Summary: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.

Top Publications

  1. Yoon S, Nakada N, Tanaka H. Occurrence and fate of N-nitrosamines and their formation potential in three wastewater treatment plants in Japan. Water Sci Technol. 2013;68:2118-26 pubmed publisher
    N-nitrosamines are well known as carcinogens present in the environment. However, studies of the occurrence and fate of N-nitrosamines and their N-nitrosamine formation potential (FP) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are lacking...
  2. Kim H, Shin H. Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1291:48-55 pubmed publisher
    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was described to detect tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes...
  3. Li L, Perdigao J, Pegg A, Lao Y, Hecht S, Lindgren B, et al. The influence of repair pathways on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by the pyridyloxobutylation pathway of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1464-72 pubmed publisher
    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and N'-nitrosonornicotine, are considered to be human carcinogens...
  4. Huber J, Brender J, Zheng Q, Sharkey J, Vuong A, Shinde M, et al. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study. Nutr J. 2013;12:34 pubmed publisher
    Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic...
  5. Sleiman M, Maddalena R, Gundel L, Destaillats H. Rapid and sensitive gas chromatography-ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in secondhand smoke. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:7899-905 pubmed publisher
    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are some of the most potent carcinogens in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals is needed to help assess public health risks...
  6. Goniewicz M, Havel C, Peng M, Jacob P, Dempsey D, Yu L, et al. Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:3421-5 pubmed publisher
  7. Takahashi H, Ogata H, Nishigaki R, Broide D, Karin M. Tobacco smoke promotes lung tumorigenesis by triggering IKKbeta- and JNK1-dependent inflammation. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor promotion is due to induction of inflammation that results in enhanced pneumocyte proliferation and is abrogated by IKKbeta ablation in myeloid cells or inactivation of JNK1. ..
  8. Padhye L, Tezel U, Mitch W, Pavlostathis S, Huang C. Occurrence and fate of nitrosamines and their precursors in municipal sludge and anaerobic digestion systems. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:3087-93 pubmed
    The fate of six nitrosamines and their secondary amine precursors and total precursors in three municipal wastewater treatment plants' primary sludge (PS), waste-activated sludge (WAS), and anaerobic digester mixed liquor (ADML) was ..
  9. Krauss M, Longrée P, Dorusch F, Ort C, Hollender J. Occurrence and removal of N-nitrosamines in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res. 2009;43:4381-91 pubmed publisher
    The presence of nitrosamines in wastewater might pose a risk to water resources even in countries where chlorination or chloramination are hardly used for water disinfection...

More Information


  1. Delgado M, Haza A, Garcia A, Morales P. Myricetin, quercetin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin protect against N-nitrosamines-induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:1292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, myricetin at the concentrations tested only protects human cells against oxidative DNA damage induced by NDBA and quercetin against oxidative DNA damage induced by NPIP. ..
  2. De Buck S, Schellenberger M, Ensch C, Muller C. Effects of antibodies induced by a conjugate vaccine on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone absorptive transport, metabolism, and proliferation of human lung cells. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These in vitro data therefore suggest that a prophylactic antibody response may be associated with a reduced risk of cancer. ..
  3. Yokohira M, Hashimoto N, Yamakawa K, Saoo K, Kuno T, Imaida K. Lack of promoting effects from physical pulmonary collapse in a female A/J mouse lung tumor initiated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) with remarkable mesothelial cell reactions in the thoracic cavity by the polymer. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011;63:181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains possible, however, that alternative approaches might have greater efficacy and these need more consideration. In addition, mesothelial cells reaction was observed with the infused polymer. ..
  4. Griesenbeck J, Brender J, Sharkey J, Steck M, Huber J, Rene A, et al. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2010;9:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and factors related to increased consumption of these compounds...
  5. Jakszyn P, Gonzalez C, Lujan Barroso L, Ros M, Bueno de Mesquita H, Roswall N, et al. Red meat, dietary nitrosamines, and heme iron and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:555-9 pubmed publisher
    Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent results for the association between red meat intake, nitrosamines [NDMA: N-nitrosodimethylamine, and ENOC (endogenous nitroso compounds)], and the risk of bladder cancer...
  6. Krasner S, Mitch W, McCurry D, Hanigan D, Westerhoff P. Formation, precursors, control, and occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water: a review. Water Res. 2013;47:4433-50 pubmed publisher
    This review summarizes major findings over the last decade related to nitrosamines in drinking water, with a particular focus on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), because it is among the most widely detected nitrosamines in drinking waters...
  7. Stepanov I, Knezevich A, Zhang L, Watson C, Hatsukami D, Hecht S. Carcinogenic tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in US cigarettes: three decades of remarkable neglect by the tobacco industry. Tob Control. 2012;21:44-8 pubmed publisher
    ..other changes in cigarette manufacturing techniques could substantially reduce the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), a group of potent carcinogens, in cigarette smoke...
  8. Wang C, Dai Y, Feng G, He R, Yang W, Li D, et al. Addition of porphyrins to cigarette filters to reduce the levels of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:7172-7 pubmed publisher
    Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) cause smoking-related diseases and environmental pollution...
  9. Shepperd C, Eldridge A, Mariner D, McEwan M, Errington G, Dixon M. A study to estimate and correlate cigarette smoke exposure in smokers in Germany as determined by filter analysis and biomarkers of exposure. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;55:97-109 pubmed publisher
  10. Alexandre M, Uduman A, Minervini S, Raoof A, Shugrue C, Akinbiyi E, et al. Tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone initiates and enhances pancreatitis responses. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;303:G696-704 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that prolonged exposure to this tobacco toxin can cause pancreatitis and sensitize to disease. Therapies targeting NNK-mediated pathways may prove useful in treatment of smoking-related pancreatitis...
  11. Ma F, Wan Y, Yuan G, Meng L, Dong Z, Hu J. Occurrence and source of nitrosamines and secondary amines in groundwater and its adjacent Jialu River basin, China. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:3236-43 pubmed publisher
    The presence of mutagenic and carcinogenic nitrosamines in groundwater is of great concern...
  12. Kavvadias D, Scherer G, Cheung F, Errington G, Shepperd J, McEwan M. Determination of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in urine of smokers and non-smokers. Biomarkers. 2009;14:547-53 pubmed publisher
    Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) include 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and are found in tobacco and tobacco smoke...
  13. Chiang H, Huang Y, Chen P, Chang C, Wang C, Lin P, et al. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone is correlated with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in humans after exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Sci Total Environ. 2012;414:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this correlation supports the hypothesis that oxidative DNA damage is one of major adverse effects induced by ETS exposure in humans. ..
  14. Tang F, Zou F, Peng Z, Huang D, Wu Y, Chen Y, et al. N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine-mediated ezrin protein phosphorylation via activation of Rho kinase and protein kinase C is involved in metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 6-10B cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36956-67 pubmed publisher
    ..DNP may be involved in NPC metastasis through regulation of ezrin phosphorylation at Thr-567. ..
  15. Lin R, Hsieh Y, Lin P, Hsu H, Chen C, Tang Y, et al. The tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK induces DNA methyltransferase 1 accumulation and tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation in mice and lung cancer patients. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:521-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this mechanism may also be involved in other smoking-related human diseases. ..
  16. Nilsson R. The molecular basis for induction of human cancers by tobacco specific nitrosamines. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;60:268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..For carcinogenic oral snuffs with extremely high concentrations of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) the DNA adduct levels predicted from animal experiments exceed those found in "unexposed" ..
  17. Li H, Jonsson B, Lindh C, Albin M, Broberg K. N-nitrosamines are associated with shorter telomere length. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011;37:316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Aiming to examine the relationship between DNA-damaging agents and average telomere length in peripheral blood, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 157 workers working in the rubber industry in Sweden...
  18. Ashley D, O Connor R, Bernert J, Watson C, Polzin G, Jain R, et al. Effect of differing levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke on the levels of biomarkers in smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1389-98 pubmed publisher
    Smokers are exposed to significant doses of carcinogens, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA)...
  19. Fujimoto J, Kadara H, Men T, Van Pelt C, Lotan D, Lotan R. Comparative functional genomics analysis of NNK tobacco-carcinogen induced lung adenocarcinoma development in Gprc5a-knockout mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11847 pubmed publisher
    ..Further experimentation to prove the reliability of the Gprc5a knockout mouse model for the study of tobacco-induced lung carcinogenesis is warranted. ..
  20. Benowitz N, Goniewicz M, Eisner M, Lazcano Ponce E, Zielinska Danch W, Koszowski B, et al. Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:2795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Cotinine measurement leads to an underestimation of exposure to the carcinogen NNK from secondhand smoke when compared with active smoking. ..
  21. Stanfill S, Connolly G, Zhang L, Jia L, Henningfield J, Richter P, et al. Global surveillance of oral tobacco products: total nicotine, unionised nicotine and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Tob Control. 2011;20:e2 pubmed publisher
    Oral tobacco products contain nicotine and carcinogenic tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) that can be absorbed through the oral mucosa...
  22. Aragon M, Marcé R, Borrull F. Determination of N-nitrosamines and nicotine in air particulate matter samples by pressurised liquid extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta. 2013;115:896-901 pubmed publisher
    N-nitrosamines are potentially hazardous pollutants, classified as probable carcinogenic and mutagenic by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)...
  23. Xia Y, Bernert J. Stability of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in urine samples stored at various temperatures. J Anal Toxicol. 2010;34:411-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that valid NNAL concentrations can be measured in frozen urine samples that have been stored for an extended period of time prior to analysis. ..
  24. Griesenbeck J, Steck M, Huber J, Sharkey J, Rene A, Brender J. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutr J. 2009;8:16 pubmed publisher
    Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer...
  25. Sulc M, Kubícková B, Maslova V, Hodek P. Rabbit liver microsomal system: study of interaction with two model N-nitrosamines and their metabolism. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2004;23:423-33 pubmed
    ..NDMA does not provide any type of binding spectra with used microsomal systems. Oxidative bio-activation of N-nitrosamines by the microsomal CYP isoforms was measured as formaldehyde formation...
  26. Miyazaki M, Yamazaki H, Takeuchi H, Saoo K, Yokohira M, Masumura K, et al. Mechanisms of chemopreventive effects of 8-methoxypsoralen against 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced mouse lung adenomas. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1947-55 pubmed
    ..Based on these lines of evidence, we propose that 8-methoxypsoralen inhibits the CYP2A5-mediated metabolic activation of NNK in the mouse lung, leading to the prevention of NNK-induced adenoma. ..
  27. Kuno T, Yokohira M, Matsuda Y, Suzuki S, Hashimoto N, Yamakawa K, et al. Lack of modifying potential of 8-methoxypsoralen in the promotion or progression stages of lung carcinogenesis in A/J female mice. Oncol Rep. 2008;20:767-72 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded from the present data that 8-MOP at 100 ppm in the diet does not prevent mouse lung carcinogenesis when administered in the post-initiation phase. ..
  28. Pinisakul A, Kritayakornupong C, Ruangpornvisuti V. Molecular modeling of nitrosamines adsorbed on H-ZSM-5 zeolite: an ONIOM study. J Mol Model. 2008;14:1035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on amino and imino isomers of nitrosamines, there are two adsorption configurations on the H-ZSM-5 for NA (as NA_a and NA_i), NMA (as NMA_a and NMA_i) and ..
  29. Grebel J, Young C, Suffet I. Solid-phase microextraction of N-nitrosamines. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1117:11-8 pubmed
    ..The excellent selectivity of SPME in addition to the fast analysis time would make this method ideal for general surveys, wastewater analysis and laboratory studies (e.g. degradation kinetics or formation potential). ..
  30. Lao Y, Villalta P, Sturla S, Wang M, Hecht S. Quantitation of pyridyloxobutyl DNA adducts of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in rat tissue DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006;19:674-82 pubmed
    The tobacco-specific nitrosamines N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, 1) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 2) are potent carcinogens in rodents...
  31. Pelaez D, Arenas J, Otero J, Soto J. Dependence of N-nitrosodimethylamine photodecomposition on the irradiation wavelength: excitation to the s(2) state as a doorway to the dimethylamine radical ground-state chemistry. J Org Chem. 2007;72:4741-9 pubmed
  32. Wong H, Murphy S, Hecht S. Cytochrome P450 2A-catalyzed metabolic activation of structurally similar carcinogenic nitrosamines: N'-nitrosonornicotine enantiomers, N-nitrosopiperidine, and N-nitrosopyrrolidine. Chem Res Toxicol. 2005;18:61-9 pubmed
    ..These nitrosamines may be causative agents in human cancer...
  33. Stepanov I, Jensen J, Hatsukami D, Hecht S. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8:309-13 pubmed
    ..Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on ..
  34. Lao Y, Yu N, Kassie F, Villalta P, Hecht S. Formation and accumulation of pyridyloxobutyl DNA adducts in F344 rats chronically treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and enantiomers of its metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007;20:235-45 pubmed
  35. Hardeland R, Backhaus C, Fadavi A, Hess M. N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine contrasts with other tryptophan metabolites by a peculiar type of NO scavenging: cyclization to a cinnolinone prevents formation of unstable nitrosamines. J Pineal Res. 2007;43:104-5 pubmed
  36. Igarashi M, Watanabe M, Yoshida M, Sugaya K, Endo Y, Miyajima N, et al. Enhancement of lung carcinogenesis initiated with 4-(N-hydroxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone by Ogg1 gene deficiency in female, but not male, mice. J Toxicol Sci. 2009;34:163-74 pubmed
    ..The presently utilized Ogg1 gene-deficient mice model may be useful to draw mechanism-based strategies to control human lung adenocarcinomas, especially in women. ..
  37. Arranz N, Haza A, Garcia A, Delgado M, Rafter J, Morales P. Inhibition by vitamin C of apoptosis induced by N-nitrosamines in HepG2 and HL-60 cells. J Appl Toxicol. 2008;28:788-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms by which vitamin C exerts its protective effect. ..
  38. Schuller H. Nitrosamines as nicotinic receptor ligands. Life Sci. 2007;80:2274-80 pubmed
    b>Nitrosamines are carcinogens formed in the mammalian organism from amine precursors contained in food, beverages, cosmetics and drugs. The potent carcinogen, NNK, and the weaker carcinogen, NNN, are nitrosamines formed from nicotine...
  39. Brown P, Bedard L, Massey T. Repair of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced DNA pyridyloxobutylation by nucleotide excision repair. Cancer Lett. 2008;260:48-55 pubmed
    ..Also, NER-deficient cells were more susceptible to NNKOAc-induced cytotoxicity than were normal cells. Results demonstrate a role for NER in the repair of NNK-induced pyridyloxobutylation. ..
  40. Akopyan G, Bonavida B. Understanding tobacco smoke carcinogen NNK and lung tumorigenesis. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:745-52 pubmed
    ..As such, it displays a fuller, more comprehensive overview, bringing us one step closer to understanding the fatal consequences of NNK, thus, discovering new avenues that successfully break the cycle of NNK-mediated lung carcinogenesis. ..
  41. Chen G, Dellinger R, Gallagher C, Sun D, Lazarus P. Identification of a prevalent functional missense polymorphism in the UGT2B10 gene and its association with UGT2B10 inactivation against tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:181-91 pubmed publisher
    ..UGT2B10(67Tyr) variant exhibited minimal glucuronide formation activity against NNAL or other tobacco-specific nitrosamines tested in vitro...
  42. Tian D, He Y, Lu F, Tang F. Enhancive effect of N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine on inducing precancerous lesion on nasal and/or nasopharyngeal epithelia of TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT mice. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2009;10:172-9 pubmed publisher
  43. Jin Z, Xin M, Deng X. Survival function of protein kinase C{iota} as a novel nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-activated bad kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16045-52 pubmed
  44. Miyazaki M, Sugawara E, Yoshimura T, Yamazaki H, Kamataki T. Mutagenic activation of betel quid-specific N-nitrosamines catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 coexpressed with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Salmonella typhimurium YG7108. Mutat Res. 2005;581:165-71 pubmed
    ..Areca nut contained in the betel quid is believed to give rise to carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. In the present study, the roles of human cytochromes P450 (P450 or CYP) in the mutagenic activation of betel ..
  45. Sturla S, Scott J, Lao Y, Hecht S, Villalta P. Mass spectrometric analysis of relative levels of pyridyloxobutylation adducts formed in the reaction of DNA with a chemically activated form of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Chem Res Toxicol. 2005;18:1048-55 pubmed
    Exposure to the tobacco-related nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine is carcinogenic to humans...
  46. Upadhyaya P, Kalscheuer S, Hochalter J, Villalta P, Hecht S. Quantitation of pyridylhydroxybutyl-DNA adducts in liver and lung of F-344 rats treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and enantiomers of its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:1468-76 pubmed publisher
  47. Askari M, Tsao M, Schuller H. The tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone stimulates proliferation of immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelia through beta-adrenergic transactivation of EGF receptors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2005;131:639-48 pubmed
  48. Kassie F, Matise I, Negia M, Upadhyaya P, Hecht S. Dose-dependent inhibition of tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice by indole-3-carbinol. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:568-76 pubmed publisher
  49. Laag E, Majidi M, Cekanova M, Masi T, Takahashi T, Schuller H. NNK activates ERK1/2 and CREB/ATF-1 via beta-1-AR and EGFR signaling in human lung adenocarcinoma and small airway epithelial cells. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:1547-52 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data provide evidence, for the first time, that NNK targets ERK1/2 and CREB/ATF-1 proteins via dual signaling involving beta 1-AR and EGFR pathways in PACCs and their putative cells of origin. ..
  50. Arredondo J, Chernyavsky A, Grando S. The nicotinic receptor antagonists abolish pathobiologic effects of tobacco-derived nitrosamines on BEP2D cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:653-63 pubmed
    ..b>Nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) can induce tumors both ..
  51. Larsson S, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Processed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:915-9 pubmed
    ..b>Nitrosamines may be responsible for this association, but few studies have directly examined nitrosamine intake in relation ..
  52. Stepanov I, Hecht S, Ramakrishnan S, Gupta P. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in smokeless tobacco products marketed in India. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:16-9 pubmed
    Smokeless tobacco products are a known cause of oral cancer in India. Carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in these products are believed to be at least partially responsible for cancer induction, but there have been no recent ..
  53. Yanagimoto T, Toyota T, Matsuki N, Makino Y, Uchiyama S, Ohwada T. Transnitrosation of thiols from aliphatic N-nitrosamines: S-nitrosation and indirect generation of nitric oxide. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:736-7 pubmed