auranofin

Summary

Summary: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.

Top Publications

  1. Kim N, Lee M, Park S, Choi J, Oh M, Kim I. Auranofin blocks interleukin-6 signalling by inhibiting phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT3. Immunology. 2007;122:607-14 pubmed
    b>Auranofin (AF) is a sulphur-containing gold compound. Because of its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, AF has been widely used for the therapeutic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis...
  2. Cox A, Brown K, Arner E, Hampton M. The thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin triggers apoptosis through a Bax/Bak-dependent process that involves peroxiredoxin 3 oxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76:1097-109 pubmed publisher
    ..One potent inhibitor of TrxR is the gold (I) compound auranofin, which can trigger mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathways...
  3. Rigobello M, Gandin V, Folda A, Rundlöf A, Fernandes A, Bindoli A, et al. Treatment of human cancer cells with selenite or tellurite in combination with auranofin enhances cell death due to redox shift. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:710-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the cellular effects induced by selenite or tellurite in combination with the specific TrxR inhibitor auranofin. Selenite pretreatment induced a dramatic increase in auranofin cytotoxicity in both resistant and sensitive ..
  4. Gromer S, Arscott L, Williams C, Schirmer R, Becker K. Human placenta thioredoxin reductase. Isolation of the selenoenzyme, steady state kinetics, and inhibition by therapeutic gold compounds. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:20096-101 pubmed
    ..strongly inhibited by organic gold compounds that are widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; for auranofin, the Ki was 4 nM when measured in the presence of 50 microM thioredoxin...
  5. Madeira J, Gibson D, Kean W, Klegeris A. The biological activity of auranofin: implications for novel treatment of diseases. Inflammopharmacology. 2012;20:297-306 pubmed publisher
    More than 30 years ago, auranofin was developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a substitution for the injectable gold compounds aurothiomalate and aurothioglucose...
  6. Rigobello M, Scutari G, Boscolo R, Bindoli A. Induction of mitochondrial permeability transition by auranofin, a gold(I)-phosphine derivative. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;136:1162-8 pubmed
    ..2 Considering the importance of thiol groups in regulating mitochondrial membrane permeability, the effects of auranofin (S-triethylphosphinegold(I)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside), a second-generation gold drug,..
  7. Han S, Kim K, Kim H, Kwon J, Lee Y, Lee C, et al. Auranofin inhibits overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase expression and PGE2 production in macrophages. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:67-74 pubmed
    b>Auranofin (AF), a gold compound, is an orally active therapeutic agent used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a self-perpetuating inflammatory disease...
  8. Guidi F, Landini I, Puglia M, Magherini F, Gabbiani C, Cinellu M, et al. Proteomic analysis of ovarian cancer cell responses to cytotoxic gold compounds. Metallomics. 2012;4:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780/R) following treatment with two representative gold compounds, namely Auranofin and Auoxo6...
  9. Scarbrough P, Mapuskar K, Mattson D, Gius D, Watson W, Spitz D. Simultaneous inhibition of glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent metabolism is necessary to potentiate 17AAG-induced cancer cell killing via oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:436-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibitors of thiol-dependent hydroperoxide metabolism [L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) and auranofin] were combined with the glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) to determine if 17AAG-mediated ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ilari A, Baiocco P, Messori L, Fiorillo A, Boffi A, Gramiccia M, et al. A gold-containing drug against parasitic polyamine metabolism: the X-ray structure of trypanothione reductase from Leishmania infantum in complex with auranofin reveals a dual mechanism of enzyme inhibition. Amino Acids. 2012;42:803-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Auranofin is a gold(I)-containing drug in clinical use as an antiarthritic agent...
  2. Youn H, Lee J, Saitoh S, Miyake K, Hwang D. Auranofin, as an anti-rheumatic gold compound, suppresses LPS-induced homodimerization of TLR4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:866-71 pubmed
    ..b>Auranofin, an Au(I) compound, is a well-known and long-used anti-rheumatic drug...
  3. Curbo S, Gaudin R, Carlsten M, Malmberg K, Troye Blomberg M, Ahlborg N, et al. Regulation of interleukin-4 signaling by extracellular reduction of intramolecular disulfides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:1272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduction of IL-4 disulfides by the cell surface of HeLa cells was inhibited by auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase that is an electron donor to both Trx1 and PDI...
  4. Park S, Lee A, Youn H. TBK1-targeted suppression of TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of toll-like receptor 3 by auranofin. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;33:939-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Auranofin, a sulfur-containing gold compound (Au[I]), has been widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis...
  5. Hill D, Isab A, Griswold D, DiMartino M, Matz E, Figueroa A, et al. Seleno-auranofin (Et3PAuSe-tagl): synthesis, spectroscopic (EXAFS, 197Au Mössbauer, 31P, 1H, 13C, and 77Se NMR, ESI-MS) characterization, biological activity, and rapid serum albumin-induced triethylphosphine oxide generation. Inorg Chem. 2010;49:7663-75 pubmed publisher
    Seleno-auranofin (SeAF), an analogue of auranofin (AF), the orally active antiarthritic gold drug in clinical use, was synthesized and has been characterized by an array of physical techniques and biological assays...
  6. Tiekink E. Anti-cancer potential of gold complexes. Inflammopharmacology. 2008;16:138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..are being developed. Supporting many investigations are studies of mechanistic aspects of gold compounds but a clear understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds has yet to be delineated. ..
  7. Stanley B, Sivakumaran V, Shi S, McDonald I, Lloyd D, Watson W, et al. Thioredoxin reductase-2 is essential for keeping low levels of H(2)O(2) emission from isolated heart mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of TrxR2 in isolated mitochondria by auranofin resulted in increased H(2)O(2) emission, an effect that was seen under both forward and reverse electron ..
  8. Caroli A, Simeoni S, Lepore R, Tramontano A, Via A. Investigation of a potential mechanism for the inhibition of SmTGR by Auranofin and its implications for Plasmodium falciparum inhibition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..SmTGR, an essential enzyme of the S. mansoni ROS detoxification machinery, is known to be inhibited by Auranofin although the inhibition mechanism has not been completely clarified. Auranofin also kills P...
  9. Schuh E, Pflüger C, Citta A, Folda A, Rigobello M, Bindoli A, et al. Gold(I) carbene complexes causing thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 oxidation as potential anticancer agents. J Med Chem. 2012;55:5518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional biochemical assays on glutathione systems and reactive oxygen species formation evidenced important differences with respect to the classical cytotoxic Au(I)-phosphine compound auranofin.
  10. Ott I, Koch T, Shorafa H, Bai Z, Poeckel D, Steinhilber D, et al. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and influence on eicosanoid metabolism of cobalt-alkyne modified fructoses in comparison to auranofin and the cytotoxic COX inhibitor Co-ASS. Org Biomol Chem. 2005;3:2282-6 pubmed
    ..gt; 20 microM demonstrated that the fructose derivatives were only moderately active compared to the references auranofin and the aspirin (ASS) derivative [2-acetoxy(2-propynyl)benzoate]hexacarbonyldicobalt (Co-ASS)...
  11. Liu J, Liu Q, Wei H, Yi J, Zhao H, Gao L. Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase by auranofin induces apoptosis in adriamycin-resistant human K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Pharmazie. 2011;66:440-4 pubmed
    ..b>Auranofin, a gold(I) compound clinically used as an antirheumatic agent, reduced TrxR activity and was more effective than ..
  12. Kim I, Jin J, Lee I, Park S. Auranofin induces apoptosis and when combined with retinoic acid enhances differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:749-55 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the effects of auranofin (AF), a coordinated gold compound, on apoptosis and differentiation of APL cells. 2...
  13. Sannella A, Casini A, Gabbiani C, Messori L, Bilia A, Vincieri F, et al. New uses for old drugs. Auranofin, a clinically established antiarthritic metallodrug, exhibits potent antimalarial effects in vitro: Mechanistic and pharmacological implications. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:844-7 pubmed publisher
    The clinically established gold-based antiarthritic drug auranofin (AF) manifests a pronounced reactivity toward thiol and selenol groups of proteins...
  14. Rigobello M, Scutari G, Folda A, Bindoli A. Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase inhibition by gold(I) compounds and concurrent stimulation of permeability transition and release of cytochrome c. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;67:689-96 pubmed
    The effects of auranofin, chloro(triethylphosphine)gold(I) (TEPAu), and aurothiomalate on mitochondrial respiration, pyridine nucleotide redox state, membrane permeability properties, and redox enzymes activities were compared...
  15. Kim N, Oh M, Park H, Kim I. Auranofin, a gold(I)-containing antirheumatic compound, activates Keap1/Nrf2 signaling via Rac1/iNOS signal and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;113:246-54 pubmed
    b>Auranofin (2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranosato-S-[triethylphosphine] gold) is a gold(I)-containing antirheumatic drug that possesses anti-inflammatory properties...
  16. Cohen Kutner M, Khomsky L, Trus M, Aisner Y, Niv M, Benhar M, et al. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) reverse auranofin induced apoptosis and restore insulin secretion in insulinoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:977-90 pubmed publisher
    ..TXM) protected insulinoma INS 832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability...
  17. Liu J, Hu W, Xu B, Wang J, Wang S, Wang X. [Schistosomicidal mechanism of auranofin on Schistosoma japonicum and its cytotoxicity]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2012;30:450-4 pubmed
    To compare the effect and acted target of auranofin on juvenile and adult Schistosoma japonicum, and detect the cytotoxicity of auranofin against host cells...
  18. Eriksson S, Prast Nielsen S, Flaberg E, Szekely L, Arner E. High levels of thioredoxin reductase 1 modulate drug-specific cytotoxic efficacy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:1661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..No changes in response upon exposure to auranofin or juglone were seen after TrxR1 knockdown, whereas sensitivity to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or menadione ..
  19. Nakaya A, Sagawa M, Muto A, Uchida H, Ikeda Y, Kizaki M. The gold compound auranofin induces apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells through both down-regulation of STAT3 and inhibition of NF-?B activity. Leuk Res. 2011;35:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We first found that auranofin (AF), a coordinated gold compound, induced a significant level of cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and subsequent ..
  20. Martínez González J, Guevara Flores A, Alvarez G, Rendón Gómez J, del Arenal I. In vitro killing action of auranofin on Taenia crassiceps metacestode (cysticerci) and inactivation of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:227-31 pubmed publisher
    ..as a potential therapeutic target of parasitic platyhelminths, and based on this assumption, the gold compound auranofin is a potent inhibitor of TGR...
  21. Madeira J, Renschler C, Mueller B, Hashioka S, Gibson D, Klegeris A. Novel protective properties of auranofin: inhibition of human astrocyte cytotoxic secretions and direct neuroprotection. Life Sci. 2013;92:1072-80 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the effects of gold compounds on astrocytic cell functions and assessed in vivo distribution of auranofin after its oral administration in mice...
  22. Fiskus W, Saba N, Shen M, Ghias M, Liu J, Gupta S, et al. Auranofin induces lethal oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress and exerts potent preclinical activity against chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Res. 2014;74:2520-32 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Food and Drug Administration-approved small-molecule drug to repurpose for CLL treatment. Auranofin (Ridaura) is approved for use in treating rheumatoid arthritis, but it exhibited preclinical efficacy in CLL ..
  23. Alger H, Williams D. The disulfide redox system of Schistosoma mansoni and the importance of a multifunctional enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;121:129-39 pubmed
    ..This is the first example of an organism with a redox system based exclusively on thioredoxin glutathione reductase...
  24. Park S, Kim I. The role of p38 MAPK activation in auranofin-induced apoptosis of human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;146:506-13 pubmed
    In a previous study, we reported an antileukaemic activity of auranofin (AF), demonstrating its dual effects: on the induction of apoptotic cell death and its synergistic action with retinoic acid on cell differentiation...
  25. Liu C, Liu Z, Li M, Li X, Wong Y, Ngai S, et al. Enhancement of auranofin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cells by selenocystine, a synergistic inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53945 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Auranofin (AF) is potent TrxR inhibitor with novel in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities...
  26. Sobhakumari A, Love Homan L, Fletcher E, Martin S, Parsons A, Spitz D, et al. Susceptibility of human head and neck cancer cells to combined inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48175 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of GSH and Trx metabolism with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and auranofin (AUR), respectively, induced significant decreases in clonogenic survival compared to either drug alone in FaDu, ..
  27. De Luca A, Hartinger C, Dyson P, Lo Bello M, Casini A. A new target for gold(I) compounds: glutathione-S-transferase inhibition by auranofin. J Inorg Biochem. 2013;119:38-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of the pharmacological properties of gold(I) complexes bearing phosphine ligands, such as the antiarthritic drug auranofin, that has also been shown to produce anticancer effects in vitro...
  28. Marzano C, Gandin V, Folda A, Scutari G, Bindoli A, Rigobello M. Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase by auranofin induces apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;42:872-81 pubmed
    ..However, the development of resistance to cisplatin represents a serious clinical problem. The effects of auranofin, a gold(I) compound clinically used as an antirheumatic agent, on cisplatin-sensitive (2008) and-resistant (C13*)..
  29. Rigobello M, Folda A, Dani B, Menabò R, Scutari G, Bindoli A. Gold(I) complexes determine apoptosis with limited oxidative stress in Jurkat T cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;582:26-34 pubmed publisher
    In Jurkat T cells, S-triethylphosphinegold(I)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-beta-d-glucopyranoside (auranofin) and triethylphosphine gold(I) chloride (TepAu) induced apoptosis, as estimated by DNA fragmentation and visualised by ..
  30. Kean W, Kean I. Clinical pharmacology of gold. Inflammopharmacology. 2008;16:112-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In the1980s, the oral gold compound auranofin showed promise as a therapeutic contender to injectable gold, but the clinical side effect profile and fear of ..
  31. Bondeson J, Sundler R. Auranofin inhibits the induction of interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA in macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995;50:1753-9 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here that auranofin (AF) (0...
  32. Iqbal M, Taqi S, Arif M, Wasim M, Sher M. In vitro distribution of gold in serum proteins after incubation of sodium aurothiomalate and auranofin with human blood and its pharmacological significance. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009;130:204-9 pubmed publisher
    This study presents a comparative drug-protein, in vitro, binding profile of sodium aurothiomalate and auranofin. It was found that about 40% of total protein-bound gold is attached to albumin after incubation of aurothiomalate with ..
  33. Peters Golden M, Shelly C. Inhibition of alveolar macrophage 5-lipoxygenase metabolism by auranofin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989;38:1589-95 pubmed
    We have examined the effect of the oral gold compound auranofin (AF) on calcium ionophore A23187-induced arachidonic acid metabolism in the rat alveolar macrophage...
  34. Betts W, Hurst N, Murphy G, Cleland L. Auranofin stimulates LTA hydrolase and inhibits 5-lipoxygenase/LTA synthase activity of isolated human neutrophils. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990;39:1233-7 pubmed
    The effect of auranofin on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway was studied in human neutrophils stimulated with either fMLP or A23187 (with or without arachidonic acid)...
  35. Angelucci F, Sayed A, Williams D, Boumis G, Brunori M, Dimastrogiovanni D, et al. Inhibition of Schistosoma mansoni thioredoxin-glutathione reductase by auranofin: structural and kinetic aspects. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Auranofin (AF), a gold-containing compound already in clinical use as an anti-arthritic drug, has been shown to inhibit ..
  36. Kim N, Park H, Oh M, Kim I. Antiproliferative effect of gold(I) compound auranofin through inhibition of STAT3 and telomerase activity in MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells. BMB Rep. 2013;46:59-64 pubmed
    ..The in vitro anticancer activity of the gold(I) compound auranofin was investigated using MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells, in which STAT3 is constitutively active...
  37. Lopert P, Day B, Patel M. Thioredoxin reductase deficiency potentiates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in dopaminergic cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50683 pubmed publisher
    ..of N27 dopaminergic cells or primary rat mesencephalic cultures with the Trx reductase (TrxR) inhibitor auranofin in the presence of sub-toxic concentrations of parkinsonian toxicants paraquat; PQ or 6-hydroxydopamine; 6OHDA (..
  38. Tejman Yarden N, Miyamoto Y, Leitsch D, Santini J, Debnath A, Gut J, et al. A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2029-35 pubmed publisher
    ..One notable compound of the last group was the antirheumatic drug auranofin. Further testing revealed that auranofin was active in the low (4 to 6)-micromolar range against a range of ..
  39. Du Y, Zhang H, Lu J, Holmgren A. Glutathione and glutaredoxin act as a backup of human thioredoxin reductase 1 to reduce thioredoxin 1 preventing cell death by aurothioglucose. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, auranofin killed cells and oxidized Trx1, also targeting mitochondrial TrxR2 and Trx2...
  40. Lewis M, DaFonseca S, Chomont N, Palamara A, Tardugno M, Mai A, et al. Gold drug auranofin restricts the viral reservoir in the monkey AIDS model and induces containment of viral load following ART suspension. AIDS. 2011;25:1347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the impact of the gold compound, auranofin, on phenotype and viability of CD4 T cells in vitro, and on persistence of lentiviral reservoir cells in vivo...
  41. Talbot S, Nelson R, Self W. Arsenic trioxide and auranofin inhibit selenoprotein synthesis: implications for chemotherapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:940-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of inhibitors of TrxR on selenium metabolism has yet to be assessed. This study aims to determine whether chemotherapeutics that target selenocysteine within selenoenzymes may also affect the metabolism of selenium...
  42. Iqbal M, Saeed M, Taqi S. Erythrocyte membrane gold levels after treatment with auranofin and sodium aurothiomalate. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;126:56-64 pubmed publisher
    Triethylphosphine gold-2,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-L-thio-D-glucopyranoside (auranofin and sodium aurothiomalate; Myocrisin are two chemically different gold compounds used to treat rheumatoid arthritis...
  43. Jackson Rosario S, Cowart D, Myers A, Tarrien R, Levine R, Scott R, et al. Auranofin disrupts selenium metabolism in Clostridium difficile by forming a stable Au-Se adduct. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2009;14:507-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work we have identified, using mass spectrometry, a stable complex formed upon reaction of auranofin (a gold-containing drug) with selenide in vitro...
  44. Columbo M, Galeone D, Guidi G, Kagey Sobotka A, Lichtenstein L, Pettit G, et al. Modulation of mediator release from human basophils and pulmonary mast cells and macrophages by auranofin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990;39:285-91 pubmed
    b>Auranofin, a new orally absorbable gold compound, inhibits IgE-(anti-IgE) and non-IgE-mediated (f-met-peptide and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187) histamine release from human basophils...
  45. Jeon K, Byun M, Jue D. Gold compound auranofin inhibits IkappaB kinase (IKK) by modifying Cys-179 of IKKbeta subunit. Exp Mol Med. 2003;35:61-6 pubmed
    ..Cys-179 of IKKbeta with alanine (C179A) rendered the enzyme to become resistant to inhibition by a gold compound auranofin, however, similar protective effect was not observed with an equivalent level of IKKalpha (C178A) mutant ..
  46. Rigobello M, Folda A, Baldoin M, Scutari G, Bindoli A. Effect of auranofin on the mitochondrial generation of hydrogen peroxide. Role of thioredoxin reductase. Free Radic Res. 2005;39:687-95 pubmed
    ..substrates (succinate, glutamate, malate and isocitrate), is stimulated by submicromolar concentrations of auranofin, a highly specific inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase...
  47. Lobanov A, Gromer S, Salinas G, Gladyshev V. Selenium metabolism in Trypanosoma: characterization of selenoproteomes and identification of a Kinetoplastida-specific selenoprotein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:4012-24 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that Trypanosoma brucei brucei cells were highly sensitive to auranofin, a compound that specifically targets selenoproteins...
  48. Ashino T, Sugiuchi J, Uehara J, Naito Yamamoto Y, Kenmotsu S, Iwakura Y, et al. Auranofin protects against cocaine-induced hepatic injury through induction of heme oxygenase-1. J Toxicol Sci. 2011;36:635-43 pubmed
    b>Auranofin, a disease-modifying gold compound, has been empirically applying to the management of rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated a protective effect of auranofin against hepatic injury induced by cocaine...
  49. Kuntz A, Davioud Charvet E, Sayed A, Califf L, Dessolin J, Arner E, et al. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase from Schistosoma mansoni: an essential parasite enzyme and a key drug target. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e206 pubmed
    ..We also found that auranofin is an efficient inhibitor of pure TGR (Ki = 10 nM), able to kill parasites rapidly in culture at physiological ..
  50. Kim T, Kang B, Lee M, Choe Y, Hwang S. Inhibition of interleukin-12 production by auranofin, an anti-rheumatic gold compound, deviates CD4(+) T cells from the Th1 to the Th2 pathway. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;134:571-8 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated the effect of auranofin (AF), an anti-rheumatic gold compound, on IL-12 production in mouse macrophages and dendritic cells, and studied ..
  51. Brown K, Cox A, Hampton M. Mitochondrial respiratory chain involvement in peroxiredoxin 3 oxidation by phenethyl isothiocyanate and auranofin. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx 3) is rapidly oxidized in cells exposed to phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and auranofin (AFN), but the mechanism of oxidation is unclear...
  52. Shytaj I, Chirullo B, Wagner W, Ferrari M, Sgarbanti R, Corte A, et al. Investigational treatment suspension and enhanced cell-mediated immunity at rebound followed by drug-free remission of simian AIDS. Retrovirology. 2013;10:71 pubmed publisher
    ..One such agent, auranofin, has recently been shown to decrease the memory T-cell reservoir in chronically SIVmac251-infected macaques...
  53. Chirullo B, Sgarbanti R, Limongi D, Shytaj I, Alvarez D, Das B, et al. A candidate anti-HIV reservoir compound, auranofin, exerts a selective 'anti-memory' effect by exploiting the baseline oxidative status of lymphocytes. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e944 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we explored the molecular bases of the anti-HIV reservoir effects of auranofin (AF), a pro-oxidant gold-based drug and a candidate compound for a cure of AIDS...