several inhibitor complexes have been solved, providing a complete and precise picture of the structure, dynamics and catalytic machinery of cutinase. ..
  25. Boffito M, Lamorde M, Watkins M, Pozniak A. Antiretroviral dose optimization: the future of efavirenz 400?mg dosing. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2017;12:339-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge on efavirenz 400?mg exposure in these scenarios will arise in mid-late 2017. ..
  26. Haraszti R, Roux L, Coles A, Turanov A, Alterman J, Echeverria D, et al. 5?-Vinylphosphonate improves tissue accumulation and efficacy of conjugated siRNAs in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7581-7592 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that 5?-(E)-vinylphosphonate stabilizes 5? phosphate, thereby enabling systemic delivery to and silencing in kidney and heart...
  27. Lori F, Lewis M, Xu J, Varga G, Zinn D, Crabbs C, et al. Control of SIV rebound through structured treatment interruptions during early infection. Science. 2000;290:1591-3 pubmed
    ..Fixed-schedule STI-HAART appears to be an effective alternative to continuous HAART for the early treatment of retroviral infection. ..
  28. Zhang X, Lu W, Zheng Y, Wang W, Bai L, Chen L, et al. In situ analysis of intrahepatic virological events in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1079-92 pubmed publisher
    ..More important, our observations unravel the complexity of the HBV life cycle in vivo. ..
  29. Grant R, Liegler T, Defechereux P, Kashuba A, Taylor D, Abdel Mohsen M, et al. Drug resistance and plasma viral RNA level after ineffective use of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in women. AIDS. 2015;29:331-7 pubmed
    ..Drug resistance detected during ineffective PrEP use had characteristics suggesting transmitted infection or incubating infection prior to starting PrEP. ..
  30. Lennox J, Landovitz R, Ribaudo H, Ofotokun I, Na L, Godfrey C, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of 3 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing antiretroviral regimens for treatment-naive volunteers infected with HIV-1: a randomized, controlled equivalence trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Tolerability of regimens containing raltegravir or ritonavir-boosted darunavir was superior to that of the ritonavir-boosted atazanavir regimen. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. ..
  31. Luo M, Groaz E, Andrei G, Snoeck R, Kalkeri R, Ptak R, et al. Expanding the Antiviral Spectrum of 3-Fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates: Diamyl Aspartate Amidate Prodrugs. J Med Chem. 2017;60:6220-6238 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the pyrimidine containing prodrug (S)-Asp-FPMPC is the only congener within this series to demonstrate micromolar antihuman cytomegalovirus (HCMV) potency. ..
  32. Pallet N, Burgard M, Quamouss O, Rabant M, Bererhi L, Martinez F, et al. Cidofovir may be deleterious in BK virus-associated nephropathy. Transplantation. 2010;89:1542-4 pubmed publisher
  33. Dyall J, Johnson R, Chefer S, Leyson C, Thomasson D, Seidel J, et al. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Lymphoid Tissue Serves as a Predictor of Disease Outcome in the Nonhuman Primate Model of Monkeypox Virus Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
  34. Baeten J, Celum C. Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:83-4 pubmed publisher
  35. . Virological response to a triple nucleoside/nucleotide analogue regimen over 48 weeks in HIV-1-infected adults in Africa. AIDS. 2006;20:1391-9 pubmed
    ..In this population, who were infected with HIV-1 subtypes A, C or D, M184V with or without NAMs was the most common route to resistance, whereas K65R was identified less often. ..
  36. Castelo Soccio L, Bernardin R, Stern J, Goldstein S, Kovarik C. Successful treatment of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus with intralesional cidofovir. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146:124-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Lan X, Xie D, Yin L, Wang Z, Chen J, Zhang A, et al. Novel ?,?-unsaturated amide derivatives bearing ?-amino phosphonate moiety as potential antiviral agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:4270-4273 pubmed publisher
    ..Present work provides a promising template for development of potential inhibitor of plant virus. ..
  38. Rott E, Minke R, Bali U, Steinmetz H. Removal of phosphonates from industrial wastewater with UV/FeII, Fenton and UV/Fenton treatment. Water Res. 2017;122:345-354 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, a neutralization directly after the reaction phase led to a lower total P removal extent. ..
  39. Torres Martin De Rosales R, Tavare R, Paul R, Jauregui Osoro M, Protti A, Glaria A, et al. Synthesis of 64Cu(II)-bis(dithiocarbamatebisphosphonate) and its conjugation with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: in vivo evaluation as dual-modality PET-MRI agent. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2011;50:5509-13 pubmed publisher
  40. Janes K, Little J, Li C, Bryant L, Chen C, Chen Z, et al. The development and maintenance of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain require activation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:21082-97 pubmed
  41. Krečmerová M, Dracinsky M, Snoeck R, Balzarini J, Pomeisl K, Andrei G. New prodrugs of two pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: Synthesis and antiviral activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:4637-4648 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the bis(hexadecylamido-l-tyrosyl) and the bis(POM) esters of PME-5-azaC were also very potent anti-herpesvirus drugs, these were less selective than the mono-octadecyl ester prodrug. ..
  42. Van der Jeught S, Stevens C. Direct phosphonylation of aromatic azaheterocycles. Chem Rev. 2009;109:2672-702 pubmed publisher
  43. San Giorgi M, Tjon Pian Gi R, Dikkers F. The clinical course of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis after the use of cidofovir is influenced by multiple factors. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;272:1819-20 pubmed publisher
  44. Celum C, Morrow R, Donnell D, Hong T, Hendrix C, Thomas K, et al. Daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among heterosexual HIV-1-uninfected men and women: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Modest protection against HSV-2 is an added benefit of HIV-1 prevention with oral tenofovir-based PrEP. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ..
  45. Degboé Y, Fruchon S, Baron M, Nigon D, Turrin C, Caminade A, et al. Modulation of pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes and dendritic cells by aza-bis-phosphonate dendrimer as an experimental therapeutic agent. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that dendrimer ABP possesses immunomodulatory properties on human Mo and MoDC, in TLR4 + IFN-? stimulation model, by inducing M2 alternative activation of Mo and promoting tolerogenic MoDC. ..
  46. Gupta S, Mi D, Moe S, Dube M, Liu Z. Effects of switching from efavirenz to raltegravir on endothelial function, bone mineral metabolism, inflammation, and renal function: a randomized, controlled trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;64:279-83 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that raltegravir is not inherently more beneficial to endothelial function compared with efavirenz but may impact renal function and monocyte activation. ..
  47. Lv K, Yang C, Han J, Hu S, Wang X. An initial demonstration of hierarchically porous niobium alkylphosphonates coordination polymers as potent radioanalytical separation materials. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1504:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..A combinatorial radioanalytical separation protocol has been proposed to enrich thorium and europium, revealing facile utilization of these highly stable, phosphonated hybrids in sustainable development of radioanalytical separation. ..
  48. Ntatsopoulos V, Vassiliou S, Macegoniuk K, Berlicki Ł, Mucha A. Novel organophosphorus scaffolds of urease inhibitors obtained by substitution of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts with phosphorus nucleophiles. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;133:107-120 pubmed publisher
    ..High complementarity to the enzyme active site was achieved with this structure, as any further modifications significantly decreased its affinity. Finally, this work describes the challenges faced in developing ligands for urease. ..
  49. Abgrall S, Ingle S, May M, Costagliola D, Mercie P, Cavassini M, et al. Durability of first ART regimen and risk factors for modification, interruption or death in HIV-positive patients starting ART in Europe and North America 2002-2009. AIDS. 2013;27:803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased rates of substitutions or switches to nonstandard regimen in recent years may be linked to greater use of well tolerated once-daily drugs. ..
  50. Karim S. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in injecting drug users. Lancet. 2013;381:2060-2 pubmed publisher
  51. Beyrer C, Bekker L, Pozniak A, Barré Sinoussi F. Pre-exposure prophylaxis works--it's time to deliver. Lancet. 2015;385:1482-4 pubmed publisher
  52. Chu Y, Williams N, Hengge A. Transition States and Control of Substrate Preference in the Promiscuous Phosphatase PP1. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3923-3933 pubmed publisher
  53. Atta M, Stokes M. ASN clinical pathological conference. Tenofovir-related ATN (severe). Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:882-90 pubmed publisher
  54. Tsai C, Follis K, Beck T, Sabo A, Bischofberger N, Dailey P. Effects of (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine monotherapy on chronic SIV infection in macaques. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997;13:707-12 pubmed
    ..At a dose of 30 mg/kg/day PMPA was well tolerated, causing no side effects while increasing the mean CD4+ cell counts in animals that received this dose. Thus PMPA seems to be a promising agent for use against retroviral infections. ..
  55. Bergan T. Pharmacokinetic comparison between fosfomycin and other phosphonic acid derivatives. Chemotherapy. 1990;36 Suppl 1:10-8 pubmed
    ..This applies to both bioavailability and urinary recovery, while at the same time the medium long half-life renders moderate fluctuation of concentrations whereby longer dosage intervals are possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  56. He L, Liu X, Zhao Y, Zhang S, Jiang Y, Wang X, et al. Efficacy of Nucleot(s)ide Analogs Therapy in Patients with Unresectable HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Dis Markers. 2017;2017:7075935 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Conclusions. Nucleot(s)ide analogs therapy after unresectable treatment has potential beneficial effects in terms of overall survival and progression-free survival. NA therapy should be considered in clinical practice. ..
  57. Vitha T, Kubíček V, Kotek J, Hermann P, Vander Elst L, Muller R, et al. Gd(iii) complex of a monophosphinate-bis(phosphonate) DOTA analogue with a high relaxivity; Lanthanide(iii) complexes for imaging and radiotherapy of calcified tissues. Dalton Trans. 2009;:3204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Slowing down of the tumbling rate of the Gd-DO3AP(BP) complex upon adsorption on hydroxyapatite also leads to an increase of the relaxivity (r(1) = 17 s(-1) mM(-1), 20 MHz, 25 degrees C, pH = 7.5). ..
  58. Fernández Valle M, Martínez Alvarez R, Molero Vílchez D, Pardo Z, Sáez Barajas E, Herrera A. 2D ultrafast HMBC 1H,31P: obtaining mechanistic details on the Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction. J Org Chem. 2015;80:799-805 pubmed
    ..The experiments again show the power of UF-NMR in mechanistic studies of reactions involving various phosphorus chemical species. ..
  59. Pradère U, Garnier Amblard E, Coats S, Amblard F, Schinazi R. Synthesis of nucleoside phosphate and phosphonate prodrugs. Chem Rev. 2014;114:9154-218 pubmed publisher
  60. Kruse L, Stover K, Henderson H. Perceptions of emtricitabine-tenofovir in HIV PrEP. HIV Clin. 2014;26:1, 4-7 pubmed
  61. Spaulding A, Rutherford G, Siegfried N. Tenofovir or zidovudine in three-drug combination therapy with one nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;:CD008740 pubmed publisher
    ..How much the other drugs in the regimens contributed to these findings is unclear, and true head-to-head trials are still warranted. The role of each drug in initial ART likely will be driven by their specific toxicities. ..
  62. Lai C, Yuen M. Chronic hepatitis B--new goals, new treatment. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2488-91 pubmed publisher
  63. Carey D, Puls R, Amin J, Losso M, Phanupak P, Foulkes S, et al. Efficacy and safety of efavirenz 400 mg daily versus 600 mg daily: 96-week data from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority ENCORE1 study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:793-802 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the routine use of efavirenz 400 mg. The coadministration of rifampicin and efavirenz 400 mg needs further investigation. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and UNSW Australia. ..
  64. Kaiser M, Baszczyňski O, Hocková D, Poštová Slavětínská L, Dracinsky M, Keough D, et al. Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Containing 9-Deazahypoxanthine and a Five-Membered Heterocycle as Selective Inhibitors of Plasmodial 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1133-1141 pubmed publisher
  65. Breeze S. Novel HIV-1 treatment Stribild™ gains regulatory approval. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2012;5:613 pubmed publisher
  66. Demmer C, Krogsgaard Larsen N, Bunch L. Review on modern advances of chemical methods for the introduction of a phosphonic acid group. Chem Rev. 2011;111:7981-8006 pubmed publisher