thimerosal

Summary

Summary: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.

Top Publications

  1. Mrozek Budzyn D, Majewska R, Kieltyka A, Augustyniak M. Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012;34:592-7 pubmed publisher
    Despite the common use of Thimerosal as a preservative in childhood vaccines since the 1930s, there are not many studies on ethylmercury toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in infants...
  2. Nabemoto M, Ohsawa K, Nakamura H, Hirabayashi T, Saito T, Okuma Y, et al. Reversible activation of secretory phospholipase A2 by sulfhydryl reagents. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;436:145-53 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the effects of thimerosal, another sulfhydryl reagent, to clarify the sulfhydryl modification and activation of sPLA(2) molecules in cells...
  3. Dorea J. Making sense of epidemiological studies of young children exposed to thimerosal in vaccines. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:1580-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to exposing newborns and infants to intramuscular doses of preservative-Hg resulting from vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV)...
  4. Geier D, Young H, Geier M. Thimerosal exposure & increasing trends of premature puberty in the vaccine safety datalink. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:500-7 pubmed
    ..An association between premature puberty and exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) was evaluated in computerized medical records within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)..
  5. McMahon A, Iskander J, Haber P, Braun M, Ball R. Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children <2 years of age: examination of selected adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) after thimerosal-free or thimerosal-containing vaccine. Vaccine. 2008;26:427-9 pubmed
    b>Thimerosal as a preservative (in all but trace amounts) was removed from vaccines used in infants starting in the late 1990s, though the preservative-including inactivated influenza vaccine is still available for use in individuals >or=..
  6. Vanlingen S, Sipma H, Missiaen L, De Smedt H, de Smet P, Casteels R, et al. Modulation of type 1, 2 and 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors by cyclic ADP-ribose and thimerosal. Cell Calcium. 1999;25:107-14 pubmed
    ..how [3H]IP3 binding to the three IP3R isoforms is modulated by cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and by the SH-reagent thimerosal. We used rabbit cerebellum, RBL-2H3 rat mucosal mast cells and 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells as ..
  7. Duszczyk Budhathoki M, Olczak M, Lehner M, Majewska M. Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:436-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders...
  8. Velicu M, Fu H, Suri R, Woods K. Use of adsorption process to remove organic mercury thimerosal from industrial process wastewater. J Hazard Mater. 2007;148:599-605 pubmed
    Carbon adsorption process is tested for removal of high concentration of organic mercury (thimerosal) from industrial process wastewater, in batch and continuously flow through column systems...
  9. Pichichero M, Gentile A, Giglio N, Umido V, Clarkson T, Cernichiari E, et al. Mercury levels in newborns and infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e208-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Thimerosal is a mercurial preservative that was widely used in multidose vaccine vials in the United States and Europe until 2001 and continues to be used in many countries throughout the world...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Price C, Thompson W, Goodson B, Weintraub E, Croen L, Hinrichsen V, et al. Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism. Pediatrics. 2010;126:656-64 pubmed publisher
    Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
  2. Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Bobrowicz T, Majewska M. Neonatal administration of thimerosal causes persistent changes in mu opioid receptors in the rat brain. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1840-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Thimerosal added to some pediatric vaccines is suspected in pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders...
  3. Mian M, Kang C, Lee S, Choi J, Bae S, Kim S, et al. Cleavage of focal adhesion kinase is an early marker and modulator of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;171:57-66 pubmed
    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a signaling molecule associated with cell survival. Previously, we showed that thimerosal, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator, can acutely induce FAK tyrosine phosphorylation (within minutes) and ..
  4. Humphrey M, Cole M, Pendergrass J, Kiningham K. Mitochondrial mediated thimerosal-induced apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH). Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:407-16 pubmed
    ..Recently the safety of thimerosal, an ethyl mercury-containing preservative used in vaccines, has been questioned due to exposure of infants ..
  5. Parker S, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering L. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics. 2004;114:793-804 pubmed
    The issue of thimerosal-containing vaccines as a possible cause of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has been a controversial topic since 1999...
  6. Dorea J, Marques R, Brandão K. Neonate exposure to thimerosal mercury from hepatitis B vaccines. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..EtHg) has not only increased but is starting earlier as a result of the current immunization schedule that uses thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs)...
  7. Liu S, Huang C, Huang C, Wang B, Chang P, Fang Y, et al. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in human SCM1 gastric cancer cells: activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca2+]i elevation. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:109-17 pubmed
    b>Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative in some vaccines. The effect of thimerosal on human gastric cancer cells is unknown...
  8. Havarinasab S, Hultman P. Alteration of the spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice by treatment with thimerosal (ethyl mercury). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;214:43-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, ethyl mercury in the form of thimerosal, a preservative recently debated as a possible health hazard when present in vaccines, was administered in a ..
  9. Chang S, Begier E, Schech S, Venus P, Shatin D, Braun M, et al. Perinatal hepatitis B transmission and vaccination timing in a managed care cohort: assessment of the temporary delay in newborn hepatitis B vaccination due to thimerosal content. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:329-33 pubmed
    From July to September 1999, due to a concern of toxicity from exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines, the American Academy of Pediatrics and U.S...
  10. Young H, Geier D, Geier M. Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. J Neurol Sci. 2008;271:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluated possible associations between neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) and exposure to mercury (Hg) from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) by examining the automated Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)...
  11. Thomas A, Fiore A, Corwith H, Cieslak P, Margolis H. Hepatitis B vaccine coverage among infants born to women without prenatal screening for hepatitis B virus infection: effects of the Joint Statement on Thimerosal in Vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:313-8 pubmed
    As a result of controversy about mercury exposures from vaccines containing thimerosal, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Public Health Service recommended in July 1999 that the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine be deferred ..
  12. Hviid A, Stellfeld M, Wohlfahrt J, Melbye M. Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism. JAMA. 2003;290:1763-6 pubmed
    Mercuric compounds are nephrotoxic and neurotoxic at high doses. Thimerosal, a preservative used widely in vaccine formulations, contains ethylmercury...
  13. Gallagher C, GOODMAN M. Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:1665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonwhite boys bore a greater risk. ..
  14. Dorea J, Bezerra V, Fajon V, Horvat M. Speciation of methyl- and ethyl-mercury in hair of breastfed infants acutely exposed to thimerosal-containing vaccines. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:1563-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The most controversial aspect of early post-natal exposure to organic mercury is ethylmercury (EtHg) in thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) still being used in many countries...
  15. Barile J, Kuperminc G, Weintraub E, Mink J, Thompson W. Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later. J Pediatr Psychol. 2012;37:106-18 pubmed publisher
    The authors used a public use data set to investigate associations between the receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines and immune globulins early in life and neuropsychological outcomes assessed at 7-10 years...
  16. Marques R, Bernardi J, Dorea J, Bastos W, Malm O. Principal component analysis and discrimination of variables associated with pre- and post-natal exposure to mercury. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008;211:606-14 pubmed
    ..at 180 days, pre-natal variables (Hg in placenta, blood and hair) and post-natal Hg exposure (including Thimerosal-containing vaccines, TCV) were examined in 82 exclusively breastfed infants using principal component analysis (..
  17. Chen Y, Wang J, Zhang J, Li S, He L, Shao D, et al. Effect of thimerosal on the neurodevelopment of premature rats. World J Pediatr. 2013;9:356-60 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of thimerosal on the neurodevelopment of premature rats. Thimerosal was injected into premature SD rats at a dose of 32.8, 65.6, 98.4 or 131.2 ?g/kg on postnatal day 1...
  18. Nolan T, Richmond P, McVernon J, Skeljo M, Hartel G, Bennet J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated thimerosal-free influenza vaccine in infants and children. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2009;3:315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a thimerosal-free inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluvax; CSL Limited, Parkville, Australia) in children aged 6 months to <..
  19. Fagundes A, Marzochi M, Perez M, Schubach A, Ferreira A, Silva J, et al. Skin reactivity to thimerosal and phenol-preserved Montenegro antigen in Brazil. Acta Trop. 2007;101:25-30 pubmed
    ..performed to determine the frequency of positive reactions to the Montenegro antigen (leishmanin) preserved in thimerosal (Merthiolate) 1:10,000 or phenol 0.4%...
  20. Goon A, Goh C. Patch testing of Singapore children and adolescents: our experience over 18 years. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006;23:117-20 pubmed
    ..The most common allergens were: nickel (40%), thimerosal (15%), colophony (9%), lanolin (8%), cobalt (8%), fragrance mix (5%), and neomycin (4%)...
  21. Westphal G, Schnuch A, Schulz T, Reich K, Aberer W, Brasch J, et al. Homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000;73:384-8 pubmed
    b>Thimerosal is an important preservative in vaccines and ophthalmologic preparations. The substance is known to be a type IV sensitizing agent...
  22. Ho H, Suarez S. An inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-gated intracellular Ca(2+) store is involved in regulating sperm hyperactivated motility. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:1606-15 pubmed
    ..Hyperactivation was induced immediately in bull sperm by thapsigargin, caffeine, and thimerosal. The responses were dose-dependent and were induced in both capacitated and uncapacitated sperm...
  23. Havarinasab S, Lambertsson L, Qvarnstrom J, Hultman P. Dose-response study of thimerosal-induced murine systemic autoimmunity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;194:169-79 pubmed
    The organic compound ethylmercurithiosalicylate (thimerosal), which is primarily present in the tissues as ethylmercury, has caused illness and several deaths due to erroneous handling when used as a disinfectant or as a preservative in ..
  24. Luman E, Fiore A, Strine T, Barker L. Impact of thimerosal-related changes in hepatitis B vaccine birth-dose recommendations on childhood vaccination coverage. JAMA. 2004;291:2351-8 pubmed
    ..was temporarily suspended because of concerns about exposure to mercury contained in the vaccine preservative thimerosal. The suspension was lifted in September 1999 when preservative-free hepatitis B vaccine became available...
  25. Clarkson T, Magos L. The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2006;36:609-62 pubmed
    ..Ethylmercury in the form of a preservative, thimerosal, added to certain vaccines, is the most recent form of mercury that has become a public health concern...
  26. Wu J, Takeo T, Kamimura N, Wada J, Suga S, Hoshina Y, et al. Thimerosal modulates the agonist-specific cytosolic Ca2+ oscillatory patterns in single pancreatic acinar cells of mouse. FEBS Lett. 1996;390:149-52 pubmed
    Modulation of the agonist-specific cytosolic Ca2+ oscillatory pattern by thimerosal has been investigated in single pancreatic acinar cells using patch-clamp perforated whole-cell recording to measure the calcium-dependent chloride ..
  27. Chauvat A, Benhamouda N, Loison E, Gougeon M, Gey A, Levionnois E, et al. Pitfalls in anti-influenza T cell detection by Elispot using thimerosal containing pandemic H1N1 vaccine as antigen. J Immunol Methods. 2012;378:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the preservative thimerosal present in most H1N1 pandemic vaccines, induced in vitro abortive activation of T cells followed by cell death ..
  28. Redwood L, Bernard S, Brown D. Predicted mercury concentrations in hair from infant immunizations: cause for concern. Neurotoxicology. 2001;22:691-7 pubmed
    ..Recently, another common source of exposure has been identified. Thimerosal (TMS), a preservative found in many infant vaccines, contains 49...
  29. Rodrigues J, Serpeloni J, Batista B, Souza S, Barbosa F. Identification and distribution of mercury species in rat tissues following administration of thimerosal or methylmercury. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sodium ethyl mercury thiosalicylate, thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (Et-Hg)-containing preservative that has been used in manufacturing vaccines in many ..
  30. Blaxill M, Redwood L, Bernard S. Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62:788-94 pubmed
    ..In a recent review, Nelson and Bauman argue that a link between the preservative thimerosal, the source of the mercury in childhood vaccines, is improbable...
  31. Branch D. Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2009;61:133-6 pubmed publisher
    A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial...
  32. Mutkus L, Aschner J, Syversen T, Shanker G, Sonnewald U, Aschner M. In vitro uptake of glutamate in GLAST- and GLT-1-transfected mutant CHO-K1 cells is inhibited by the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005;105:71-86 pubmed
    b>Thimerosal, also known as thimersal, Merthrolate, or sodiumethyl-mercurithiosalicylate, is an organic mercurial compound that is used in a variety of commercial as well as biomedical applications...
  33. Berman R, Pessah I, Mouton P, Mav D, Harry J. Low-level neonatal thimerosal exposure: further evaluation of altered neurotoxic potential in SJL mice. Toxicol Sci. 2008;101:294-309 pubmed
    Ethylmercury in thimerosal-preserved childhood vaccines has been suggested to be neurotoxic and to contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism...
  34. Offit P. Thimerosal and vaccines--a cautionary tale. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1278-9 pubmed
  35. Wu X, Liang H, O Hara K, Yalowich J, Hasinoff B. Thiol-modulated mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of thimerosal and inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II alpha. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:483-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound that is widely used as a preservative in vaccines and other solution formulations...
  36. Dorea J. Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20:4060-9 pubmed
    ..toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of low-dose mercury resulting from acute ethylmercury (etHg) exposure in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV)...
  37. Herdman M, Marcelo A, Huang Y, Niles R, Dhar S, Kiningham K. Thimerosal induces apoptosis in a neuroblastoma model via the cJun N-terminal kinase pathway. Toxicol Sci. 2006;92:246-53 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the role that the JNK pathway plays in neurotoxicity caused by thimerosal, an ethylmercury-containing preservative...
  38. Madsen K, Lauritsen M, Pedersen C, Thorsen P, Plesner A, Andersen P, et al. Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism: negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data. Pediatrics. 2003;112:604-6 pubmed
    It has been suggested that thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative in vaccines, is a risk factor for the development of autism...
  39. Jan C, Jiann B, Lu Y, Chang H, Yu C, Chen W, et al. Oxidation by thimerosal increases calcium levelsin renal tubular cells. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003;93:123-7 pubmed
    The effect of thimerosal, a reactive oxidant, on cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was explored by using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2...
  40. Parran D, Barker A, Ehrich M. Effects of thimerosal on NGF signal transduction and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. Toxicol Sci. 2005;86:132-40 pubmed
    ..The present study examined the effects of the organic mercury compound thimerosal on nerve growth factor signal transduction and cell death in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y cells)...
  41. Melnick J, Yurkerwich K, Buccella D, Sattler W, Parkin G. Molecular structures of thimerosal (Merthiolate) and other arylthiolate mercury alkyl compounds. Inorg Chem. 2008;47:6421-6 pubmed publisher
    The molecular structure of sodium ethylmercury thiosalicylate (also known as thimerosal and Merthiolate) and related arylthiolate mercury alkyl compounds, namely PhSHgMe and PhSHgEt, have been determined by single crystal X-ray ..
  42. Clements C. The evidence for the safety of thiomersal in newborn and infant vaccines. Vaccine. 2004;22:1854-61 pubmed
    ..Given the same levels of exposure, adults are at much lower levels of risk because of increased body mass. It is not possible to prove that thiomersal is completely safe-epidemiology can only quantify a risk, not prove its absence. ..
  43. Vanlingen S, Sipma H, de Smet P, Callewaert G, Missiaen L, De Smedt H, et al. Modulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding to the various inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms by thimerosal and cyclic ADP-ribose. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;61:803-9 pubmed
    ..We compared the effects of oxidizing reagents, in particular thimerosal, and of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) on IP3 binding to the various IP3R isoforms...
  44. Woo K, Lee T, Bae J, Jang B, Song D, Cho J, et al. Thimerosal induces apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in human leukemia cells. Mol Carcinog. 2006;45:657-66 pubmed
    b>Thimerosal is an organomercury compound with sulfhydryl-reactive properties. The ability of thimerosal to act as a sulfhydryl group is related to the presence of mercury...
  45. Geier D, Geier M. An evaluation of the effects of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006;69:1481-95 pubmed
    b>Thimerosal is an ethylmercury (49.55% mercury by weight) preservative historically added to some vaccines...
  46. Li W, Chen S, Chen L, Yang G, Li J, Liu H, et al. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells occurs through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49064 pubmed publisher
    b>Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, is one of the most widely used preservatives and found in a variety of biological products. Concerns over its possible toxicity have reemerged recently due to its use in vaccines...
  47. Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin W. Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:833-45 pubmed
    ..How population-based variability affects the safety of the ethylmercury-containing vaccine preservative, thimerosal, is unknown...
  48. Hewitson L, Lopresti B, Stott C, Mason N, Tomko J. Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70:147-64 pubmed
    ..The macaque infant is a relevant animal model in which to investigate specific environmental exposures and structural/functional neuroimaging during neurodevelopment. ..
  49. Geier D, Geier M. An assessment of the impact of thimerosal on childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6:97-102 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mercury from thimerosal in childhood vaccines contributed to neurodevelopmental disorders...
  50. Singh V, Rivas W. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines. J Biomed Sci. 2004;11:607-10 pubmed
    ..antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines...
  51. Yel L, Brown L, Su K, Gollapudi S, Gupta S. Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:971-7 pubmed
    There is a worldwide increasing concern over the neurological risks of thimerosal (ethylmercury thiosalicylate) which is an organic mercury compound that is commonly used as an antimicrobial preservative...
  52. Ida Eto M, Oyabu A, Ohkawara T, Tashiro Y, Narita N, Narita M. Prenatal exposure to organomercury, thimerosal, persistently impairs the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the rat brain: implications for association with developmental disorders. Brain Dev. 2013;35:261-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Thimerosal, an organomercury compound, has been widely used as a preservative. Therefore, concerns have been raised about its neurotoxicity...
  53. van t Veen A, van Joost T. Sensitization to thimerosal (Merthiolate) is still present today. Contact Dermatitis. 1994;31:293-8 pubmed
    The results on thimerosal (Merthiolate) hypersensitivity of a retrospective study, together with the relevant data on thimerosal hypersensitivity referred to in the literature up to 1993, are presented...