methylmercury compounds


Summary: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.

Top Publications

  1. Christinal J, Sumathi T. Effect of Bacopa monniera extract on methylmercury-induced behavioral and histopathological changes in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;155:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment with BME restored all the changes to near normal. These findings suggest that BME has a potent efficacy to alleviate MeHg-induced toxicity in rat cerebellum...
  2. Sumathi T, Shobana C, Christinal J, Anusha C. Protective effect of Bacopa monniera on methyl mercury-induced oxidative stress in cerebellum of rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2012;32:979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly implicate that BM has potential to protect brain from oxidative damage resulting from MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in rat...
  3. Shao D, Kang Y, Wu S, Wong M. Effects of sulfate reducing bacteria and sulfate concentrations on mercury methylation in freshwater sediments. Sci Total Environ. 2012;424:331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..11 mg/g) produced higher levels than treatments lacking sulfate addition or when amended with 0.55 mg/g. Assessment of bacterial levels by PCR measurements of microbial DNA indicated that the MeHg levels were correlated with cell growth. ..
  4. You C, Kim B, Jo E, Kim G, Yu B, Hong M, et al. The relationship between the fish consumption and blood total/methyl-mercury concentration of costal area in Korea. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:676-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the pathological mechanism has not been clarified, additional studies are needed for explaining the biological and lifestyle differences in the risk of adverse health effects by Hg exposure. ..
  5. Kanda H, Toyama T, Shinohara Kanda A, Iwamatsu A, Shinkai Y, Kaji T, et al. S-Mercuration of rat sorbitol dehydrogenase by methylmercury causes its aggregation and the release of the zinc ion from the active site. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:1693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment with the cofactor NAD, but not NADP or FAD, markedly prevented aggregation of SDH. Such a protective effect of NAD on the aggregation of SDH caused by MeHg is discussed. ..
  6. Pichery C, Bellanger M, Zmirou Navier D, Fréry N, Cordier S, Roue Legall A, et al. Economic evaluation of health consequences of prenatal methylmercury exposure in France. Environ Health. 2012;11:53 pubmed publisher
    ..58??g/g. These results emphasize that efforts to reduce MeHg exposures would have high social benefits by preventing the serious and lifelong consequences of neurodevelopmental deficits in children. ..
  7. Boucher O, Jacobson S, Plusquellec P, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Forget Dubois N, et al. Prenatal methylmercury, postnatal lead exposure, and evidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among Inuit children in Arctic Québec. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1456-61 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, lead (Pb) exposure in childhood has been associated with ADHD and disruptive behaviors in several studies...
  8. Cauli O, Piedrafita B, Llansola M, Felipo V. Gender differential effects of developmental exposure to methyl-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls 126 or 153, or its combinations on motor activity and coordination. Toxicology. 2013;311:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Most compounds reduce activity at youth (2 months) and induce hyperactivity at adulthood (5-7 months). The change from hypo- to hyperactivity occurs earlier in males. ..
  9. Fahrion J, Komuro Y, Li Y, Ohno N, Littner Y, Raoult E, et al. Rescue of neuronal migration deficits in a mouse model of fetal Minamata disease by increasing neuronal Ca2+ spike frequency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5057-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that alteration of Ca(2+) spike frequency and Ca(2+), cAMP, and IGF1 signaling could be potential therapeutic targets for infants with MeHg intoxication. ..

More Information


  1. de Wit H, Kainz M, Lindholm M. Methylmercury bioaccumulation in invertebrates of boreal streams in Norway: effects of aqueous methylmercury and diet retention. Environ Pollut. 2012;164:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary uptake of bacteria could thus be an important pathway for MeHg-transfer at the bottom of food chains in humic streams...
  2. Taylor D, Linehan J, Murray D, Prell W. Indicators of sediment and biotic mercury contamination in a southern New England estuary. Mar Pollut Bull. 2012;64:807-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for the utility of estuarine biota as subjects for mercury monitoring programs. ..
  3. Karagas M, Choi A, Oken E, Horvat M, Schoeny R, Kamai E, et al. Evidence on the human health effects of low-level methylmercury exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:799-806 pubmed publisher
  4. Wang F, Macdonald R, Armstrong D, Stern G. Total and methylated mercury in the Beaufort Sea: the role of local and recent organic remineralization. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:11821-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Yuan Y. Methylmercury: a potential environmental risk factor contributing to epileptogenesis. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:119-26 pubmed publisher
  6. Yu R, Adatto I, Montesdeoca M, Driscoll C, Hines M, Barkay T. Mercury methylation in Sphagnum moss mats and its association with sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acidic Adirondack forest lake wetland. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010;74:655-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Sphagnum, a bryophyte dominating boreal peatlands, and its associated microbial communities appear to play an important role in the production and accumulation of MeHg in high-latitude ecosystems. ..
  7. Dorea J, Wimer W, Marques R, Shade C. Automated speciation of mercury in the hair of breastfed infants exposed to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;140:262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..050, 0.10, and 0.10 ng g?¹ for MeHg, Hg(II), and EtHg, respectively, for a 20-mg sample. Specific limits depend on the amount of sample extracted and the amount of extract injected. ..
  8. Grotto D, de Castro M, Barcelos G, Garcia S, Barbosa F. Low level and sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury induces hypertension in rats: nitric oxide depletion and oxidative damage as possible mechanisms. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:653-62 pubmed publisher
  9. Oken E, Bellinger D. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2008;20:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarize recent evidence regarding associations of early life exposure to mercury from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy, thimerosal in vaccines and dental amalgam with child neurodevelopment...
  10. Feng X, Li P, Qiu G, Wang S, Li G, Shang L, et al. Human exposure to methylmercury through rice intake in mercury mining areas, Guizhou province, China. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:326-32 pubmed
    ..From our study, we can conclude that the main human exposure to Me-Hg via food consumption is not restricted to fish, but in some cases in mining areas of China to frequent rice meals. ..
  11. Rice D. Overview of modifiers of methylmercury neurotoxicity: chemicals, nutrients, and the social environment. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the interactions of the multiple factors that determine the final behavioral outcome of exposure to methylmercury is crucial to risk assessment and risk management decisions. ..
  12. George G, Singh S, Prince R, Pickering I. Chemical forms of mercury and selenium in fish following digestion with simulated gastric fluid. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:2106-10 pubmed publisher
    Fish is a major dietary source of potentially neurotoxic methylmercury compounds for humans. It is also a rich source of essential selenium...
  13. Martins R, Braga H, da Silva A, Dalmarco J, De Bem A, dos Santos A, et al. Synergistic neurotoxicity induced by methylmercury and quercetin in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:645-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicate that under in vivo conditions quercetin and MeHg cause additive pro-oxidative effects toward the mice cerebellum and that such phenomenon is associated with the observed motor deficit. ..
  14. Farina M, Campos F, Vendrell I, Berenguer J, Barzi M, Pons S, et al. Probucol increases glutathione peroxidase-1 activity and displays long-lasting protection against methylmercury toxicity in cerebellar granule cells. Toxicol Sci. 2009;112:416-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The results bring out new insights on the potential therapeutic strategies for poisonings to MeHg and other pathological conditions related to increased production and/or decreased detoxification of peroxides. ..
  15. Berzas Nevado J, Rodriguez Martin Doimeadios R, Guzmán Bernardo F, Jiménez Moreno M. Determination of monomethylmercury in low- and high-polluted sediments by microwave extraction and gas chromatography with atomic fluorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;608:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both steps can be combined if necessary. MMHg content has been found in good agreement with the certified value for the reference materials (IAEA-405 and ERM-CC580). ..
  16. Zheng D, Wang Q, Zhang Z, Zheng N, Zhang X. Bioaccumulation of total and methyl mercury by arthropods. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;81:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..For methyl mercury, concentration is proportional to body length for both of these arthropods. Total mercury concentrations vary in different parts of the arthropod body, and increase in the order of: abdomen > thorax > head...
  17. Cristol D, Brasso R, Condon A, Fovargue R, Friedman S, Hallinger K, et al. The movement of aquatic mercury through terrestrial food webs. Science. 2008;320:335 pubmed publisher
    ..Rivers contaminated with mercury may pose a threat to the many bird species that feed on predatory invertebrates in adjacent riparian habitats...
  18. Xu S, Zeng B, Daskoulidou N, Chen G, Atkin S, Lukhele B. Activation of TRPC cationic channels by mercurial compounds confers the cytotoxicity of mercury exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2012;125:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that mercurial compounds are activators for TRPC5 and TRPC4 channels. Blockade of TRPC channels could be a novel strategy for preventing mercury-induced cytotoxicity and neurodevelopment impairment. ..
  19. Mahaffey K, Sunderland E, Chan H, Choi A, Grandjean P, Mariën K, et al. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Nutr Rev. 2011;69:493-508 pubmed publisher
    ..A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested...
  20. Teisl M, Fromberg E, Smith A, Boyle K, Engelberth H. Awake at the switch: improving fish consumption advisories for at-risk women. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:3257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude a well-designed advisory can successfully transform a complex risk/benefit message into one that leads to appropriate knowledge and behavioral changes. ..
  21. Selin N, Sunderland E, Knightes C, Mason R. Sources of mercury exposure for U.S. seafood consumers: implications for policy. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:137-43 pubmed publisher
  22. Yu X, Robinson J, Sidhu J, Hong S, Faustman E. A system-based comparison of gene expression reveals alterations in oxidative stress, disruption of ubiquitin-proteasome system and altered cell cycle regulation after exposure to cadmium and methylmercury in mouse embryonic fibroblast. Toxicol Sci. 2010;114:356-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that these pathways play a critical role in the development of adverse effects associated with metal exposures. ..
  23. Grandjean P, Satoh H, Murata K, Eto K. Adverse effects of methylmercury: environmental health research implications. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:1137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Symptoms of methylmercury toxicity, such as tunnel vision, forgetfulness, and lack of coordination, also seemed to affect environmental health research and its interpretation. ..
  24. Berg K, Puntervoll P, Valdersnes S, Goksøyr A. Responses in the brain proteome of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to methylmercury. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;100:51-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study aid our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg neurotoxicity and defense responses, and provide a large panel of protein biomarker candidates for aquatic environmental monitoring. ..
  25. Lepak J, Robinson J, Kraft C, Josephson D. Changes in mercury bioaccumulation in an apex predator in response to removal of an introduced competitor. Ecotoxicology. 2009;18:488-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence for a mechanism (diet shift due to reduced competition) by which changes in food web structure can influence MeHg concentrations in top predators. ..
  26. Schläwicke Engström K, Stromberg U, Lundh T, Johansson I, Vessby B, Hallmans G, et al. Genetic variation in glutathione-related genes and body burden of methylmercury. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:734-9 pubmed publisher
    ..035): Individuals with the GCLM-588 TT genotype demonstrated the highest Ery-Hg, but we saw no evidence of effect modification with increasing P-PUFA. These results suggest a role of GSH-related polymorphisms in MeHg metabolism. ..
  27. Ceccatelli S, Daré E, Moors M. Methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we provide an overview of recent findings on methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity and cell death pathways that have been described in neural and endocrine cell systems. ..
  28. Ralston N, Raymond L. Dietary selenium's protective effects against methylmercury toxicity. Toxicology. 2010;278:112-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies of these relationships are needed to assist regulatory agencies in protecting and improving child health. ..
  29. Bourdineaud J, Fujimura M, Laclau M, Sawada M, Yasutake A. Deleterious effects in mice of fish-associated methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Western populations' average fish consumption. Environ Int. 2011;37:303-13 pubmed publisher
  30. Cao Y, Chen A, Jones R, Radcliffe J, Caldwell K, Dietrich K, et al. Does background postnatal methyl mercury exposure in toddlers affect cognition and behavior?. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that at the present background postnatal MeHg exposure levels of US children, adverse effects on children's IQ and behavior are not detectable. ..
  31. Shimada M, Kameo S, Sugawara N, Yaginuma Sakurai K, Kurokawa N, Mizukami Murata S, et al. Gene expression profiles in the brain of the neonate mouse perinatally exposed to methylmercury and/or polychlorinated biphenyls. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:271-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that co-exposure does not simply exacerbate the toxicity of MeHg alone or PCB alone, but stimulates a protection system. ..
  32. Das S, Nageshwar Rao B, Satish Rao B. Mangiferin attenuates methylmercury induced cytotoxicity against IMR-32, human neuroblastoma cells by the inhibition of oxidative stress and free radical scavenging potential. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;193:129-40 pubmed publisher
  33. Grotto D, Vicentini J, Angeli J, Latorraca E, Monteiro P, Barcelos G, et al. Evaluation of protective effects of fish oil against oxidative damage in rats exposed to methylmercury. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:487-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This protection seems not to be related to antioxidant defenses or mercury re-distribution in rat tissues. It is probably due to the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. ..
  34. Petroni D, Tsai J, Agrawal K, Mondal D, GEORGE W. Low-dose methylmercury-induced oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and tau-hyperphosphorylation in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. Environ Toxicol. 2012;27:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that low-dose MeHg toxicity may be related to an induction of tau phosphorylation through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism and that blockade of this pathway may attenuate the toxic effects of MeHg. ..
  35. Kaur P, Heggland I, Aschner M, Syversen T. Docosahexaenoic acid may act as a neuroprotector for methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in primary neural cell cultures. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:978-87 pubmed publisher
  36. Fonseca M, Dorea J, Bastos W, Marques R, Torres J, Malm O. Poor psychometric scores of children living in isolated riverine and agrarian communities and fish-methylmercury exposure. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:1008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Global strategies for reducing human exposure to MeHg by curtailing fish consumption are unrealistic options for riverine subsistence populations and are not justifiable to prevent low cognitive scores. ..
  37. Boucher O, Burden M, Muckle G, Saint Amour D, Ayotte P, Dewailly E, et al. Response inhibition and error monitoring during a visual go/no-go task in inuit children exposed to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:608-15 pubmed publisher
  38. Choi A, Cordier S, Weihe P, Grandjean P. Negative confounding in the evaluation of toxicity: the case of methylmercury in fish and seafood. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008;38:877-93 pubmed
    ..Attention should also be paid to the occurrence of negative confounding in other connections. ..
  39. Nyland J, Wang S, Shirley D, Santos E, Ventura A, de Souza J, et al. Fetal and maternal immune responses to methylmercury exposure: a cross-sectional study. Environ Res. 2011;111:584-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, unlike previous data from adult males and non-pregnant females, we found no evidence that antinuclear and antinucleolar autoantibody titer is a reliable biomarker of mercury immunotoxicity in this population. ..
  40. Gardner R, Nyland J, Silbergeld E. Differential immunotoxic effects of inorganic and organic mercury species in vitro. Toxicol Lett. 2010;198:182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that both organic and inorganic species of Hg can affect the human immune system, but that they may exert different effects on immune function. ..
  41. Yorifuji T, Tsuda T, Takao S, Harada M. Long-term exposure to methylmercury and neurologic signs in Minamata and neighboring communities. Epidemiology. 2008;19:3-9 pubmed
    ..Long-term exposure to methylmercury has a strong adverse impact on neurologic signs among residents in a local community. ..
  42. Chen C, Serrell N, Evers D, Fleishman B, Lambert K, Weiss J, et al. Meeting report: Methylmercury in marine ecosystems--from sources to seafood consumers. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..An integrated research and monitoring program is needed to link the processes and mechanisms of MeHg production, bioaccumulation, and transfer with MeHg exposure in humans. ..
  43. Ni M, Li X, Yin Z, Jiang H, Sidoryk Wegrzynowicz M, Milatovic D, et al. Methylmercury induces acute oxidative stress, altering Nrf2 protein level in primary microglial cells. Toxicol Sci. 2010;116:590-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study has demonstrated that microglial cells are exquisitely sensitive to MeHg and respond rapidly to MeHg by upregulating the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response. ..
  44. Goodrich J, Wang Y, Gillespie B, Werner R, Franzblau A, Basu N. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;257:301-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Hamelin S, Amyot M, Barkay T, Wang Y, Planas D. Methanogens: principal methylators of mercury in lake periphyton. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:7693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This first clear demonstration of methanogens' role in mercury methylation in environmental periphyton samples expands the known diversity of microbial guilds that contribute to the formation of the neurotoxic substance methylmercury. ..
  46. Mozaffarian D, Shi P, Morris J, Spiegelman D, Grandjean P, Siscovick D, et al. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohorts. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects...
  47. Chen C, Amirbahman A, Fisher N, Harding G, Lamborg C, Nacci D, et al. Methylmercury in marine ecosystems: spatial patterns and processes of production, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification. Ecohealth. 2008;5:399-408 pubmed publisher
  48. Achá D, Hintelmann H, Yee J. Importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in mercury methylation and demethylation in periphyton from Bolivian Amazon region. Chemosphere. 2011;82:911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates the importance of community variability and complexity of microbial interactions for the overall methylmercury production in periphyton and their response to external stimulus...
  49. Strain J, Davidson P, Bonham M, Duffy E, Stokes Riner A, Thurston S, et al. Associations of maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury, and infant development in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Neurotoxicology. 2008;29:776-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they indicate that the beneficial effects of LCPUFA can obscure the determination of adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure in longitudinal observational studies. ..
  50. Polunas M, Halladay A, Tjalkens R, Philbert M, LOWNDES H, Reuhl K. Role of oxidative stress and the mitochondrial permeability transition in methylmercury cytotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:526-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyt c release was also more extensive in neurons, with less protection afforded by CsA. These data indicate that neuronal differentiation state influences mitochondrial transition pore dynamics and MeHg-stimulated production of ROS. ..
  51. Grandjean P, Herz K. Methylmercury and brain development: imprecision and underestimation of developmental neurotoxicity in humans. Mt Sinai J Med. 2011;78:107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The experience obtained with methylmercury should therefore be taken into account when evaluating the evidence for other substances suspected of being neurotoxic. ..
  52. Tsui M, Finlay J, Nater E. Mercury bioaccumulation in a stream network. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7016-22 pubmed
    ..However, our results show that in the absence of wetlands, substantial spatial variation of Hg bioaccumulation can arise in stream networks due to the influence of in-stream processes. ..
  53. Bradley P, Burns D, Murray K, Brigham M, Button D, Chasar L, et al. Spatial and seasonal variability of dissolved methylmercury in two stream basins in the eastern United States. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:2048-55 pubmed publisher