onium compounds


Summary: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+

Top Publications

  1. Marengo B, De Ciucis C, Verzola D, Pistoia V, Raffaghello L, Patriarca S, et al. Mechanisms of BSO (L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine)-induced cytotoxic effects in neuroblastoma. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:474-82 pubmed
  2. Qian L, Gao X, Pei Z, Wu X, Block M, Wilson B, et al. NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI is neuroprotective at femtomolar concentrations through inhibition of microglia over-activation. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007;13 Suppl 3:S316-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that femtomolar concentrations of DPI exert potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the inhibition of ERK-regulated PHOX activity. ..
  3. Segmüller N, Kokkelink L, Giesbert S, Odinius D, van Kan J, Tudzynski P. NADPH oxidases are involved in differentiation and pathogenicity in Botrytis cinerea. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:808-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotype of DeltabcnoxR mutants is identical to that of DeltabcnoxAB double mutants, providing evidence that BcnoxR is involved in activation of both Bcnox enzymes. ..
  4. Lohar D, Haridas S, Gantt J, VandenBosch K. A transient decrease in reactive oxygen species in roots leads to root hair deformation in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. New Phytol. 2007;173:39-49 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a role for the transient reduction of ROS accumulation in governing NF-induced root hair deformation in legumes. ..
  5. Tazzeo T, Worek F, Janssen L. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium is also a potent inhibitor of cholinesterases and the internal Ca(2+) pump. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct measurement of microsomal Ca(2+) uptake revealed that DPI modestly inhibits the internal Ca(2+) pump. DPI inhibits cholinesterase activity and the internal Ca(2+) pump in tracheal smooth muscle. ..
  6. Li J, Shah A. Differential NADPH- versus NADH-dependent superoxide production by phagocyte-type endothelial cell NADPH oxidase. Cardiovasc Res. 2001;52:477-86 pubmed
    ..Like the neutrophil enzyme, the endothelial oxidase is preferentially NADPH- rather than NADH-dependent. NADH-dependent O(2)(-) production appears to be an artefact related to the use of lucigenin doses > or =50 micromol/l. ..
  7. Chan S, Hsu K, Huang C, Wang L, Ou C, Chan J. NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion mediates angiotensin II-induced pressor effect via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Circ Res. 2005;97:772-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway may mediate Ang II-induced pressor response via enhancement of presynaptic release of glutamate to RVLM neurons. ..
  8. Bayraktutan U. Coronary microvascular endothelial cell growth regulates expression of the gene encoding p22-phox. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;39:1342-52 pubmed
  9. Talior I, Tennenbaum T, Kuroki T, Eldar Finkelman H. PKC-delta-dependent activation of oxidative stress in adipocytes of obese and insulin-resistant mice: role for NADPH oxidase. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;288:E405-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that PKC-delta is responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in HF adipocytes, and this is mediated by high glucose and NADPH oxidase. ..

More Information


  1. Grant M, Brown I, Adams S, Knight M, Ainslie A, Mansfield J. The RPM1 plant disease resistance gene facilitates a rapid and sustained increase in cytosolic calcium that is necessary for the oxidative burst and hypersensitive cell death. Plant J. 2000;23:441-50 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the calcium-channel blocker LaCl3 suppressed the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ as well as H2O2 accumulation and the HR, placing calcium elevation upstream of the oxidative burst. ..
  2. Alvarez Maqueda M, El Bekay R, Monteseirín J, Alba G, Chacón P, Vega A, et al. Homocysteine enhances superoxide anion release and NADPH oxidase assembly by human neutrophils. Effects on MAPK activation and neutrophil migration. Atherosclerosis. 2004;172:229-38 pubmed
    ..Present results are the first evidence that Hcy enhances the oxidative stress of neutrophils, and underscore the potential role of phagocytic cells in vascular wall injury through O2*- release in hyperhomocysteinaemia conditions. ..
  3. Gujral J, Hinson J, Farhood A, Jaeschke H. NADPH oxidase-derived oxidant stress is critical for neutrophil cytotoxicity during endotoxemia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G243-52 pubmed
    ..Thus NADPH oxidase could be a promising therapeutic target to prevent neutrophil-mediated liver injury. However, the long-term benefit of this approach needs to be investigated in models relevant for human liver disease. ..
  4. Li W, Yan F, Zhou H, Lin X, Wu Y, Chen C, et al. P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide-induced MUC5AC and CLCA3 expression is partly through Duox1 in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63945 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate for the first time that PA-LPS-induced MUC5AC and Clca3 expression is partly through Duox1, and provide supportive evidence for Duox1 as a potential target in treatments of mucin over-production diseases. ..
  5. Trendeleva T, Rogov A, Cherepanov D, Sukhanova E, Il yasova T, Severina I, et al. Interaction of tetraphenylphosphonium and dodecyltriphenylphosphonium with lipid membranes and mitochondria. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2012;77:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..At higher concentrations they inhibit respiration in state 3, and at much higher concentrations they induce swelling of mitochondria, possibly due to their detergent action. ..
  6. Xiao R, Teng M, Zhang Q, Shi X, Huang Y. Myocardial autophagy after severe burn in rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39488 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. ..
  7. Koumbis A, Kyzas C, Savva A, Varvoglis A. Formation of new alkynyl(phenyl)iodonium salts and their use in the synthesis of phenylsulfonyl indenes and acetylenes. Molecules. 2005;10:1340-50 pubmed
    ..The preparation of phenylsulfonyl indene derivatives and phenylsulfonyl- acetylenes from readily available alkynyl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborates and triflates was investigated using phenylsulfinate as nucleophile. ..
  8. Wang J, Chiu Y. Systemic hypoxia enhances exercise-mediated bactericidal and subsequent apoptotic responses in human neutrophils. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:1213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that ME at 12-15% O2 enhances bactericidal capacity and facilitates the subsequent apoptosis of neutrophils. ..
  9. Shang F, Wang J, Zheng Q, Liu X, Xue Y, Li J, et al. [The relationship between reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of p38 MAPK and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? in cultured cardiomyocytes]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;27:7-10 pubmed
    ..The activation of p38 MAPK plays an important role in TNF-? expression in LPS-stimulated cardiomyocytes and the increase of ROS production is prerequisite for the activation of p38 MAPK. ..
  10. Kucera J, Bino L, Štefková K, Jaroš J, Vašíček O, Vecera J, et al. Apocynin and Diphenyleneiodonium Induce Oxidative Stress and Modulate PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk Activity in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:7409196 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, diphenyleneiodonium activated both PI3K/Akt and Erk signaling pathways without affecting Wnt. Our data indicates limits and possible unexpected interactions of NOXs inhibitors with intracellular signaling pathways. ..
  11. Youreva V, Srivastava A. Early Growth Response Protein-1 Expression by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Requires ROS-Dependent Activation of ERK1/2 and PKB Pathways in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. J Cell Biochem. 2016;117:152-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data demonstrate that ROS-dependent activation of ERK1/2/JNK, PI3-K/PKB signaling events play a critical role in IGF-1 induced expression of Egr-1 in VSMC. ..
  12. Kudin K, Car R. Why are water-hydrophobic interfaces charged?. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:3915-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with several experimental observations and explain why hydrophobic surfaces in contact with water acquire a net negative charge, a phenomenon that has important implications for biology and polymer science. ..
  13. Friis M, Vorum K, Lambert I. Volume-sensitive NADPH oxidase activity and taurine efflux in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C1552-65 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that a NOX4 isotype plus p22 phox account for the swelling-induced increase in the ROS production in NIH3T3 cells and that the oxidase activity is potentiated by PKC and LPA but not by Ca2+. ..
  14. Shinohara M, Adachi Y, Mitsushita J, Kuwabara M, Nagasawa A, Harada S, et al. Reactive oxygen generated by NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) contributes to cell invasion by regulating matrix metalloprotease-9 production and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings define a mediating role of Nox1-generated reactive oxygen species in cell invasion processes, most notably metalloprotease production and cell motile activity. ..
  15. Pesquet E, Zhang B, Gorzsás A, Puhakainen T, Serk H, Escamez S, et al. Non-cell-autonomous postmortem lignification of tracheary elements in Zinnia elegans. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1314-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that living, parenchymatic xylem cells contribute to TE lignification in a non-cell-autonomous manner, thus enabling the postmortem lignification of TEs. ..
  16. Jin S, Ray R, Johnson L. TNF-alpha/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells requires Rac1-regulated reactive oxygen species. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G928-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, all ROS inhibitors inhibited caspase-3 activity. Thus these results indicate that TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis requires Rac1-dependent ROS production in intestinal epithelial cells. ..
  17. Cerrato R, Cunnington C, Crabtree M, Antoniades C, Pernow J, Channon K, et al. Endothelin-1 increases superoxide production in human coronary artery bypass grafts. Life Sci. 2012;91:723-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of O(2)(-) may be an important factor underlying the negative effects of ET-1 on vascular function such as impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and pro-inflammatory effects. ..
  18. Jiang Y, Hu L. N-(2,2-Dimethyl-2-(2-nitrophenyl)acetyl)-4-aminocyclophosphamide as a potential bioreductively activated prodrug of phosphoramide mustard. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:4059-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results validated 4-aminocyclophosphamide as a prodrug form of phosphoramide mustard and suggest that compound 4 can potentially be used as a prodrug of phosphoramide mustard for bioreductive activation. ..
  19. Chen H, Zhang B, Yuan X, Yao Y, Zhao H, Sun X, et al. Isoliquiritigenin-induced effects on Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defence in the HL-60 cell monocytic differentiation. Cell Biol Int. 2013;37:1215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..ISL as a differentiation-inducing agent with mechanisms involved in the Nrf2/ARE pathway to modulate intercellular redox homeostasis, and thus, facilitate differentiation. ..
  20. Hassan S, Hummer G, Lee Y. Effects of electric fields on proton transport through water chains. J Chem Phys. 2006;124:204510 pubmed
    ..The implications of these observations on PT in biomolecular systems and its control by external perturbing fields are discussed. ..
  21. Tarazona Vasquez F, Balbuena P. Dendrimer-tetrachloroplatinate precursor interactions. 2. Noncovalent binding in PAMAM outer pockets. J Phys Chem A. 2007;111:945-53 pubmed
    ..Conformational changes triggered by the hosting of particular guests can have an impact in the global configuration of the larger dendrimer the pockets are part of. ..
  22. Barger S, Goodwin M, Porter M, Beggs M. Glutamate release from activated microglia requires the oxidative burst and lipid peroxidation. J Neurochem. 2007;101:1205-13 pubmed
    ..Indeed, some of the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants may be due to interference with these events rather than direct protection against neuronal oxidation. ..
  23. Lin F, Chen Y, Tasi J, Chen J, Yang T, Wang H, et al. Endotoxin induces toll-like receptor 4 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via NADPH oxidase activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:2630-7 pubmed
  24. Chen H, Huang C, Huang G, Chow T, Lin Y. NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium and reduced glutathione mitigate ethephon-mediated leaf senescence, H2O2 elevation and senescence-associated gene expression in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). J Plant Physiol. 2013;170:1471-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible roles of NADPH oxidase and reduced glutathione in the regulation of oxidative stress signal in ethephon are discussed. ..
  25. Nakanishi A, Hie M, Iitsuka N, Tsukamoto I. A crucial role for reactive oxygen species in macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced RANK expression in osteoclastic differentiation. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31:874-80 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and MITF in early-stage osteoclast precursor cells. ..
  26. Seidl T, Sundalam S, McCullough B, Stuart D. Unsymmetrical Aryl(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)iodonium Salts: One-Pot Synthesis, Scope, Stability, and Synthetic Studies. J Org Chem. 2016;81:1998-2009 pubmed publisher
    ..The utility of these reagents is demonstrated in moderate to high yielding arylation reactions with C-, N-, O-, and S-nucleophiles including the synthesis of a liquid crystal molecule. ..
  27. Sheng W, Hu S, Feng A, Rock R. Reactive oxygen species from human astrocytes induced functional impairment and oxidative damage. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:2148-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the notion that dampening activated human astrocytes to maintain the redox homeostasis is vital to preserve their neuroprotective potential in the CNS. ..
  28. Yang D, Elner S, Bian Z, Till G, Petty H, Elner V. Pro-inflammatory cytokines increase reactive oxygen species through mitochondria and NADPH oxidase in cultured RPE cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007;85:462-72 pubmed
    ..05). Collectively, these results demonstrate that TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IFN-gamma increase mitochondrial- and NADPH oxidase-generated ROS in human RPE cells. ..
  29. Kim W, Goo S, Lee K, Park S. Vibrio vulnificus-induced cell death of human mononuclear cells requires ROS-dependent activation of p38 and ERK 1/2 MAPKs. Immunol Invest. 2009;38:31-48 pubmed publisher
    ..vulnificus-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK. This study demonstrates that V. vulnificus induces death of PBMC via ROS-dependent activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 MAPK. ..
  30. Glukhov I, Sirota N, Kuznetsova E. DNA damage in human mononuclear cells induced by bacterial endotoxin. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:301-3 pubmed
  31. Pan Q, Yang X, Cheng Y. Angiotensin II stimulates MCP-1 production in rat glomerular endothelial cells via NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B signaling. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009;42:531-6 pubmed
    ..This may provide a mechanistic basis for the benefits of selective AT1 blockade in dealing with chronic renal disease. ..
  32. Hu F, Sun W, Zhao X, Cui Z, Yang W. TRPV1 mediates cell death in rat synovial fibroblasts through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:989-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicated that TRPV1 activation triggered synoviocyte death by [Ca(2+)](c) elevation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. ..
  33. Jaulmes A, Sansilvestri Morel P, Rolland Valognes G, Bernhardt F, Gaertner R, Lockhart B, et al. Nox4 mediates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 via p38 MAPK pathway in cultured human endothelial cells. Thromb Res. 2009;124:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..NADPH oxidase targeting with inhibitors such as S17834 could be an interesting strategy to decrease both oxidative stress and PAI-1 synthesis. ..
  34. Vartak S, Roudgar A, Golovnev A, Eikerling M. Collective proton dynamics at highly charged interfaces studied by ab initio metadynamics. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights should stimulate surface conductance studies at SG monolayers with sulfonic acid groups, and they bolster efforts in designing proton conducting polymers conducive to fuel cell operation above ~100 °C. ..
  35. Donohoe T, Williams O, Churchill G. Hydride shift generated oxonium ions: evidence for mechanism and intramolecular trapping experiments to form trans THF derivatives. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:2869-71 pubmed publisher
  36. Wang Q, Zhou H, Gao H, Chen S, Chu C, Wilson B, et al. Naloxone inhibits immune cell function by suppressing superoxide production through a direct interaction with gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Strong evidence is provided indicating that NOX2 is a non-opioid novel binding site for naloxone, which is critical in mediating its inhibitory effect on microglia overactivation and superoxide production. ..
  37. Toh Q, McNally A, Vera S, Erdmann N, Gaunt M. Organocatalytic C-H bond arylation of aldehydes to bis-heteroaryl ketones. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:3772-5 pubmed publisher
  38. Schonfeld P, Wojtczak L. Brown adipose tissue mitochondria oxidizing fatty acids generate high levels of reactive oxygen species irrespective of the uncoupling protein-1 activity state. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that acylcarnitine-supported ROS generation in BATM may be mainly associated with acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and electron transferring flavoprotein-ubiquinone reductase rather than with complexes of the respiratory chain. ..
  39. Buivydas A, Pasanen T, Sencilo A, Daugelavicius R, Vaara M, Bamford D. Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from superficial skin infections have different physiological patterns. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;343:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristics of infected patients seem to determine the growth environments for microorganisms that adapt by changing their physiological and/or genetic properties. ..
  40. Stibingerová A, Velvarská H, Kynclová K, Marounková B, Spundová M, Entlicher G. Lipoamide dehydrogenase and diaphorase catalyzed conversion of some NO donors to NO and reduction of NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). Gen Physiol Biophys. 2009;28:384-90 pubmed
    ..In summary, we found that LAD significantly accelerates the conversion of a defined subset of NO donors to NO, especially GTN, and eliminates the NO scavenging effect of PTIO...
  41. Dhooghe F, Vansintjan R, Schoon N, Amelynck C. Studies in search of selective detection of isomeric biogenic hexen-1-ols and hexanal by flowing afterglow tandem mass spectrometry using [H3O]+ and [NO]+ reagent ions. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012;26:1868-74 pubmed publisher
  42. Luo L, Kaur Kumar J, Clement M. Redox control of cytosolic Akt phosphorylation in PTEN null cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1697-707 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were corroborated in the PTEN knockout prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and in the melanoma cell line M14 stably transfected with a constitutively active form of Rac1. ..
  43. Bay D, Turner R. Spectroscopic analysis of small multidrug resistance protein EmrE in the presence of various quaternary cation compounds. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:1318-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study show that monomeric detergent solubilized EmrE is capable of forming multimeric complexes that are enhanced by chemically diverse QCCs. ..
  44. Loguercio A, Stanislawczuk R, Mittelstadt F, Meier M, Reis A. Effects of diphenyliodonium salt addition on the adhesive and mechanical properties of an experimental adhesive. J Dent. 2013;41:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The inclusion of the DPIH to the traditional CQ is a good strategy to improve the adhesive and mechanical properties of a simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive system. ..
  45. Kriz J, Toman P, Makrlík E, Budka J, Shukla R, Rathore R. Cooperative interaction of hydronium ion with an ethereally fenced hexaarylbenzene-based receptor: an NMR and theoretical study. J Phys Chem A. 2010;114:5327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..After this correction, the correlation time of exchange was found to be 4.76 x 10(-5) s. Such relatively fast exchange can be explained only by it being mediated by the excess water molecules present in the system. ..
  46. Ooi T, Maruoka K. Recent advances in asymmetric phase-transfer catalysis. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007;46:4222-66 pubmed
    ..This concept, together with the synthetic versatility of phase-transfer catalysis, provides a reliable and general strategy for the practical asymmetric synthesis of highly valuable organic compounds. ..
  47. Chen J, Lazarenko O, Shankar K, Blackburn M, Lumpkin C, Badger T, et al. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss in female rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;336:734-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that inhibition of Nox expression and activity may be critical for prevention of chronic EtOH-induced osteoblast-dependent bone loss. ..
  48. Siragy H, Huang J. Renal (pro)renin receptor upregulation in diabetic rats through enhanced angiotensin AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase activity. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:709-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the PRR is constitutively expressed in renal glomeruli and tubules. Expression of the PRR is upregulated in diabetes via enhancement of AT1 receptor-NADPH oxidase activity. ..
  49. Neubauer R, Neubauer A, Wölkart G, Schwarzenegger C, Lang B, Schmidt K, et al. Potent inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 by diphenyleneiodonium: focus on nitroglycerin bioactivation. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the data provide new evidence for the essential role of ALDH2 in GTN bioactivation and may have implications to other fields of ALDH2 research, such as hepatic ethanol metabolism and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  50. Lin Y, Wang K, Jia F, Liu X. [Effects of diaryliodonium on the properties of light-curing composite resin]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;40:700-3 pubmed
    ..Bis (p-tolyl) iodonium hexafluorophosphate has better performance than diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate in improving photosensibility and solubility of the photoinitiator system. ..
  51. Aam B, Fonnum F. Carbon black particles increase reactive oxygen species formation in rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. Arch Toxicol. 2007;81:441-6 pubmed
    ..Follow-up experiments using a series of enzyme inhibitors indicate that the ERK MAP kinase pathway and the p38 MAP kinase pathway may be involved in the formation of ROS. ..
  52. Hatanaka E, Dermargos A, Armelin H, Curi R, Campa A. Serum amyloid A induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and proliferation of fibroblast. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;163:362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the notion that, in chronic inflammatory sites, SAA activated fibroblast proliferation and ROS production. ..
  53. Domico L, Cooper K, Bernard L, Zeevalk G. Reactive oxygen species generation by the ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide mancozeb and its contribution to neuronal toxicity in mesencephalic cells. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:1079-91 pubmed
    ..The findings further show that microglia may contribute to but are not required for ROS production by MZ. ..