organotin compounds


Summary: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.

Top Publications

  1. Bhosle N, Garg A, Jadhav S, Harjee R, Sawant S, Venkat K, et al. Butyltins in water, biofilm, animals and sediments of the west coast of India. Chemosphere. 2004;57:897-907 pubmed
  2. Berto D, Giani M, Boscolo R, Covelli S, Giovanardi O, Massironi M, et al. Organotins (TBT and DBT) in water, sediments, and gastropods of the southern Venice lagoon (Italy). Mar Pollut Bull. 2007;55:425-35 pubmed
    ..The present study allowed assessment of whether, despite the ban on the use of TBT paints, waters, sediments, and biota were still being contaminated by organotin compounds in the southern Venice lagoon.
  3. Pagliarani A, Nesci S, Ventrella V. Toxicity of organotin compounds: shared and unshared biochemical targets and mechanisms in animal cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013;27:978-90 pubmed publisher
    Most biochemical effects of organotin compounds leading to toxicity are astonishingly similar in different animal species...
  4. Gumy C, Chandsawangbhuwana C, Dzyakanchuk A, Kratschmar D, Baker M, Odermatt A. Dibutyltin disrupts glucocorticoid receptor function and impairs glucocorticoid-induced suppression of cytokine production. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3545 pubmed publisher
    ..By blocking GR activation, DBT may disturb metabolic functions and modulation of the immune system, providing an explanation for some of the toxic effects of this organotin. ..
  5. Varela Ramirez A, Costanzo M, Carrasco Y, Pannell K, Aguilera R. Cytotoxic effects of two organotin compounds and their mode of inflicting cell death on four mammalian cancer cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2011;27:159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, both compounds induced apoptosis in the pro-B lymphocyte cell line, NFS-70. The work presented here also demonstrates that the two OT compounds possess selective cytotoxicity against distinct transformed cell lines. ..
  6. Li Y, Hu Y, Liu J, Guo Y, Wang G. [Determination of organotin compounds in textile auxiliaries by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2011;29:353-7 pubmed
    ..9994-0.9998. The detection limits (LOD) were from 0.003 mg/L to 0.005 mg/L. The average recoveries of these organotin compounds at the three spiked levels of 4.0, 10.0 and 40.0 mg/kg were 92.6%-108...
  7. Horiguchi T, Lee J, Park J, Cho H, Shiraishi H, Morita M. Specific accumulation of organotin compounds in tissues of the rock shell, Thais clavigera. Mar Environ Res. 2012;76:56-62 pubmed publisher
    Concentrations of organotin compounds (butyltins and phenyltins) were determined in gonad, accessory sex organs, penis, digestive gland, kidney, radula with sac, oesophagus with crop, stomach, hypobranchial gland, rectum, mantle, ..
  8. Rantakokko P, Turunen A, Verkasalo P, Kiviranta H, Mannisto S, Vartiainen T. Blood levels of organotin compounds and their relation to fish consumption in Finland. Sci Total Environ. 2008;399:90-5 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of organotin compounds in the whole blood of Finnish male fishermen (n=133), their wives (n=94), and other family members (n=73), and to investigate their associations with ..
  9. Kannan K, Takahashi S, Fujiwara N, Mizukawa H, Tanabe S. Organotin compounds, including butyltins and octyltins, in house dust from Albany, New York, USA. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;58:901-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Organotin compounds (OTs) have been used in a wide variety of consumer products. Despite this, very few studies have reported the occurrence of OTs in house dust or exposure of humans to OTs through the ingestion of house dust...

More Information


  1. Nakanishi T. Endocrine disruption induced by organotin compounds; organotins function as a powerful agonist for nuclear receptors rather than an aromatase inhibitor. J Toxicol Sci. 2008;33:269-76 pubmed
    b>Organotin compounds have been widely used as antifouling biocides for ships and fishing nets, agricultural fungicides and rodent repellents...
  2. Rehman Z, Shah A, Muhammad N, Ali S, Qureshi R, Meetsma A, et al. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray structure and evaluation of binding parameters of new triorganotin(IV) dithiocarboxylates with DNA. Eur J Med Chem. 2009;44:3986-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive peak potential shift in CV and hypochromic effect in spectroscopy evidenced intercalative mode of interaction. The results indicate that the binding affinity varies in this sequence: 1>3>2. ..
  3. Man D. Fluidity of liposome membranes doped with organic tin compounds: ESR study. J Liposome Res. 2008;18:225-34 pubmed
  4. Filipkowska A, Kowalewska G, Pavoni B, Łęczyński L. Organotin compounds in surface sediments from seaports on the Gulf of Gda?sk (southern Baltic coast). Environ Monit Assess. 2011;182:455-66 pubmed publisher
    ..It is necessary to monitor organotin contamination in ports and establish concentration limits of these compounds for the disposal of dredged material at sea. ..
  5. Hansch C, Verma R. Larvicidal activities of some organotin compounds on mosquito larvae: a QSAR study. Eur J Med Chem. 2009;44:260-73 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of QSAR (6), nine compounds 4a-4i are suggested as potential synthetic targets. ..
  6. Watermann B, Grote K, Gnass K, Kolodzey H, Thomsen A, Appel K, et al. Histological alterations in ovaries of pubertal female rats induced by triphenyltin. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2008;60:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain organotin compounds act as endocrine-active agents and have been reported to affect reproduction in mollusks and mammals...
  7. Fitzner B, Brock P, Holzhüter S, Nizze H, Sparmann G, Emmrich J, et al. Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of the dual endothelin-1 receptor antagonist bosentan on pancreatic stellate and cancer cells. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results indicate that bosentan exerts antifibrotic and antitumor effects in vitro. Its efficiency in vivo warrants further investigation. ..
  8. Gallego Gallegos M, Muñoz Olivas R, Cámara C. Different formats of imprinted polymers for determining organotin compounds in environmental samples. J Environ Manage. 2009;90 Suppl 1:S69-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Organotin compounds and their degradation products enter the environment mainly as a result of their use as biocides and antifouling paints...
  9. Hiromori Y, Nishikawa J, Yoshida I, Nagase H, Nakanishi T. Structure-dependent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma by organotin compounds. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;180:238-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are frequent environmental contaminants and are suspected of disrupting endocrine function in vertebrates and invertebrates...
  10. Negri A, Marshall P. TBT contamination of remote marine environments: ship groundings and ice-breakers as sources of organotins in the Great Barrier Reef and Antarctica. J Environ Manage. 2009;90 Suppl 1:S31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional options to minimise ecological risk include accident prevention and reducing organotin contamination from grounding sites through removal or treatment of contaminated sediments, as has been done at some sites in the GBR. ..
  11. Rantakokko P, Hallikainen A, Airaksinen R, Vuorinen P, Lappalainen A, Mannio J, et al. Concentrations of organotin compounds in various fish species in the Finnish lake waters and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:2474-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Organotin compounds (OTCs) leaching from the antifouling paints used in boats and ships have contaminated many water areas worldwide...
  12. Radke B, Leczyński L, Wasik A, Namiesnik J, Bolalek J. The content of butyl- and phenyltin derivatives in the sediment from the Port of Gdansk. Chemosphere. 2008;73:407-14 pubmed publisher
    Harbor sediments containing large deposits of organotin compounds constitute a potential threat to the marine environment...
  13. Giltrap M, Macken A, McHugh B, McGovern E, Foley B, Davoren M. In vitro screening of organotin compounds and sediment extracts for cytotoxicity to fish cells. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:154-61 pubmed publisher
  14. Dorneles P, Lailson Brito J, Fernandez M, Vidal L, Barbosa L, Azevedo A, et al. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:1268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs...
  15. Rüdel H. Case study: bioavailability of tin and tin compounds. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2003;56:180-9 pubmed
    This article reviews the literature related to the bioavailability of tin, inorganic tin compounds, and organotin compounds. On the one hand, the toxicity of metallic tin and inorganic tin compounds is low...
  16. Chou C, Lee M. Determination of organotin compounds in-water by headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1064:1-8 pubmed
    ..Some organotins studied were detected in the analyzed samples. Results of this study demonstrate the adequacy of the headspace SPME-GC-MS method for analyzing organotins in sea water samples. ..
  17. Grün F, Watanabe H, Zamanian Z, Maeda L, Arima K, Cubacha R, et al. Endocrine-disrupting organotin compounds are potent inducers of adipogenesis in vertebrates. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2141-55 pubmed
    ..Developmental or chronic lifetime exposure to organotins may therefore act as a chemical stressor for obesity and related disorders. ..
  18. Strand J, Jacobsen J. Accumulation and trophic transfer of organotins in a marine food web from the Danish coastal waters. Sci Total Environ. 2005;350:72-85 pubmed
    The presence of organotin compounds, e.g...
  19. Horiguchi T. Masculinization of female gastropod mollusks induced by organotin compounds, focusing on mechanism of actions of tributyltin and triphenyltin for development of imposex. Environ Sci. 2006;13:77-87 pubmed
    ..e., the differentiation and growth of male-type genital organs in female gastropods, is reviewed and discussed to clarify the entire mode of action of TBT or TPT in the development of imposex in gastropods. ..
  20. Inagaki K, Takatsu A, Watanabe T, Aoyagi Y, Yarita T, Okamoto K, et al. Certification of butyltins and phenyltins in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;387:2325-34 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry (SSID-MS)-SSID-GC-ICP-MS, SSID-GC-MS, and SSID-LC-ICP-MS, with 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds synthesized from 118Sn-enriched metal used as a spike...
  21. Rantakokko P, Kuningas T, Saastamoinen K, Vartiainen T. Dietary intake of organotin compounds in Finland: a market-basket study. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23:749-56 pubmed
    ..b>Organotin compounds were detected in only four baskets, with the fish basket containing the largest number of different ..
  22. Ciesielski T, Wasik A, Kuklik I, Skóra K, Namiesnik J, Szefer P. Organotin compounds in the liver tissue of marine mammals from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:1415-20 pubmed
    ..On the basis of a literature review, higher BT levels are usually found in waters close to highly industrialized areas, such as Japan, Hong Kong, and the United States. ..
  23. Inagaki K, Takatsu A, Watanabe T, Kuroiwa T, Aoyagi Y, Okamoto K. Certification of mono-, di-, and tributyltin compounds in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized 118Sn-labeled butyltins. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;378:1265-70 pubmed
    ..044+/-0.004 mg kg(-1) as Sn), dibutyltin (0.056+/-0.006 mg kg(-1) as Sn, and monobutyltin (0.058+/-0.013 mg kg(-1) as Sn), being at lower levels than currently available sediment CRMs for the analysis of organotins. ..
  24. Horiguchi T, Kojima M, Kaya M, Matsuo T, Shiraishi H, Morita M, et al. Tributyltin and triphenyltin induce spermatogenesis in ovary of female abalone, Haliotis gigantea. Mar Environ Res. 2002;54:679-84 pubmed
    ..This, as well as possible aromatase inhibition, may be one of the inducers for spermatogenesis in the abalone ovaries. ..
  25. Ruiz Encinar J, Rodriguez Gonzalez P, Garcia Alonso J, Sanz Medel A. Evaluation of extraction techniques for the determination of butyltin compounds in sediments using isotope dilution-GC/ICPMS with 118Sn and 119Sn-enriched species. Anal Chem. 2002;74:270-81 pubmed
    ..This was not the case for mechanical shaking. The results obtained for BCR-646 using microwave assisted extraction were in good agreement with the certified values for all tin species...
  26. Champ M. A review of organotin regulatory strategies, pending actions, related costs and benefits. Sci Total Environ. 2000;258:21-71 pubmed
    ..Unregulated' countries have unknowingly accepted the environmental and human health risks to gain the economic benefits from painting TBT on ships. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) ..
  27. Atanasov A, Nashev L, Tam S, Baker M, Odermatt A. Organotins disrupt the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2-dependent local inactivation of glucocorticoids. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1600-6 pubmed
    ..Enhanced glucocorticoid concentrations due to disruption of 11beta-HSD2 function may contribute to the observed organotin-dependent toxicity in some glucocorticoid-sensitive tissues such as thymus and placenta. ..
  28. Bech M. Imposex and tributyltin contamination as a consequence of the establishment of a marina, and increasing yachting activities at Phuket Island, Thailand. Environ Pollut. 2002;117:421-9 pubmed
    ..The increasing incidence of imposex suggest that TBT contamination is worsening, against global trends, because regulations prohibiting the use of TBT-based paints, do not exist in Thailand. ..
  29. Encinar J, Rodriguez Gonzalez P, Fernandez J, Alonso J, Diez S, Bayona J, et al. Evaluation of accelerated solvent extraction for butyltin speciation in PACS-2 CRM using double-spike isotope dilution-GC/ICPMS. Anal Chem. 2002;74:5237-42 pubmed
    ..The results found for MBT were approximately 25% higher than the certified value for the PACS-2 sediment reference material in agreement with previous results obtained by ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction. ..
  30. Liu J, Jiang G. Survey on the presence of butyltin compounds in chinese alcoholic beverages, determined by using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6683-7 pubmed
    ..The result indicated that dry wines generally contained more dibutyltin than sweet wines. The concentrations of butyltin compounds in liquor samples were lower than those in wine samples. ..
  31. Omura M, Shimasaki Y, Oshima Y, Nakayama K, Kubo K, Aou S, et al. Distribution of tributyltin, dibutyltin and monobutyltin in the liver, brain and fat of rats: two-generation toxicity study of tributyltin chloride. Environ Sci. 2004;11:123-32 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest tissue-dependent distribution of TBT, DBT and MBT and gender-dependent distribution of the three metabolites in the liver of rats. ..
  32. Mohamed M, Shoukry M. Interaction of diphenyltin(IV) dichloride with some selected bioligands. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:253-7 pubmed
    ..The participation of different ligand functional groups in binding to organotin is discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species was evaluated as a function of pH. ..
  33. Kanayama T, Kobayashi N, Mamiya S, Nakanishi T, Nishikawa J. Organotin compounds promote adipocyte differentiation as agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/retinoid X receptor pathway. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:766-74 pubmed
    ..Because PPARgamma is a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, we assessed the effect of organotin compounds on preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells...
  34. Nishikawa J, Mamiya S, Kanayama T, Nishikawa T, Shiraishi F, Horiguchi T. Involvement of the retinoid X receptor in the development of imposex caused by organotins in gastropods. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:6271-6 pubmed
    b>Organotin compounds released from antifouling paints, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), are potent inducers of imposex (a superimposition of male genital tracts, such as penis and vas deferens, on females) in marine ..
  35. Kimbrough R. Toxicity and health effects of selected organotin compounds: a review. Environ Health Perspect. 1976;14:51-6 pubmed
    ..Inhaling tin as dust or fumes may cause a benign pneumoconiosis in exposed workers. The organotin compounds can be divided into alkyltin and aryltin compounds...
  36. Ohno S, Nakajima Y, Nakajin S. Triphenyltin and Tributyltin inhibit pig testicular 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and suppress testicular testosterone biosynthesis. Steroids. 2005;70:645-51 pubmed
    ..b>Organotin compounds suppress testosterone production in Leydig cells from neonatal pig testes. J Health Sci 2003;49:514-9]...
  37. Buck B, Mascioni A, Cramer C, Veglia G. Interactions of alkyltin salts with biological dithiols: dealkylation and induction of a regular beta-turn structure in peptides. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:14400-10 pubmed
    b>Organotin compounds specifically target vicinal dithiols, thereby inhibiting the function of essential enzymes...
  38. Lo S, Allera A, Albers P, Heimbrecht J, Jantzen E, Klingmuller D, et al. Dithioerythritol (DTE) prevents inhibitory effects of triphenyltin (TPT) on the key enzymes of the human sex steroid hormone metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;84:569-76 pubmed
  39. Midorikawa S, Arai T, Harino H, Ohji M, Duc Cu N, Miyazaki N. Concentrations of organotin compounds in sediment and clams collected from coastal areas in Vietnam. Environ Pollut. 2004;131:401-8 pubmed
    ..The partition coefficients of TBT and TPT were 2.01 (0.56-5.5) and 9.23 (3.1-20), respectively. These results show that sediment-bound TBT is a source of contamination to clams in addition to dissolved TBT. ..
  40. Horiguchi T, Takiguchi N, Cho H, Kojima M, Kaya M, Shiraishi H, et al. Ovo-testis and disturbed reproductive cycle in the giant abalone, Haliotis madaka: possible linkage with organotin contamination in a site of population decline. Mar Environ Res. 2000;50:223-9 pubmed
    Histological examination of gonads as well as chemical analysis of organotin compounds in tissues of the giant abalone, Haliotis madaka, was conducted to evaluate possible endocrine disruption and to consider the causal factors for the ..
  41. Doering D, Steckelbroeck S, Doering T, Klingmuller D. Effects of butyltins on human 5alpha-reductase type 1 and type 2 activity. Steroids. 2002;67:859-67 pubmed
    ..At present, however, it is unknown whether these levels are reached after acute or chronic exposure to butyltins. ..
  42. Ohhira S, Enomoto M, Matsui H. In vitro metabolism of tributyltin and triphenyltin by human cytochrome P-450 isoforms. Toxicology. 2006;228:171-7 pubmed
    ..Since the CYP2C18 content of hepatic microsomes in humans is relatively low, CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A4 might be the main isoforms of CYP that are responsible for tributyltin and triphenyltin metabolism in the human liver. ..
  43. Scancar J, Zuliani T, Turk T, Milacic R. Organotin compounds and selected metals in the marine environment of Northern Adriatic sea. Environ Monit Assess. 2007;127:271-82 pubmed
    The extent of pollution with organotin compounds and Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, V, Co and Al was investigated in sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Slovenian costal area of the Northern Adriatic Sea...
  44. Veltman K, Huijbregts M, van den Heuvel Greve M, Vethaak A, Hendriks A. Organotin accumulation in an estuarine food chain: comparing field measurements with model estimations. Mar Environ Res. 2006;61:511-30 pubmed
    ..This results in very low elimination rates, which are comparable to model predictions for metals. ..
  45. Shim W, Kahng S, Hong S, Kim N, Kim S, Shim J. Imposex in the rock shell, Thais clavigera, as evidence of organotin contamination in the marine environment of Korea. Mar Environ Res. 2000;49:435-51 pubmed
    ..clavigera from a pristine area to a port, TBT and TPT were accumulated in T. clavigera, and imposex was induced. T. clavigera shows considerable potential as a bioindicator species of the adverse effects of TBT and TPT contamination. ..
  46. Chicano J, Ortiz A, Teruel J, Aranda F. Organotin compounds alter the physical organization of phosphatidylcholine membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1510:330-41 pubmed
    b>Organotin compounds have a broad range of biological activities and are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Their toxicity mainly lies in their action on the membrane...
  47. Grün F, Blumberg B. Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006;147:S50-5 pubmed
    ..The linking of organotin exposure to adipocyte differentiation and obesity opens an important new area of research into potential environmental influences on human health and disease. ..
  48. Thompson T, Lewis J, Dejneka N, Severs W, Polavarapu R, Billingsley M. Induction of apoptosis by organotin compounds in vitro: neuronal protection with antisense oligonucleotides directed against stannin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996;276:1201-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, TMT may induce apoptosis in sensitive cells, which is partly mediated by stannin. Based on the available data we conclude that stannin expression is necessary, but not sufficient for TMT toxicity. ..
  49. ten Hallers Tjabbes C, Wegener J, Van Hattum B, Kemp J, ten Hallers E, Reitsemae T, et al. Imposex and organotin concentrations in Buccinum undatum and Neptunea antiqua from the North Sea: relationship to shipping density and hydrographical conditions. Mar Environ Res. 2003;55:203-33 pubmed
    ..The highest body levels of all organotin compounds and the highest imposex indices for the common whelk were found at those locations in the Southern Bight ..
  50. White J, Tobin J. Role of speciation in organotin toxicity to the yeast Candida maltosa. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:3877-84 pubmed
    ..there was a strong correlation between toxicity and overall octanol-water distribution ratio (D(OW)) of organotin compounds. Triorganotin cations are less toxic than triorganotin hydroxides, which are in turn less toxic than ..
  51. Fromme H, Mattulat A, Lahrz T, Ruden H. Occurrence of organotin compounds in house dust in Berlin (Germany). Chemosphere. 2005;58:1377-83 pubmed dust samples from 28 Berlin apartments were measured for the presence and concentrations of six organotin compounds, monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monooctyltin (MOT), dioctyltin (DOT) and ..
  52. Mundy W, Freudenrich T. Apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells induced by organotin compounds found in drinking water: involvement of MAP kinases. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27:71-81 pubmed
    Mono- and dialkyl organotin compounds are used primarily as heat stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics...
  53. Diez S, Abalos M, Bayona J. Organotin contamination in sediments from the Western Mediterranean enclosures following 10 years of TBT regulation. Water Res. 2002;36:905-18 pubmed