paraoxon

Summary

Summary: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.

Top Publications

  1. Risinger F, Quick E, Belknap J. Quantitative trait loci for acute behavioral sensitivity to paraoxon. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2000;22:667-74 pubmed
    ..trait loci (QTL) associated with acute sensitivity or insensitivity to hypolocomotion produced by the OP paraoxon were identified...
  2. Petroianu G, Hardt F, Toomes M, Bergler W, Rufer R. High-dose intravenous paraoxon exposure does not cause organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) in mini pigs. J Appl Toxicol. 2001;21:263-8 pubmed
    ..Although in vitro NTE is resistant to paraoxon (PX), occasional case reports have associated PX with OPIDN. To assess clinically whether or not high-dose i.v...
  3. Saleh A, Vijayasarathy C, Masoud L, Kumar L, Shahin A, Kambal A. Paraoxon induces apoptosis in EL4 cells via activation of mitochondrial pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;190:47-57 pubmed
    The toxicity of organophosphorus compounds, such as paraoxon (POX), is due to their anticholinesterase action...
  4. Charlton Menys V, Liu Y, Durrington P. Semiautomated method for determination of serum paraoxonase activity using paraoxon as substrate. Clin Chem. 2006;52:453-7 pubmed
    ..in addition, automation presents particular problems because of the extreme toxicity of substrates such as paraoxon. We established a relatively safe microtiter plate method that facilitates the determination of PON1 activity at ..
  5. Mohammadi M, Ghani E, Ghasemi A, Khoshbaten A, Asgari A. Synaptosomal GABA uptake decreases in paraoxon-treated rat brain. Toxicology. 2008;244:42-8 pubmed
    A synaptosomal model was used to evaluate in vivo effects of paraoxon on the uptake of [(3)H]GABA in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of one of three doses of paraoxon (0...
  6. Ruban A, Mohar B, Jona G, Teichberg V. Blood glutamate scavenging as a novel neuroprotective treatment for paraoxon intoxication. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..acid in combination with glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase to reduce the neuronal damage in an animal model of paraoxon (PO) intoxication...
  7. Richter R, Jarvik G, Furlong C. Paraoxonase 1 status as a risk factor for disease or exposure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;660:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple high throughput two-substrate assay/analysis, plotting rates of diazoxon hydrolysis vs. paraoxon hydrolysis, provided both PON1 levels and functional Q192R phenotype/genotype...
  8. Cho T, Tiffany Castiglioni E. Neurofilament 200 as an indicator of differences between mipafox and paraoxon sensitivity in Sy5Y neuroblastoma cells. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004;67:987-1000 pubmed
    ..b>Paraoxon (up to 30 microM), which does not produce OPIDN, did not produce any change in NF200 expression in set A or set B...
  9. Vatanparast J, Janahmadi M, Asgari A. Involvement of protein kinase C and IP3-mediated Ca2+ release in activity modulation by paraoxon in snail neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;571:81-7 pubmed
    We have previously reported that paraoxon, an organophosphate compound, at submicromolar concentrations effectively suppresses Ca2+ action potentials and modulates the activity of snail neurons...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Sogorb M, González González I, Pamies D, Vilanova E. An alternative in vitro method for detecting neuropathic compounds based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition and on inhibition and aging of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:942-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vivo-in vitro discrepancies with two of the tested compounds can be explained on the basis of differences between in vivo and in vitro biotransformation. ..
  2. Santos H, Cintra W, Aracava Y, Maciel C, Castro N, Albuquerque E. Spine density and dendritic branching pattern of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in neonatal rats chronically exposed to the organophosphate paraoxon. Neurotoxicology. 2004;25:481-94 pubmed
    The organophosphate cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor paraoxon is the oxidized active metabolite of parathion, a pesticide whose use in agriculture has been matter of increasing concern...
  3. Islas González K, González Horta C, Sánchez Ramírez B, Reyes Aragón E, Levario Carrillo M. In vitro assessment of the genotoxicity of ethyl paraoxon in newborns and adults. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005;24:319-24 pubmed
    This in vitro experiment measured the genotoxic effects of ethyl paraoxon, the active metabolite of ethyl parathion. To assess genotoxicity, we used the micronuclei (MN) technique by blocking cytokinesis, and the 'comet' assay...
  4. Hawwa R, Larsen S, Ratia K, Mesecar A. Structure-based and random mutagenesis approaches increase the organophosphate-degrading activity of a phosphotriesterase homologue from Deinococcus radiodurans. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:36-57 pubmed publisher
    ..we sought to improve the OP-degrading activity of Dr-OPH, specifically toward the pesticides ethyl and methyl paraoxon, using structure-based and random approaches...
  5. Pohanka M, Jun D, Kuca K. Photometric microplate assay for estimation of the efficacy of paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase reactivation. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008;23:781-4 pubmed
    Photometric microplate assay was performed for testing of paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using three reactivators for reactivation purposes: obidoxime, pralidoxime, and HI-6. 3-D graphs (percent of reactivation vs...
  6. Deakin S, Leviev I, Brulhart Meynet M, James R. Paraoxonase-1 promoter haplotypes and serum paraoxonase: a predominant role for polymorphic position - 107, implicating the Sp1 transcription factor. Biochem J. 2003;372:643-9 pubmed
    ..A potential role for the transcription factor Sp1 has been demonstrated, which is consistent with the disruption of an Sp1 recognition sequence by the -107 polymorphism. ..
  7. Estevez J, Mangas I, Sogorb M, Vilanova E. Interactions of neuropathy inducers and potentiators/promoters with soluble esterases. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;203:245-50 pubmed publisher
  8. Jarvik G, Rozek L, Brophy V, Hatsukami T, Richter R, Schellenberg G, et al. Paraoxonase (PON1) phenotype is a better predictor of vascular disease than is PON1(192) or PON1(55) genotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:2441-7 pubmed
    ..Two PON1 substrate hydrolysis rates (paraoxon [POase] and diazoxon [DZOase]) were significantly lower in cases than in controls and were significant predictors ..
  9. Worek F, Aurbek N, Thiermann H. Reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited human AChE by combinations of obidoxime and HI 6 in vitro. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:582-8 pubmed
    ..the feasibility of combining obidoxime and HI 6, human AChE inhibited by sarin, cyclosarin, VX, tabun and paraoxon was reactivated by these oximes either alone or in combination...
  10. Jun D, Musilova L, Kuca K, Kassa J, Bajgar J. Potency of several oximes to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by paraoxon in vitro. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;175:421-4 pubmed publisher
    ..methoxime and H-oxime HI-6) to reactivate human erythrocyte AChE and human plasma BuChE inhibited by pesticide paraoxon. For this purpose, modified Ellman's method was used and two different concentrations of oximes (10 and 100 ..
  11. Delaunois A, Gustin P, Vargas M, Ansay M. Protective effect of various antagonists of inflammatory mediators against paraoxon-induced pulmonary edema in the rabbit. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995;132:343-5 pubmed
    The protective effect of some antagonists of various inflammatory mediators against paraoxon-induced increases in endothelial permeability has been investigated in isolated perfused rabbit lungs...
  12. Ghasemi A, Sadidi A, Mohammadi M, Khoshbaten A, Asgari A. Paraoxon inhibits GABA uptake in brain synaptosomes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:1499-504 pubmed
    To investigate possible effect of paraoxon (10(-9)-10(-3)M) on GABA uptake, we used rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes. K(m) and V(max) of GABA uptake were determined in presence of paraoxon (10(-3)M)...
  13. Ortigoza Ferado J, Richter R, Hornung S, Motulsky A, Furlong C. Paraoxon hydrolysis in human serum mediated by a genetically variable arylesterase and albumin. Am J Hum Genet. 1984;36:295-305 pubmed
    ..An optimal assay of polymorphic paraoxonase activity should be based on activity measurements of the nonalbumin fraction. It is considered likely that only the nonalbumin fraction is responsible for in vivo hydrolysis of paraoxon.
  14. Petrikovics I, Papahadjopoulos D, Hong K, Cheng T, Baskin S, Jiang J, et al. Comparing therapeutic and prophylactic protection against the lethal effect of paraoxon. Toxicol Sci. 2004;77:258-62 pubmed
    ..encapsulating recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), either alone or in various specific combinations, in paraoxon poisoning. Prophylactic and therapeutic properties of atropine and 2-PAM are diminished when they are used alone...
  15. Amitai G, Moorad D, Adani R, Doctor B. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos-oxon. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998;56:293-9 pubmed
    ..phosphorothioate; Dursban) are metabolically converted by oxidative desulfuration into paraoxon and chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO)...
  16. Kousba A, Sultatos L, Poet T, Timchalk C. Comparison of chlorpyrifos-oxon and paraoxon acetylcholinesterase inhibition dynamics: potential role of a peripheral binding site. Toxicol Sci. 2004;80:239-48 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and paraoxon (PO) with rat brain AChE to assess the dynamics of AChE inhibition and the potential role of a peripheral binding ..
  17. Sogorb M, García Argüelles S, Carrera V, Vilanova E. Serum albumin is as efficient as paraxonase in the detoxication of paraoxon at toxicologically relevant concentrations. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:1524-9 pubmed publisher
    Human serum albumin was able to hydrolyze the organophosphorus compounds paraoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and diazoxon at toxicologically relevant concentrations...
  18. Shaikh J, Karanth S, Chakraborty D, Pruett S, Pope C. Effects of daily stress or repeated paraoxon exposures on subacute pyridostigmine toxicity in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77:576-83 pubmed
    ..treadmill running) stress or daily exposure to a subclinical dosage of the organophosphate ChE inhibitor paraoxon (PO) on ChE inhibition in blood, diaphragm and selected brain regions in young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats ..
  19. Johnson B, Melde B, Thomas C, Malanoski A, Leska I, Charles P, et al. Fluorescent silicate materials for the detection of paraoxon. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:2315-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The materials can be stored under ambient conditions and offer exceptional shelf-life. Here, we report on the design of PEMs with specificity for organophosphates and compounds of similar structure...
  20. Hong M, Hong S, Barhoumi R, Burghardt R, Donnelly K, Wild J, et al. Neurotoxicity induced in differentiated SK-N-SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by organophosphorus compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;186:110-8 pubmed
    ..Mipafox and paraoxon were used as OP models that respectively do and do not induce OPIDN. Mipafox (0...
  21. Oh K, Park N, Park N, Kuca K, Jun D, Jung Y. Reactivation of DFP- and paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterases by pyridinium oximes. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;175:365-7 pubmed publisher
    ..nitrogen atoms were evaluated with housefly (HF) AChE inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP) and by paraoxon. The bis-pyridinium oximes showed stronger activity compared with mono-pyridinium oxime, and the magnitude of ..
  22. Kayouka M, Houze P, Debray M, Baud F. Acute renal failure enhances the antidotal activity of pralidoxime towards paraoxon-induced respiratory toxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2009;189:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of pralidoxime in normal and acute renal failure rats against paraoxon-induced respiratory toxicity...
  23. Lorke D, Hasan M, Nurulain S, Shafiullah M, Nagelkerke N, Petroianu G. Effect of intrathecal pralidoxime administration upon survival of rats exposed to the organophosphate paraoxon. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:663-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of 2-PAM into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the effect of intrathecal 2-PAM injections upon mortality after paraoxon intoxication was examined...
  24. Porzio E, Merone L, Mandrich L, Rossi M, Manco G. A new phosphotriesterase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and its comparison with the homologue from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Biochimie. 2007;89:625-36 pubmed
    ..bacterium Pseudomonas diminuta, is thought to have evolved in the last several decades to degrade the pesticide paraoxon with proficiency approaching the limit of substrate diffusion (k(cat)/K(M) of 4 x 10(7)M(-1)s(-1))...
  25. Pourabdolhossein F, Ghasemi A, Shahroukhi A, Sherafat M, Khoshbaten A, Asgari A. In vitro assessment of paraoxon effects on GABA uptake in rat hippocampal synaptosomes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:868-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The present investigation studied the potential interactions between paraoxon and GABA uptake in hippocampal synaptosomes. Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used...
  26. Musilova L, Kuca K, Jung Y, Jun D. In vitro oxime-assisted reactivation of paraoxon-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Eighteen structurally different oxime reactivators were tested for their in vitro ability to reactivate paraoxon-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase to find out structure-..
  27. Kuca K, Musilova L, Palecek J, Cirkva V, Paar M, Musilek K, et al. Novel bisquaternary oximes--reactivation of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibited by paraoxon. Molecules. 2009;14:4915-21 pubmed publisher
    ..1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC 3.1.1.8) inhibited by paraoxon. Their reactivation activity was compared with standard reactivators--pralidoxime, obidoxime and HI-6--which are ..
  28. Hasan M, Nurulain S, Arafat K, Naseer O, Petroianu G. In vivo metoclopramide protection of cholinesterase from paraoxon inhibition: direct comparison with pralidoxime in subchronic low-dose exposure. J Appl Toxicol. 2004;24:257-60 pubmed
    The benzamide compound metoclopramide (MCP) protects against cholinesterase inhibition by paraoxon (POX) both in vitro and in vivo...
  29. Mackness B, Davies G, Turkie W, Lee E, Roberts D, Hill E, et al. Paraoxonase status in coronary heart disease: are activity and concentration more important than genotype?. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:1451-7 pubmed
    ..activity and concentration were significantly lower in subjects with CHD than in control subjects (activity to paraoxon 122.8 [3.3 to 802.8] versus 214.6 [26.3 to 620.8] nmol. min(-1). mL(-1), P<0.001; concentration 71.6 [11...
  30. Valdés Ramírez G, Gutierrez M, del Valle M, Ramirez Silva M, Fournier D, Marty J. Automated resolution of dichlorvos and methylparaoxon pesticide mixtures employing a Flow Injection system with an inhibition electronic tongue. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;24:1103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 microM and methylparaoxon from 0.001 to 2.5 microM. This system can be considered an inhibition electronic tongue. ..
  31. Musilek K, Kucera J, Jun D, Dohnal V, Opletalova V, Kuca K. Monoquaternary pyridinium salts with modified side chain-synthesis and evaluation on model of tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:8218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime, methoxime) and the prepared compounds were tested in vitro on a model of tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited AChE...
  32. Narimatsu E, Niiya T, Kawamata T, Kawamata M, Yamakage M. Effects of atropine and pralidoxime on neuronal actions of paraoxon in rat hippocampal slices. Neurosci Res. 2010;68:276-84 pubmed publisher
    The actions of paraoxon, an organophosphorus cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, on central synaptic transmission and somatic excitability, and the inhibitory effects of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) ..
  33. Aryal U, Lin C, Kim J, Heibeck T, Wang J, Qian W, et al. Identification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;723:68-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate) is an active metabolite of the common insecticide parathion and is acutely toxic due to the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous systems...
  34. Musilek K, Holas O, Kuca K, Jun D, Dohnal V, Opletalova V, et al. Novel series of bispyridinium compounds bearing a (Z)-but-2-ene linker--synthesis and evaluation of their reactivation activity against tabun and paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:3172-6 pubmed
    ..Their ability to reactivate AChE, which had been previously inhibited by nerve agent tabun or pesticide paraoxon, was tested in vitro and compared to pralidoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, and K075...
  35. Rodrigo L, Gil F, Hernandez A, Marina A, Vazquez J, Pla A. Purification and characterization of paraoxon hydrolase from rat liver. Biochem J. 1997;321 ( Pt 3):595-601 pubmed
    Paraoxonase (paraoxon hydrolase), an enzyme that hydrolyses paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphate), is located in mammals primarily in the serum and liver...
  36. Wong K, Gao J. The reaction mechanism of paraoxon hydrolysis by phosphotriesterase from combined QM/MM simulations. Biochemistry. 2007;46:13352-69 pubmed
    ..mechanical (QM/MM) potentials have been carried out to investigate the reaction mechanism of the hydrolysis of paraoxon by phosphotriesterase (PTE)...
  37. Musilek K, Holas O, Jun D, Dohnal V, Gunn Moore F, Opletalova V, et al. Monooxime reactivators of acetylcholinesterase with (E)-but-2-ene linker: preparation and reactivation of tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:6733-41 pubmed
    ..pralidoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, K075, K203) and the new compounds were tested in vitro on a model of tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited AChE...
  38. Rosenfeld C, Sultatos L. Concentration-dependent kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by the organophosphate paraoxon. Toxicol Sci. 2006;90:460-9 pubmed
    ..more recently certain kinetic complexities in the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by organophosphates such as paraoxon (O,O-diethyl O-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate) and chlorpyrifos oxon (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) ..
  39. Vatanparast J, Janahmadi M, Asgari A, Sepehri H, Haeri Rohani A. Paraoxon suppresses Ca(2+) spike and afterhyperpolarization in snail neurons: Relevance to the hyperexcitability induction. Brain Res. 2006;1083:110-7 pubmed
    The effects of organophosphate (OP) paraoxon, active metabolite of parathion, were studied on the Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) spikes and on the excitability of the neuronal soma membranes of land snail (Caucasotachea atrolabiata). Paraoxon (0...
  40. Mangas I, Vilanova E, Estevez J. Kinetics of the inhibitory interaction of organophosphorus neuropathy inducers and non-inducers in soluble esterases in the avian nervous system. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256:360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the interactions (inhibition, spontaneous reactivation and "ongoing inhibition") of two model OPs (paraoxon, non neuropathy-inducer, and mipafox, neuropathy-inducer) with the chicken brain soluble esterases were evaluated...
  41. Petroianu G, Arafat K, Kosanovic M, Saleh A, Camasamudram V, Hasan M. In vitro protection of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase by metoclopramide from inhibition by organophosphates (paraoxon and mipafox). J Appl Toxicol. 2003;23:447-51 pubmed
    ..study was to quantify 'in vitro', by means of the IC50 shift, the extent of MCP conferred protection, by using paraoxon (POX) and mipafox (MPFX) as inhibitors...
  42. Sanchez Santed F, Cañadas F, Flores P, Lopez Grancha M, Cardona D. Long-term functional neurotoxicity of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos: behavioural and pharmacological evidence. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004;26:305-17 pubmed
    ..study uses a series of behavioural tests to discern the short- and long-term effects of acute intoxications with paraoxon (Px) or chlorpyrifos (CPF)...
  43. Rosman Y, Eisenkraft A, Krivoy A, Schein O, Makarovski I, Shrot S, et al. Using MRI for the assessment of paraoxon-induced brain damage and efficacy of antidotal treatment. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objectives were to study the application of MRI for assessment of paraoxon-induced brain damage and the efficacy of antidotal treatments...
  44. Lorke D, Petroianu G. Minireview: does in-vitro testing of oximes help predict their in-vivo action after paraoxon exposure?. J Appl Toxicol. 2009;29:459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..our in vitro data obtained for conventional and experimental oximes in human and rat blood exposed to the OPC paraoxon and correlates them with our in vivo results...
  45. Petroianu G, Nurulain S, Nagelkerke N, Al Sultan M, Kuca K, Kassa J. Five oximes (K-27, K-33, K-48, BI-6 and methoxime) in comparison with pralidoxime: survival in rats exposed to the organophosphate paraoxon. J Appl Toxicol. 2006;26:262-8 pubmed
    ..Based on our previous in vitro work the protection conferred by the various new oximes against inhibition by paraoxon as quantified by the IC(50) shift (nM increase in the IC(50) of the inhibitor per microM oxime present) is: 0...
  46. Saleh A, Vijayasarathy C, Fernandez Cabezudo M, Taleb M, Petroianu G. Influence of paraoxon (POX) and parathion (PAT) on apoptosis: a possible mechanism for toxicity in low-dose exposure. J Appl Toxicol. 2003;23:23-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of different concentrations of paraoxon (POX) and parathion (PAT) in murine EL4 T lymphocytes...
  47. Bosgra S, van Eijkeren J, van der Schans M, Langenberg J, Slob W. Toxicodynamic analysis of the combined cholinesterase inhibition by paraoxon and methamidophos in human whole blood. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;236:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of cholinesterases (ChE) in human whole blood by various dose combinations of paraoxon and methamidophos was measured in vitro...
  48. Olivier K, Liu J, Pope C. Inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in vitro by paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon in cortical slices from neonatal, juvenile, and adult rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2001;15:263-9 pubmed
    ..insecticides, which elicit toxicity following biotransformation to the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, paraoxon (PO) and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO)...
  49. Ileperuma N, Marshall S, Squire C, Baker H, Oakeshott J, Russell R, et al. High-resolution crystal structure of plant carboxylesterase AeCXE1, from Actinidia eriantha, and its complex with a high-affinity inhibitor paraoxon. Biochemistry. 2007;46:1851-9 pubmed
    ..AeCXE1 was also found to be inhibited by organophosphates, with paraoxon (IC50 = 1.1 muM) a more potent inhibitor than dimethylchlorophosphate (DMCP; IC50 = 9.2 muM)...
  50. Jennings L, Malecki M, Komives E, Taylor P. Direct analysis of the kinetic profiles of organophosphate-acetylcholinesterase adducts by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2003;42:11083-91 pubmed
    ..Tryptic digests of purified recombinant mouse AChE (mAChE) were fractionally inhibited by paraoxon to form diethyl phosphoryl enzyme...
  51. ROSENBERG Y, Gearhart J, Mao L, Jiang X, Hernandez Abanto S. Protection against paraoxon toxicity by an intravenous pretreatment with polyethylene-glycol-conjugated recombinant butyrylcholinesterase in macaques. Chem Biol Interact. 2014;210:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..v.) and exposed subcutaneously to 12?g/kg of the potent pesticide paraoxon (Px) at 1h or at 1 and 72h, respectively...
  52. Abramochkin D, Borodinova A, Rosenshtraukh L. Effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor paraoxon denote the possibility of non-quantal acetylcholine release in myocardium of different vertebrates. J Comp Physiol B. 2012;182:101-8 pubmed publisher
    Effects of organophosphorous acetylcholinesterase inhibitor paraoxon were studied in the isolated atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations of a fish (cod), an amphibian (frog) and a mammal (rat) using the microelectrode technique...
  53. de la Peña Mattozzi M, Tehara S, Hong T, Keasling J. Mineralization of paraoxon and its use as a sole C and P source by a rationally designed catabolic pathway in Pseudomonas putida. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:6699-706 pubmed
    ..We constructed a strain of Pseudomonas putida that can efficiently degrade a model organophosphate, paraoxon, and use it as a carbon, energy, and phosphorus source...
  54. Lei C, Valenta M, Saripalli K, Ackerman E. Biosensing paraoxon in simulated environmental samples by immobilized organophosphorus hydrolase in functionalized mesoporous silica. J Environ Qual. 2007;36:233-8 pubmed
    ..The resulting enzyme biosensor, when integrated with an electrochemical instrument, responded rapidly to low paraoxon concentration and achieved steady-state current in less than 10 s, with a detection limit of 4...
  55. Eckert S, Eyer P, Herkert N, Bumm R, Weber G, Thiermann H, et al. Comparison of the oxime-induced reactivation of erythrocyte and muscle acetylcholinesterase following inhibition by sarin or paraoxon, using a perfusion model for the real-time determination of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75:698-703 pubmed
    ..004 min(-1) and 0.166+/-0.008 min(-1), respectively). The reactivation rate constants of erythrocyte and muscular acetylcholinesterase differed only slightly, highlighting erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase as a proper surrogate marker. ..
  56. Saffih Hdadi K, Bruckler L, Amichot M, Belzunces L. Modeling impact of parathion and its metabolite paraoxon on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1387-94 pubmed
    ..In vivo, it is activated to the toxic metabolite paraoxon. Laboratory experiments have shown that a single relationship between the variable (concentration x time of ..
  57. Mangas I, Vilanova E, Est vez J. NTE and non-NTE esterases in brain membrane: kinetic characterization with organophosphates. Toxicology. 2012;297:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..and characterize the interaction (inhibition, reactivation and "ongoing inhibition") of two model compounds: paraoxon (non-neuropathy-inducer) and mipafox (neuropathy-inducer), with esterases of chicken brain membranes, an animal ..
  58. Musilek K, Holas O, Kuca K, Jun D, Dohnal V, Opletalova V, et al. Synthesis of monooxime-monocarbamoyl bispyridinium compounds bearing (E)-but-2-ene linker and evaluation of their reactivation activity against tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008;23:70-6 pubmed
    ..Their potency to reactivate AChE inhibited by the nerve agent tabun and insecticide paraoxon was tested in vitro...