tinidazole

Summary

Summary: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.

Top Publications

  1. Shen B, Fazio V, Remzi F, Bennett A, Lopez R, Brzezinski A, et al. Combined ciprofloxacin and tinidazole therapy in the treatment of chronic refractory pouchitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:498-508 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination therapy of ciprofloxacin and tinidazole in patients with chronic refractory pouchitis compared with mesalamine therapy...
  2. Brorson O, Brorson S. An in vitro study of the susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to tinidazole. Int Microbiol. 2004;7:139-42 pubmed
    The susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to tinidazole (TZ) was examined...
  3. Roach P, Wallis P, Olson M. The use of metronidazole, tinidazole and dimetridazole in eliminating trichomonads from laboratory mice. Lab Anim. 1988;22:361-4 pubmed
    Metronidazole, tinidazole and dimetridazole were administered in the drinking water for 5 days to mice experimentally infected with Tritrichomonas muris and Tetratrichomonas microta. Mice were successfully infected with T. muris and T...
  4. Crowell A, Sanders Lewis K, Secor W. In vitro metronidazole and tinidazole activities against metronidazole-resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1407-9 pubmed
    The in vitro activities of tinidazole and metronidazole against Trichomonas vaginalis isolates clinically resistant to metronidazole were compared...
  5. Silva F, Zaterka S, Eisig J, Chehter E, Chinzon D, Laudanna A. Factors affecting Helicobacter pylori eradication using a seven-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, tinidazole and clarithromycin, in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 2001;56:11-6 pubmed
    ..Our aims were: 1. To study the eradication rate of the association of a proton pump inhibitor plus tinidazole and clarithromycin on H. pylori infection in our population. 2...
  6. Schwebke J, Barrientes F. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with resistance to metronidazole and tinidazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:4209-10 pubmed
    ..Testing of susceptibility to metronidazole and tinidazole was performed. Resistance to metronidazole and tinidazole was present in 17/178 (9.6%) and 1/178 (0...
  7. Nishimuta K, Ito Y. Effects of metronidazole and tinidazole ointments on models for inflammatory dermatitis in mice. Arch Dermatol Res. 2003;294:544-51 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of 1-4% ointments of metronidazole and tinidazole (derivatives of nitroimidazole) on models of inflammatory dermatitis evoked by antigen, hapten and monoclonal anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE antibody in mice...
  8. Escobedo A, Alvarez G, Gonzalez M, Almirall P, Canete R, Cimerman S, et al. The treatment of giardiasis in children: single-dose tinidazole compared with 3 days of nitazoxanide. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..lamblia, of nitazoxanide, given at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg twice a day for 3 days, with those of tinidazole, given as a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Overall, 166 children, each proven to be infected with G...
  9. Adegoke O, Umoh O. A new approach to the spectrophotometric determination of metronidazole and tinidazole using p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Acta Pharm. 2009;59:407-19 pubmed publisher
    A new approach to the spectrophotometric determination of metronidazole (MZ) and tinidazole (TZ) has been developed...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Schwebke J, Desmond R. Tinidazole vs metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:211.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different doses of tinidazole with metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis and to compare the side effects of the drugs...
  2. Sobel J, Nyirjesy P, Brown W. Tinidazole therapy for metronidazole-resistant vaginal trichomoniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1341-6 pubmed
    ..cure rate of 22 (92%) of 24 patients with refractory trichomoniasis treated with high doses of oral and vaginal tinidazole. This series included 15 cases with increased in vitro minimal lethal concentration values of metronidazole...
  3. Deye G, Gettayacamin M, Hansukjariya P, Im Erbsin R, Sattabongkot J, Rothstein Y, et al. Use of a rhesus Plasmodium cynomolgi model to screen for anti-hypnozoite activity of pharmaceutical substances. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:931-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tinidazole and pyrazinamide prevented relapse when used in conjunction with chloroquine and low-dose primaquine...
  4. Choi I, Jung H, Choi K, Kim J, Ahn D, Yang U, et al. Efficacy of low-dose clarithromycin triple therapy and tinidazole-containing triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:145-51 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacies of low-dose clarithromycin triple therapy and tinidazole-containing triple therapy in a metronidazole resistance prevalent area and to compare the efficacies with ..
  5. Baylson F, Nyirjesy P, Weitz M. Treatment of recurrent bacterial vaginosis with tinidazole. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:931-2 pubmed
    ..Because of its spectrum of activity, tinidazole was used in a patient with recurrent bacterial vaginosis...
  6. Giannini E, Bilardi C, Dulbecco P, Mamone M, Santi M, Testa R, et al. A study of 4- and 7-day triple therapy with rabeprazole, high-dose levofloxacin and tinidazole rescue treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23:281-7 pubmed
    ..pylori eradication rate. To evaluate the efficacy of two rabeprazole, high-dose levofloxacin and tinidazole-based regimens as 'rescue' treatment for H...
  7. Escobedo A, Núñez F, Moreira I, Vega E, Pareja A, Almirall P. Comparison of chloroquine, albendazole and tinidazole in the treatment of children with giardiasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:367-71 pubmed
    ..were randomized to receive albendazole (400 mg/day for 5 days), chloroquine (10 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days) or tinidazole (50 mg/kg, as a single dose)...
  8. Calabrese C, Di Febo G, Areni A, Scialpi C, Biasco G, Miglioli M. Pantoprazole, azithromycin and tinidazole: short duration triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:1613-7 pubmed
    ..and compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of two eradicating regimens of pantoprazole, azithromycin and tinidazole. A total of 100 consecutive symptomatic H. pylori-positive patients received pantoprazole 40 mg b.d...
  9. Krishnaiah Y, Indira Muzib Y, Srinivasa Rao G, Bhaskar P, Satyanarayana V. Design and in vitro evaluation of oral colon targeted drug delivery systems for tinidazole. J Drug Target. 2002;10:579-84 pubmed
    The aim of the present investigation is to develop colon targeted drag delivery sytems for tinidazole using guar gum as a carrier in the treatment of amoebiasis...
  10. Salo J, Salomies H. Two stability-indicating UV spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of hydrolyzed tinidazole. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003;31:523-36 pubmed
    Two UV spectrophotometric methods have been validated for the analysis of hydrolyzed tinidazole solutions. The pH of the samples must be 5.00-7.00 for both methods...
  11. Kramer J, Hachey A, Wachtman L, Mansfield K. Treatment of giardiasis in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with tinidazole. Comp Med. 2009;59:174-9 pubmed
    ..by using a Giardia antigen-capture assay and to address the possible eradication of this infection by using tinidazole, an antiprotozoal similar to metronidazole but requiring fewer doses...
  12. Qin Y, Yuan M, Li L, Li W, Xue J. Formulation and evaluation of in situ forming PLA implant containing tinidazole for the treatment of periodontitis. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2012;100:2197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..To maximize the therapeutic effects while reducing the adverse effects, tinidazole was delivered by in situ forming system...
  13. Gookin J, Stauffer S, Coccaro M, Poore M, Levy M, Papich M. Efficacy of tinidazole for treatment of cats experimentally infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:1085-8 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy of tinidazole for treatment of cats with experimentally induced Tritrichomonas foetus infection.
  14. Prasad C, Sripriya V, Saha R, Parimoo P. Simultaneous determination of tinidazole, furazolidone and diloxanide furoate in a combined tablet preparation by second-derivative spectrophotometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1999;21:961-8 pubmed
    A second-derivative spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of tinidazole (TD), furazolidone (FD) and diloxanide furoate (DF) in a commercial preparation...
  15. Mohammad M, Zawilla N, El Anwar F, El Moghazy Aly S. Stability indicating methods for the determination of norfloxacin in mixture with tinidazole. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007;55:1-6 pubmed
    ..determination of norfloxacin (Nor) in the presence of its decarboxylated degradation product and in mixture with tinidazole (Tnd)...
  16. Rajnarayana K, Chaluvadi M, Alapati V, Mada S, Jayasagar G, Krishna D. Validated HPLC method for the determination of tinidazole in human serum and its application in a clinical pharmacokinetic study. Pharmazie. 2002;57:535-7 pubmed
    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of tinidazole in human serum using metronidazole as internal standard (IS) is described. Protein precipitation is used for the preparation of sample...
  17. Wang C, Wang F, Li C, Xu X, Li T, Wang C. Voltammetric sensor for tinidazole based on poly(carmine) film-modified electrode and its application. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:1396-400 pubmed
    A poly(carmine) film-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated and the electrochemical behavior of tinidazole at the modified electrode was investigated by electrochemical methods...
  18. Milani M, Barcellona E, Agnello A. Efficacy of the combination of 2 g oral tinidazole and acidic buffering vaginal gel in comparison with vaginal clindamycin alone in bacterial vaginosis: a randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;109:67-71 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of tinidazole (T) (Trimonase, Mipharm, Italy) and an acidic vaginal gel (Miphil) (M) in comparison with vaginal clindamycin (CL) (Cleocin Pharmacia Upjohn) in BV...
  19. Martinez R, Franceschini S, Patta M, Quintana S, Gomes B, De Martinis E, et al. Improved cure of bacterial vaginosis with single dose of tinidazole (2 g), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Can J Microbiol. 2009;55:133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty-four Brazilian women diagnosed with BV were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of tinidazole (2 g) supplemented with either 2 placebo capsules or 2 capsules containing L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L...
  20. Calvet X, Tito L, Comet R, Garcia N, Campo R, Brullet E. Four-day, twice daily, quadruple therapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, tinidazole and omeprazole to cure Helicobacter pylori infection: a pilot study. Helicobacter. 2000;5:52-6 pubmed
    ..4-day course with omeprazole (20 mg/12 hours), clarithromycin (500 mg/12 hours), amoxicillin (1 g/12 hours) and tinidazole (500 mg/12 hours)...
  21. Fung H, Doan T. Tinidazole: a nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent. Clin Ther. 2005;27:1859-84 pubmed
    b>Tinidazole, a structural analogue of metrondazole, is an antiprotozoal agent that has been widely used in Europe and developing countries for >2 decades with established efficacy and acceptable tolerability...
  22. Albrecht P, Kotowska M, Szajewska H. Sequential therapy compared with standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2011;159:45-9 pubmed publisher
    ..trial comparing a sequential treatment (amoxicillin and omeprazole for 5 days followed by clarithromycin, tinidazole, and omeprazole for 5 days) to a 7-day standard triple eradication regimen (amoxicillin and clarithromycin plus ..
  23. Abu Zuhri A, Al Khalil S, Shubietah R, El Hroub I. Electrochemical study on the determination of tinidazole in tablets. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1999;21:881-6 pubmed
    The electrochemical reduction of tinidazole has been carried out in aqueous solution in the pH range 1.8-11.3 by differential-pulse (DP) polarography. Tinidazole exhibits one or two reduction peaks depending on pH...
  24. Canete R, Escobedo A, Gonzalez M, Almirall P, Cantelar N. A randomized, controlled, open-label trial of a single day of mebendazole versus a single dose of tinidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in children. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22:2131-6 pubmed
    ..To compare the efficacy and safety of mebendazole versus tinidazole in the treatment of giardiasis...
  25. Livengood C, Ferris D, Wiesenfeld H, Hillier S, Soper D, Nyirjesy P, et al. Effectiveness of two tinidazole regimens in treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:302-9 pubmed
    To assess the effectiveness at 21-30 days after treatment of tinidazole administered orally at 1 g once daily for 5 days and 2 g once daily for 2 days, compared with placebo, in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, using rigorous U.S...
  26. Granizo J, Pía Rodicio M, Manso F, Giménez M. [Tinidazole: a classical anaerobical drug with multiple potential uses nowadays]. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2009;22:106-14 pubmed
    b>Tinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole active in vitro against a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria and protozoa...
  27. Toracchio S, Capodicasa S, Soraja D, Cellini L, Marzio L. Rifabutin based triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori primary and secondary resistant to tinidazole and clarithromycin. Dig Liver Dis. 2005;37:33-8 pubmed
    ..pylori therapy and to test the efficacy of rifabutin in H. pylori resistant to clarithromycin and tinidazole. Four hundred and twenty H...
  28. Austin M, Meyn L, Hillier S. Susceptibility of vaginal bacteria to metronidazole and tinidazole. Anaerobe. 2006;12:227-30 pubmed
    ..vaginal isolates from women with bacterial vaginosis and three species of Lactobacillus, to metronidazole and tinidazole using the agar dilution method...
  29. Krishnaiah Y, Seetha Devi A, Nageswara Rao L, Bhaskar Reddy P, Karthikeyan R, Satyanarayana V. Guar gum as a carrier for colon specific delivery; influence of metronidazole and tinidazole on in vitro release of albendazole from guar gum matrix tablets. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2001;4:235-43 pubmed
    The present investigation is to study the influence of metronidazole and tinidazole on the usefulness of guar gum, a colon-specific drug carrier based on the metabolic activity of colonic bacteria, using matrix tablets of albendazole (..
  30. Nagaraja P, Sunitha K, Vasantha R, Yathirajan H. Spectrophotometric determination of metronidazole and tinidazole in pharmaceutical preparations. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002;28:527-35 pubmed
    Sensitive and simple spectrophotometric methods for the determination of metronidazole (MNZ) and tinidazole (TNZ) in either pure form or in its pharmaceutical formulations are described...
  31. Czeizel A, Kazy Z, Vargha P. Oral tinidazole treatment during pregnancy and teratogenesis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;83:305-6 pubmed
  32. López Nigro M, Carballo M. Genotoxicity and cell death induced by tinidazole (TNZ). Toxicol Lett. 2008;180:46-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Tinidazole (TNZ), a second-generation 5-nitroimidazole compound chemically related to metronidazole (MTZ), has been widely used throughout Europe and developing countries for the treatment of amoebic and parasitic infections...
  33. Bakshi M, Singh S. HPLC and LC-MS studies on stress degradation behaviour of tinidazole and development of a validated specific stability-indicating HPLC assay method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004;34:11-8 pubmed
    The objective of the current investigation was to study the degradation behaviour of tinidazole under different ICH recommended stress conditions by HPLC and LC-MS, and to establish a validated stability-indicating HPLC method...
  34. Zhang L, Zhang Z, Wu K. In vivo and real time determination of ornidazole and tinidazole and pharmacokinetic study by capillary electrophoresis with microdialysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:1453-7 pubmed
    ..was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for in vivo and real time monitoring unbound ornidazole (ONZ) and tinidazole (TNZ) in rabbit blood using capillary electrophoresis coupled with microdialysis...
  35. Namiot Z, Namiot D, Kemona A, Stasiewicz J. Effect of antibacterial therapy and salivary secretion on the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;97:714-7 pubmed
    ..A 7-day course of either of 2 eradication regimens--omeprazole, amoxicillin, and tinidazole (OAT); or omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (OAC)--was used...
  36. Malhotra M, Sharma J, Batra S, Arora R, Sharma S. Ciprofloxacin-tinidazole combination, fluconazole- azithromicin-secnidazole-kit and doxycycline- metronidazole combination therapy in syndromic management of pelvic inflammatory disease: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Indian J Med Sci. 2003;57:549-55 pubmed
    ..of pelvic inflammatory disease were randomized into three equal groups getting ciprofloxacin (500 mg) and tinidazole (600 mg) combination twice daily for 7 days (Group 1), a kit containing fluconazole (150 mg), azithromycin (1 gm)..
  37. Zullo A, Rinaldi V, Winn S, Meddi P, Lionetti R, Hassan C, et al. A new highly effective short-term therapy schedule for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:715-8 pubmed
    ..d. for the first 5 days, followed by omeprazole 20 mg b.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. and tinidazole 500 mg b.d. for the remaining 5 days. H...
  38. Li X, Sun J, Wang G, Zheng Y, Yan B, Xie H, et al. Determination of secnidazole in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and its application to the bioequivalence studies. Biomed Chromatogr. 2007;21:304-9 pubmed
    ..Secnidazole and tinidazole (IS) were extracted from 0.2 mL of human plasma by ethyl acetate...
  39. De Francesco V, Zullo A, Hassan C, Della Valle N, Pietrini L, Minenna M, et al. The prolongation of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori does not allow reaching therapeutic outcome of sequential scheme: a prospective, randomised study. Dig Liver Dis. 2004;36:322-6 pubmed
    ..i.d.) for 5 days followed by rabeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.) plus clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) and tinidazole (500 mg, b.i.d.) for the next 5 days...
  40. Nailor M, Sobel J. Tinidazole for the treatment of vaginal infections. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007;16:743-51 pubmed
    b>Tinidazole has been used for vaginal infection worldwide but not in the US for > 40 years...
  41. Brzozowski T, Konturek P, Mierzwa M, Drozdowicz D, Bielanski W, Kwiecien S, et al. Effect of probiotics and triple eradication therapy on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, apoptosis, and functional gastric mucosal impairment in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. Helicobacter. 2006;11:10-20 pubmed
    ..pylori triple therapy and attenuated by probiotics. ..
  42. Hassan C, De Francesco V, Zullo A, Scaccianoce G, Piglionica D, Ierardi E, et al. Sequential treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer patients: improving the cost of pharmacotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;18:641-6 pubmed
    ..d. for the first 5 days, followed by rabeprazole 20 mg b.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.d. and tinidazole 500 mg b.d...
  43. Kos M, Zinkiewicz K, Stefanek J, Dabrowski A. Efficacy of the triple therapy: proton pomp inhibitors, amoxicillin and tynidazole in Helicobacter pylori infection treatment. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 2002;57:161-6 pubmed
    ..The results prove high efficiency of this schema of treatment in relation to comparatively low costs. They also indicate greater efficiency of the treatment of contagious caused by Helicobacter pylori in younger people. ..
  44. Giannini E, Bilardi C, Dulbecco P, Mamone M, Santi M, Testa R, et al. Can Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens be shortened in clinical practice? An open-label, randomized, pilot study of 4 and 7-day triple therapy with rabeprazole, high-dose levofloxacin, and tinidazole. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:515-20 pubmed
    ..pylori infection were randomized to receive rabeprazole (20 mg, bid), levofloxacin (500 mg, bid), and tinidazole (500 mg, bid) for either 4 [4-d rabeprazole, levofloxacin, tinidazole (RLT), n=85] or 7 days (7-d RLT, n=84)...
  45. Hung C, Chang S, Ji D. Entamoeba histolytica infection in men who have sex with men. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:729-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Metronidazole or tinidazole remains the mainstay of treatment for invasive amoebiasis, followed by treatment with luminal agents to prevent ..
  46. Gookin J, Copple C, Papich M, Poore M, Stauffer S, Birkenheuer A, et al. Efficacy of ronidazole for treatment of feline Tritrichomonas foetus infection. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:536-43 pubmed
    To determine the efficacy of ronidazole (RDZ), tinidazole (TDZ), and metronidazole (MDZ) against Tritrichomonas foetus in vitro and of RDZ for treatment of feline naturally occurring or experimentally induced T. foetus infection.
  47. Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, Canducci F, Candelli M, Ojetti V, et al. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15:163-9 pubmed
    ..pylori infection were randomized to 1 week rabeprazole (20 mg b.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.d.), tinidazole (500 b.d.) and the probiotic Lactobacillus GG for 14 days or to the same regimen with a placebo preparation...
  48. Wu L, Liu J, Zhang Y, Hou Y. Development of a HPLC/MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of tinidazole, dyclonine and chlorhexidine in rat plasma and its application in the pharmacokinetic research of a film-forming solution. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;62:224-7 pubmed publisher
    A rapid and sensitive HPLC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of tinidazole, dyclonine and chlorhexidine, the three main components of a film-forming solution, in rat plasma...
  49. Hildebrand P, Bardhan P, Rossi L, Parvin S, Rahman A, Arefin M, et al. Recrudescence and reinfection with Helicobacter pylori after eradication therapy in Bangladeshi adults. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:792-8 pubmed
    ..In Bangladesh, late recrudescence of H. pylori after eradication therapy occurs within the first 3 months. The reinfection rate is high and might influence cost-benefit analyses for determining diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. ..
  50. Gatta L, Vakil N, Leandro G, Di Mario F, Vaira D. Sequential therapy or triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults and children. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:3069-79; quiz 1080 pubmed publisher
    ..78-1.30). ST appears to be better than TT in the eradication of H. pylori. This is a promising therapy, but further trials are needed in other European countries and North America before it can be recommended as a first-line treatment. ..
  51. Cheng Z, Chen H. [Oleyl pyroglutamate for use as transdermal enhancer and its enhancing mechanism]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2003;38:384-7 pubmed
    ..penetration-enhancing effects of oleyl pyroglutamate, oleyl alcohol and oleic acid on the three drugs (caffeine, tinidazole and cortisone) were observed; the transdermal enhancing mechanism of oleyl pyroglutamate was studied with the ..
  52. Ford A, Forman D, Nathan J, Crocombe W, Axon A, Moayyedi P. Clinical trial: knowledge of negative Helicobacter pylori status reduces subsequent dyspepsia-related resource use. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26:1267-75 pubmed
    ..H. pylori-negative individuals informed of infection status sought health care for dyspepsia less often than those who were unaware. Population screening may reduce dyspepsia-related costs in uninfected, as well as infected individuals. ..
  53. Di Mario F, Aragona G, Dal Bo N, Cavestro G, Cavallaro L, Iori V, et al. Use of bovine lactoferrin for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Dig Liver Dis. 2003;35:706-10 pubmed
    ..were recruited in a 7-day triple therapy open randomised single centre study with rabeprazole, clarithromycin, tinidazole, bovine lactoferrin (group A) or rabeprazole, clarithromycin, tinidazole (group B), or a 10-day therapy with ..