organophosphorus compounds


Summary: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.

Top Publications

  1. Sexton K, Ryan A, Adgate J, Barr D, Needham L. Biomarker measurements of concurrent exposure to multiple environmental chemicals and chemical classes in children. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:927-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, levels of cotinine in urine indicate that more than half the children were regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, with the upper 10th percentile exposed to relatively high concentrations. ..
  2. Walker Samuel S, Boult J, McPhail L, Box G, Eccles S, Robinson S. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of vessel calibre in orthotopic prostate tumour xenografts. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:1284-93 pubmed publisher
  3. Theriot C, Grunden A. Hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds by microbial enzymes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Current and future potential applications of these enzymes in the hydrolysis of OP compounds are also addressed. ..
  4. Smith R, Hartley R, Murphy M. Mitochondria-targeted small molecule therapeutics and probes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15:3021-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These targeting methods will be used to direct many other bioactive molecules to mitochondria and many more wider applications other than just to antioxidants can be anticipated in the future. ..
  5. Dishaw L, Powers C, Ryde I, Roberts S, Seidler F, Slotkin T, et al. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;256:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants. ..
  6. Sun H, Sheng J, Hassan A, Jiang S, Gan J, Huang Z. Novel RNA base pair with higher specificity using single selenium atom. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:5171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This oxygen replacement with selenium offers a unique chemical strategy to enhance the base pairing specificity at the atomic level. ..
  7. Addeo R, Caraglia M, De Santi M, Montella L, Abbruzzese A, Parlato C, et al. A new schedule of fotemustine in temozolomide-pretreated patients with relapsing glioblastoma. J Neurooncol. 2011;102:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that FTM has therapeutic efficacy as single-drug second-line chemotherapy with a favorable safety profile. ..
  8. Dong L, Jameson V, Tilly D, Prochazka L, Rohlena J, Valis K, et al. Mitochondrial targeting of ?-tocopheryl succinate enhances its pro-apoptotic efficacy: a new paradigm for effective cancer therapy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:1546-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that mitochondrially targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents offers a new paradigm for increasing the efficacy of compounds with anti-cancer activity. ..
  9. Del Vecchio M, Mortarini R, Canova S, Di Guardo L, Pimpinelli N, Sertoli M, et al. Bevacizumab plus fotemustine as first-line treatment in metastatic melanoma patients: clinical activity and modulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis factors. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:5862-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of bevacizumab plus fotemustine has clinical activity in advanced melanoma and promotes systemic modulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis factors. ..

More Information


  1. Chowdhury A, Jahan S, Islam M, Moniruzzaman M, Alam M, Zaman M, et al. Occurrence of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues in surface water samples from the Rangpur district of Bangladesh. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;89:202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..544-0.895, 0.949-1.671 and 0-0.195 ?g/L, respectively. This result indicates that the general public living in the area of Rangpur is at high risk of pesticide exposure from contaminated waters in the environment. ..
  2. Wunderlich C, Spitzer R, Santner T, Fauster K, Tollinger M, Kreutz C. Synthesis of (6-(13)C)pyrimidine nucleotides as spin-labels for RNA dynamics. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:7558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Using (13)C CPMG relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy, the milli- to microsecond dynamics of the HIV-1 transactivation response element RNA and the Varkud satellite stem loop V motif was addressed...
  3. Karami Mohajeri S, Abdollahi M. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;270:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. ..
  4. MacKenzie G, Ouyang N, Xie G, Vranková K, Huang L, Sun Y, et al. Phospho-sulindac (OXT-328) combined with difluoromethylornithine prevents colon cancer in mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:1052-60 pubmed publisher
    ..P-S/DFMO has an intricate mechanism of action extending beyond polyamines and including the thioredoxin system, an emerging regulator of chemoprevention. P-S/DFMO merits further evaluation. ..
  5. Lin Y, Park J, De Schutter J, Huang X, Berghuis A, Sebag M, et al. Design and synthesis of active site inhibitors of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase: apoptosis and inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in multiple myeloma cells. J Med Chem. 2012;55:3201-15 pubmed publisher
    ..An analogue of this series was used to demonstrate inhibition of the intended biological target, resulting in apoptosis and down-regulation of ERK phosphorylation in human MM cell lines. ..
  6. Van den Eede N, Dirtu A, Neels H, Covaci A. Analytical developments and preliminary assessment of human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants from indoor dust. Environ Int. 2011;37:454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure of non-working and working adults to OPFRs appeared to be similar, but in specific work environments, exposure to some OPFRs (e.g. TDCPP) was increased by a factor >5. ..
  7. Mukhopadhyay P, Horváth B, Zsengeller Z, Batkai S, Cao Z, Kechrid M, et al. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation triggers inflammatory response and tissue injury associated with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion: therapeutic potential of mitochondrially targeted antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1123-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrially generated oxidants play a central role in triggering the deleterious cascade of events associated with hepatic I/R, which may be targeted by novel antioxidants for therapeutic advantage. ..
  8. Androutsopoulos V, Hernandez A, Liesivuori J, Tsatsakis A. A mechanistic overview of health associated effects of low levels of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Toxicology. 2013;307:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the mechanism of pesticide-mediated toxicity is a combination of various enzyme-inhibitory, metabolic and transcriptional events acting at the cellular and molecular level. ..
  9. Tsai P, Bigley A, Li Y, Ghanem E, Cadieux C, Kasten S, et al. Stereoselective hydrolysis of organophosphate nerve agents by the bacterial phosphotriesterase. Biochemistry. 2010;49:7978-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Organophosphorus compounds include many synthetic, neurotoxic substances that are commonly used as insecticides. The toxicity of these compounds is due to their ability to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholine esterase...
  10. Huang L, Mackenzie G, Ouyang N, Sun Y, Xie G, Johnson F, et al. The novel phospho-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, OXT-328, MDC-22 and MDC-917, inhibit adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:1521-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel compounds are promising candidate drugs for the treatment of RA and merit further evaluation. ..
  11. Van Dyk J, Pletschke B. Review on the use of enzymes for the detection of organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in the environment. Chemosphere. 2011;82:291-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods can serve as a tool for screening large samples which can be followed up with the more traditional chromatographic methods of analysis...
  12. Lim S, Rashid M, Jang M, Kim Y, Won H, Lee J, et al. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants protect pancreatic ?-cells against oxidative stress and improve insulin secretion in glucotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;28:873-86 pubmed publisher
  13. Profaci C, Krolikowski K, Olszewski R, Neale J. Group II mGluR agonist LY354740 and NAAG peptidase inhibitor effects on prepulse inhibition in PCP and D-amphetamine models of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;216:235-43 pubmed publisher
  14. Artsimovitch I, Svetlov V, Nemetski S, Epshtein V, Cardozo T, Nudler E. Tagetitoxin inhibits RNA polymerase through trapping of the trigger loop. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:40395-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies highlight the role of TL as a target through which accessory proteins and antibiotics can alter the elongation complex dynamics...
  15. Barr D, Wong L, Bravo R, Weerasekera G, Odetokun M, Restrepo P, et al. Urinary concentrations of dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:3063-98 pubmed publisher
    ..However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. ..
  16. Harley K, Huen K, Aguilar Schall R, Holland N, Bradman A, Barr D, et al. Association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and paraoxonase with birth outcome in Mexican-American women. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23923 pubmed publisher
    ..PON1 may be another factor contributing to preterm or low birth weight birth. ..
  17. Thabet I, Guirimand G, Courdavault V, Papon N, Godet S, Dutilleul C, et al. The subcellular localization of periwinkle farnesyl diphosphate synthase provides insight into the role of peroxisome in isoprenoid biosynthesis. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:2110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is discussed in relation to the subcellular distribution of FPS isoforms in plants and animals and opens new perspectives towards the understanding of isoprenoid biosynthesis. ..
  18. Biswas S, Dodwadkar N, Piroyan A, Torchilin V. Surface conjugation of triphenylphosphonium to target poly(amidoamine) dendrimers to mitochondria. Biomaterials. 2012;33:4773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This mitochondria-targeted dendrimer-based nanocarrier could be useful for imaging as well as for selective delivery of bio-actives to the mitochondria for the treatment of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  19. Flaskos J. The developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphorus insecticides: a direct role for the oxon metabolites. Toxicol Lett. 2012;209:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should aim at confirming the developmental neurotoxic capacity of the oxons under in vivo conditions and they must also be extended to include OP parent insecticides with a P=O moiety. ..
  20. van der Veen I, de Boer J. Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis. Chemosphere. 2012;88:1119-53 pubmed publisher
    ..GC-MS offers a higher selectivity than GC-NPD and the possibility of using isotopically labeled compounds for quantification. ..
  21. Smith R, Murphy M. Animal and human studies with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1201:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..MitoQ has now been used in a range of in vivo studies in rats and mice and in two phase II human trials. Here, we review what has been learned from these animal and human studies with MitoQ. ..
  22. Dusotoit Coucaud A, Kongsawadworakul P, Maurousset L, Viboonjun U, Brunel N, Pujade Renaud V, et al. Ethylene stimulation of latex yield depends on the expression of a sucrose transporter (HbSUT1B) in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Tree Physiol. 2010;30:1586-98 pubmed publisher
    ..A positive correlation with HbSUT1B transcript accumulation and increased latex production was further supported by its lower expression in latex cells of the virgin clone PB217...
  23. Mitchell T, Rotaru D, Saba H, Smith R, Murphy M, Macmillan Crow L. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone protects against cold storage injury of renal tubular cells and rat kidneys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:682-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate that MitoQ could potentially be of therapeutic use for reducing organ preservation damage and kidney discardment and/or possibly improving renal function after transplantation. ..
  24. Marks A, Harley K, Bradman A, Kogut K, Barr D, Johnson C, et al. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and attention in young Mexican-American children: the CHAMACOS study. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:1768-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These associations were somewhat stronger at 5 years than at 3.5 years and were stronger in boys. ..
  25. Kloiber K, Spitzer R, Tollinger M, Konrat R, Kreutz C. Probing RNA dynamics via longitudinal exchange and CPMG relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy using a sensitive 13C-methyl label. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:4340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..e. at 314 and 316 K. Finally, the dynamics of a multi-stable RNA able to fold into two hairpin- and a pseudo-knotted conformation was studied by (13)C relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy. ..
  26. Rao V, Klein S, Bonar S, Zielonka J, Mizuno N, Dickey J, et al. The antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 negatively regulates autophagy and growth arrest induced by the anticancer redox agent mitoquinone. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Keap1 and Nrf2 act as redox sensors for oxidative perturbations that lead to autophagy. MitoQ and similar compounds should be further evaluated for novel anticancer activity. ..
  27. Silvani A, Gaviani P, Lamperti E, Botturi A, Ferrari D, Simonetti G, et al. Lecture: fotemustine in brain tumors. Neurol Sci. 2011;32 Suppl 2:S255-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, some authors reported the interesting results of a multicenter study on recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patients combining FTMS with new antiangiogentic agent bevacizumab. ..
  28. Di Giacomo A, Ascierto P, Pilla L, Santinami M, Ferrucci P, Giannarelli D, et al. Ipilimumab and fotemustine in patients with advanced melanoma (NIBIT-M1): an open-label, single-arm phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:879-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of ipilimumab plus fotemustine has clinical activity in patients with metastatic melanoma, including those with brain metastases. Bristol-Myers Squibb. ..
  29. Wong C, Cheng K, Xie G, Zhou D, Zhu C, Constantinides P, et al. Carboxylesterases 1 and 2 hydrolyze phospho-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: relevance to their pharmacological activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;340:422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..037). Our results show that carboxylesterase mediates that metabolic inactivation of phospho-NSAIDs, and the inhibition of carboxylesterases improves the efficacy of phospho-NSAIDs in vitro and in vivo. ..
  30. Mukhopadhyay P, Horváth B, Zsengeller Z, Zielonka J, Tanchian G, Holovac E, et al. Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants represent a promising approach for prevention of cisplatin-induced nephropathy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Because similar compounds seem to be safe in humans, mitochondrially targeted antioxidants may represent a novel therapeutic approach against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. ..
  31. Mercer J, Yu E, Figg N, Cheng K, Prime T, Griffin J, et al. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ decreases features of the metabolic syndrome in ATM+/-/ApoE-/- mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strengthen the growing view that elevated mitochondrial ROS contributes to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome and suggest a potential therapeutic role for mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. ..
  32. Kapka Skrzypczak L, Cyranka M, Skrzypczak M, Kruszewski M. Biomonitoring and biomarkers of organophosphate pesticides exposure - state of the art. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18:294-303 pubmed
    ..The article also summarizes the latest reports about biomarkers of susceptibility, and mentions other biomarkers widely used in biomonitoring studies, such as pesticide or its metabolites level. ..
  33. Chalmers S, Caldwell S, Quin C, Prime T, James A, Cairns A, et al. Selective uncoupling of individual mitochondria within a cell using a mitochondria-targeted photoactivated protonophore. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:758-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This also provides a proof of principle for the general temporally and spatially controlled release of bioactive molecules, pharmacophores, or toxins to mitochondria with tissue, cell, or mitochondrion specificity. ..
  34. Rauch S, Braun J, Barr D, Calafat A, Khoury J, Montesano A, et al. Associations of prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticide metabolites with gestational age and birth weight. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Prenatal urinary ?DAP concentrations were associated with shortened gestation and reduced birth weight in this cohort, but the effects differed by race/ethnicity and PON1(192/108) genotypes. ..
  35. Cooper E, Covaci A, van Nuijs A, Webster T, Stapleton H. Analysis of the flame retardant metabolites bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:2123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented method is simple and sufficiently sensitive to detect these FR metabolites in humans and may be applied to future studies to increase our understanding of exposure to and potential health effects from FRs. ..
  36. Ghosh A, Chandran K, Kalivendi S, Joseph J, Antholine W, Hillard C, et al. Neuroprotection by a mitochondria-targeted drug in a Parkinson's disease model. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1674-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial targeting of antioxidants is a promising neuroprotective strategy in this preclinical mouse model of PD. ..
  37. Wang P, Tian Y, Wang X, Gao Y, Shi R, Wang G, et al. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and perinatal outcomes in Shanghai, China. Environ Int. 2012;42:100-4 pubmed publisher
  38. Cocheme H, Logan A, Prime T, Abakumova I, Quin C, McQuaker S, et al. Using the mitochondria-targeted ratiometric mass spectrometry probe MitoB to measure H2O2 in living Drosophila. Nat Protoc. 2012;7:946-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This method facilitates the investigation of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) in fly models of pathology and metabolic alteration, and it can also be extended to assess mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production in mouse and cell culture studies. ..
  39. Cunniff B, Benson K, Stumpff J, Newick K, Held P, Taatjes D, et al. Mitochondrial-targeted nitroxides disrupt mitochondrial architecture and inhibit expression of peroxiredoxin 3 and FOXM1 in malignant mesothelioma cells. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:835-45 pubmed publisher
  40. Klyuyev S, Vassylyev D. The binding site and mechanism of the RNA polymerase inhibitor tagetitoxin: an issue open to debate. Transcription. 2012;3:46-50 pubmed publisher
  41. Parikh K, Duysen E, Snow B, Jensen N, Manne V, Lockridge O, et al. Gene-delivered butyrylcholinesterase is prophylactic against the toxicity of chemical warfare nerve agents and organophosphorus compounds. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;337:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that gene-delivered BChE is a prophylactic and affords protection equivalent to that of a multimilligram injection of the same. ..
  42. Yoshida T, Yoshida J. Simultaneous analytical method for urinary metabolites of organophosphorus compounds and moth repellents in general population. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012;880:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..was developed for simultaneous measurement of urinary metabolites in the general population exposed to organophosphorus compounds (insecticides, flame retardants and plasticizers) and moth repellents used in Japanese households...
  43. Chacko B, Srivastava A, Johnson M, Benavides G, Chang M, Ye Y, et al. Mitochondria-targeted ubiquinone (MitoQ) decreases ethanol-dependent micro and macro hepatosteatosis. Hepatology. 2011;54:153-63 pubmed publisher
  44. Pazhenkottil A, Ghadri J, Nkoulou R, Wolfrum M, Buechel R, Küest S, et al. Improved outcome prediction by SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging after CT attenuation correction. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..7%), with a plateau at an SSS of 4-8 (3.2%). CT-AC for SPECT MPI allows improved risk stratification. The prognostically relevant SSS cutoff is shifted toward lower values. ..
  45. Shih T, Guarisco J, Myers T, Kan R, McDonough J. The oxime pro-2-PAM provides minimal protection against the CNS effects of the nerve agents sarin, cyclosarin, and VX in guinea pigs. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011;21:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Pro-2-PAM was able to reactivate blood, heart, and spinal cord ChE inhibited by cyclosarin, but was not effective against cyclosarin-induced seizures. ..
  46. Cocheme H, Quin C, McQuaker S, Cabreiro F, Logan A, Prime T, et al. Measurement of H2O2 within living Drosophila during aging using a ratiometric mass spectrometry probe targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Cell Metab. 2011;13:340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide approaches to investigate mitochondrial ROS in vivo and suggest that while an increase in overall mitochondrial H(2)O(2) correlates with aging, it may not be causative. ..
  47. Malinen A, Turtola M, Parthiban M, Vainonen L, Johnson M, Belogurov G. Active site opening and closure control translocation of multisubunit RNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The RNAP translocation mechanism is exploited by the antibiotic tagetitoxin, which mimics pyrophosphate and induces backward translocation by closing the active site...
  48. Paccapelo A, Lolli I, Fabrini M, Silvano G, Detti B, Perrone F, et al. A retrospective pooled analysis of response patterns and risk factors in recurrent malignant glioma patients receiving a nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. J Transl Med. 2012;10:90 pubmed publisher
    ..Time after the completion of radiotherapy and second surgery are independent treatment-related risk factors that were predictive of clinical benefit. ..
  49. McManus M, Murphy M, Franklin J. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ prevents loss of spatial memory retention and early neuropathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15703-15 pubmed publisher
  50. Xie G, Nie T, Mackenzie G, Sun Y, Huang L, Ouyang N, et al. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of phospho-sulindac (OXT-328) and the effect of difluoromethylornithine. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2152-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish the metabolism of PS define its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, describe its interactions with DFMO and largely explain its gastrointestinal safety. ..
  51. Porteous C, Logan A, Evans C, Ledgerwood E, Menon D, Aigbirhio F, et al. Rapid uptake of lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cations by mitochondria in vivo following intravenous injection: implications for mitochondria-specific therapies and probes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings greatly extend the utility of mitochondria-targeted lipophilic cations as therapies and probes. ..
  52. Angelini T, Bonollo S, Lanari D, Pizzo F, Vaccaro L. E-Factor minimized hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes catalyzed by polystyryl-BEMP under solvent-free conditions. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:5042-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A large scale protocol for the preparation of a representative ?-hydroxyphosphonate 3a has been also set up using a flow reactor. ..
  53. Nuber U, van Dorland H, Bruckmaier R. Effects of butafosfan with or without cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of early lactating cows with subclinical ketosis. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2016;100:146-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that the application of butafosfan only in combination with cyanocobalamin exhibits the expected positive effects on metabolism. ..