Summary: IMIDAZOLES having a nitro moiety.

Top Publications

  1. Bollineni V, Kerner G, Pruim J, Steenbakkers R, Wiegman E, Koole M, et al. PET imaging of tumor hypoxia using 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside in stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer patients. J Nucl Med. 2013;54:1175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, (18)F-FAZA might be considered a tool for guiding dose escalation to the hypoxic fraction of the tumor. ..
  2. Busk M, Munk O, Jakobsen S, Wang T, Skals M, Steiniche T, et al. Assessing hypoxia in animal tumor models based on pharmocokinetic analysis of dynamic FAZA PET. Acta Oncol. 2010;49:922-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates the potential usefulness of dynamic PET, but also that a simple two-compartment model may be inappropriate in some tumor models. ..
  3. Barrett M. Potential new drugs for human African trypanosomiasis: some progress at last. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:603-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The new developments in trypanocidal drug discovery mean that new compounds could become available within the next 5 years to support the WHO declared campaign to eliminate HAT. ..
  4. Diacon A, Dawson R, Hanekom M, Narunsky K, Venter A, Hittel N, et al. Early bactericidal activity of delamanid (OPC-67683) in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Delamanid at all dosages was safe, well tolerated and demonstrated significant exposure-dependent EBA over 14 days, supporting further investigation of its pharmacokinetics and anti-tuberculosis activity. ..
  5. Mortensen L, Busk M, Nordsmark M, Jakobsen S, Theil J, Overgaard J, et al. Accessing radiation response using hypoxia PET imaging and oxygen sensitive electrodes: a preclinical study. Radiother Oncol. 2011;99:418-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of hypoxia measured by (18)F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside ((18)F-FAZA) PET or the Eppendorf oxygen electrode in a pre-clinical tumor model...
  6. Cherian J, Choi I, Nayyar A, Manjunatha U, Mukherjee T, Lee Y, et al. Structure-activity relationships of antitubercular nitroimidazoles. 3. Exploration of the linker and lipophilic tail of ((s)-2-nitro-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazin-6-yl)-(4-trifluoromethoxybenzyl)amine (6-amino PA-824). J Med Chem. 2011;54:5639-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the conformational preferences of these analogues using quantum chemistry suggests a preference for a pseudoequatorial orientation of the linker and lipophilic tail. ..
  7. Mejia Jaramillo A, Fernández G, Palacio L, Triana Chavez O. Gene expression study using real-time PCR identifies an NTR gene as a major marker of resistance to benzonidazole in Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:169 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we propose NTR as the major marker of the appearance of resistance to BZ. ..
  8. Cellitti S, Shaffer J, Jones D, Mukherjee T, Gurumurthy M, Bursulaya B, et al. Structure of Ddn, the deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis involved in bioreductive activation of PA-824. Structure. 2012;20:101-12 pubmed publisher
    Tuberculosis continues to be a global health threat, making bicyclic nitroimidazoles an important new class of therapeutics...
  9. Diacon A, Dawson R, von Groote Bidlingmaier F, Symons G, Venter A, Donald P, et al. 14-day bactericidal activity of PA-824, bedaquiline, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin combinations: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2012;380:986-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiagent EBA studies can contribute to reducing the time needed to develop new antituberculosis regimens. The Global Alliance for TB Drug Development (TB Alliance). ..

More Information


  1. Kaiser M, Bray M, Cal M, Bourdin Trunz B, Torreele E, Brun R. Antitrypanosomal activity of fexinidazole, a new oral nitroimidazole drug candidate for treatment of sleeping sickness. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:5602-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense forms of human sleeping sickness and both stages of the disease. ..
  2. Gurumurthy M, Mukherjee T, Dowd C, Singh R, Niyomrattanakit P, Tay J, et al. Substrate specificity of the deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis responsible for the bioreductive activation of bicyclic nitroimidazoles. FEBS J. 2012;279:113-25 pubmed publisher
    The bicyclic 4-nitroimidazoles PA-824 and OPC-67683 represent a promising novel class of therapeutics for tuberculosis and are currently in phase II clinical development...
  3. Mukherjee T, Boshoff H. Nitroimidazoles for the treatment of TB: past, present and future. Future Med Chem. 2011;3:1427-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Two nitroimidazoles, PA-824 and OPC-67683, are currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of TB and the outcome of ..
  4. Pinazo M, Guerrero L, Posada E, Rodriguez E, Soy D, Gascon J. Benznidazole-related adverse drug reactions and their relationship to serum drug concentrations in patients with chronic chagas disease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Benznidazole serum concentrations do not appear to be related to the appearance of serious ADRs. Further, well-controlled studies are necessary to establish the optimal regimen for benznidazole in adults with chronic CD. ..
  5. Moreno M, D Avila D, Silva M, Galvão L, Macedo A, Chiari E, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi benznidazole susceptibility in vitro does not predict the therapeutic outcome of human Chagas disease. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:918-24 pubmed
    ..A two-fold increase in BZ resistance in the post-treatment isolates of two patients was verified. Based on the profile of nine microsatellite loci, sub-population selection in non-cured patients was ruled out. ..
  6. Bahia M, de Andrade I, Martins T, do Nascimento A, Diniz L, Caldas I, et al. Fexinidazole: a potential new drug candidate for Chagas disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1870 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi. These findings illustrate the potential of fexinidazole as a drug candidate for the treatment of human CD. ..
  7. Masunaga S, Nagasawa H, Liu Y, Sakurai Y, Tanaka H, Kashino G, et al. Evaluation of the radiosensitivity of the oxygenated tumor cell fractions in quiescent cell populations within solid tumors. Radiat Res. 2010;174:459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we believe that the subfraction of the quiescent tumor cell population that was not labeled with pimonidazole and that was probably oxygenated is a critical target in the control of solid tumors. ..
  8. Pinazo M, Munoz J, Posada E, López Chejade P, Gallego M, Ayala E, et al. Tolerance of benznidazole in treatment of Chagas' disease in adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:4896-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study describes the profile of side effects of benznidazole in a cohort of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients in a European country. ..
  9. Shi K, Souvatzoglou M, Astner S, Vaupel P, Nüsslin F, Wilkens J, et al. Quantitative assessment of hypoxia kinetic models by a cross-study of dynamic 18F-FAZA and 15O-H2O in patients with head and neck tumors. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:1386-94 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of our assessment of physiologic precision and robustness, the reversible 2-compartment model corresponds better to the expectations of our assumptions than the other investigated models. ..
  10. Murcia L, Carrilero B, Muñoz M, Iborra M, Segovia M. Usefulness of PCR for monitoring benznidazole response in patients with chronic Chagas' disease: a prospective study in a non-disease-endemic country. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PCR is a useful tool for the early detection of parasite susceptibility to benznidazole and for the post-treatment parasitological follow-up of patients with chronic Chagas' disease. ..
  11. Maroz A, Shinde S, Franzblau S, Ma Z, Denny W, Palmer B, et al. Release of nitrite from the antitubercular nitroimidazole drug PA-824 and analogues upon one-electron reduction in protic, non-aqueous solvent. Org Biomol Chem. 2010;8:413-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The described radiolytic quantification of nitrite release may have utility as a preliminary screening test for nitroaromatic candidate drugs against the disease...
  12. Le Loup G, Pialoux G, Lescure F. Update in treatment of Chagas disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:428-34 pubmed publisher
  13. Ueda M, Kudo T, Mutou Y, Umeda I, Miyano A, Ogawa K, et al. Evaluation of [125I]IPOS as a molecular imaging probe for hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active regions in a tumor: comparison among single-photon emission computed tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging, autoradiography, and immunohistochemistry. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:2090-6 pubmed publisher
    ..01). These findings indicate that [(125) I]IPOS accumulation reflects HIF-1 expression. Thus, [(123/125) I]IPOS can serve as a useful probe for the molecular imaging of HIF-1-active tumors. ..
  14. Chippaux J, Clavijo A, Santalla J, Postigo J, Schneider D, Brutus L. Antibody drop in newborns congenitally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi treated with benznidazole. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Recovery may be confirmed in most cases at 10 months. The CSP test was compared to Chagatest v3.0 ELISA and appeared to give a reliable response. The decrease rate of antibodies does not depend on treatment modes. ..
  15. Diacon A, Dawson R, Hanekom M, Narunsky K, Maritz S, Venter A, et al. Early bactericidal activity and pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in smear-positive tuberculosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because maximum efficacy was unexpectedly achieved at the lowest dosage tested, the activity of lower dosages should now be explored. ..
  16. Baker N, Alsford S, Horn D. Genome-wide RNAi screens in African trypanosomes identify the nifurtimox activator NTR and the eflornithine transporter AAT6. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;176:55-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, bloodstream-form T. brucei RNAi libraries present a versatile tool for selective genetic screening and for the rapid identification of drug-activation, uptake and potential resistance mechanisms. ..
  17. Mejía A, Hall B, Taylor M, Gómez Palacio A, Wilkinson S, Triana Chavez O, et al. Benznidazole-resistance in Trypanosoma cruzi is a readily acquired trait that can arise independently in a single population. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They also demonstrate that T. cruzi has a propensity to undergo genetic changes that can lead to drug resistance, a finding that has implications for future therapeutic strategies. ..
  18. Hall B, Wilkinson S. Activation of benznidazole by trypanosomal type I nitroreductases results in glyoxal formation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:115-23 pubmed publisher
  19. Olsson R, Carlsson P. A low-oxygenated subpopulation of pancreatic islets constitutes a functional reserve of endocrine cells. Diabetes. 2011;60:2068-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The reductive metabolism of 2-nitroimidazoles, such as pimonidazole, has previously been extensively used in studies of oxygen metabolism both in vitro and ..
  20. Viotti R, Vigliano C, Alvarez M, Lococo B, Petti M, Bertocchi G, et al. Impact of aetiological treatment on conventional and multiplex serology in chronic Chagas disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1314 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi antibodies, consistent with a possible elimination or reduction of parasite load. ..
  21. Yaromina A, Kroeber T, Meinzer A, Boeke S, Thames H, Baumann M, et al. Exploratory study of the prognostic value of microenvironmental parameters during fractionated irradiation in human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1205-13 pubmed publisher
  22. Torreele E, Bourdin Trunz B, Tweats D, Kaiser M, Brun R, Mazué G, et al. Fexinidazole--a new oral nitroimidazole drug candidate entering clinical development for the treatment of sleeping sickness. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e923 pubmed publisher
    ..The drug has entered first-in-human phase I studies in September 2009. Fexinidazole is the first new clinical drug candidate with the potential for treating advanced-stage sleeping sickness in thirty years. ..
  23. Altcheh J, Moscatelli G, Moroni S, Garcia Bournissen F, Freilij H. Adverse events after the use of benznidazole in infants and children with Chagas disease. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that anxiety over potential severe ADRs in children with Chagas disease is not justified and should not be an obstacle to using benznidazole. ..
  24. Gler M, Skripconoka V, Sanchez Garavito E, Xiao H, Cabrera Rivero J, Vargas Vasquez D, et al. Delamanid for multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests that delamanid could enhance treatment options for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (Funded by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development and Commercialization; number, NCT00685360.). ..
  25. Xia X, Wang Y, Wang X, Li Y, Zhong F, Li X, et al. Validation of a method for simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles and chloramphenicols in swine tissues by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1292:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..multi-residue method for the analysis of 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites belonging to three classes (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicols) in porcine muscle, liver, and kidney...
  26. Ahmad Z, Peloquin C, Singh R, Derendorf H, Tyagi S, Ginsberg A, et al. PA-824 exhibits time-dependent activity in a murine model of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:239-45 pubmed publisher
    PA-824 is one of two nitroimidazoles in phase II clinical trials to treat tuberculosis. In mice, it has dose-dependent early bactericidal and sterilizing activity...
  27. Brun R, Don R, Jacobs R, Wang M, Barrett M. Development of novel drugs for human African trypanosomiasis. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:677-91 pubmed publisher
    ..With other screening programs yielding hits, the pipeline for new HAT drugs might finally begin to fill. ..
  28. Reischl G, Dorow D, Cullinane C, Katsifis A, Roselt P, Binns D, et al. Imaging of tumor hypoxia with [124I]IAZA in comparison with [18F]FMISO and [18F]FAZA--first small animal PET results. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2007;10:203-11 pubmed
    ..Imaging at later time points that are not possible with the short lived 18F labeled tracers resulted in no advantage for [124I]IAZA, i. e. tumor to normal tissue ratios could not be improved. ..
  29. Dos Santos F, Caldas S, de Assis Cáu S, Crepalde G, de Lana M, Machado Coelho G, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi: Induction of benznidazole resistance in vivo and its modulation by in vitro culturing and mice infection. Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The data showed the stability of the resistance acquired by drug pressure, but suggest the possibility of reversible changes in the resistance levels after maintenance for long time in acellular culture. ..
  30. Garcia S, Ramos C, Senra J, Vilas Boas F, Rodrigues M, Campos de Carvalho A, et al. Treatment with benznidazole during the chronic phase of experimental Chagas' disease decreases cardiac alterations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1521-8 pubmed
    ..cruzi elimination in order to decrease or prevent the development of severe chagasic cardiomyopathy. ..
  31. Palmer B, Thompson A, Sutherland H, Blaser A, Kmentova I, Franzblau S, et al. Synthesis and structure-activity studies of biphenyl analogues of the tuberculosis drug (6S)-2-nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine (PA-824). J Med Chem. 2010;53:282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo activity correlated well with the stability of compounds to microsomal metabolism. Three compounds bearing combinations of lipophilic, electron-withdrawing groups achieved >200-fold higher efficacies than the parent drug. ..
  32. Marin Neto J, Cunha Neto E, Maciel B, Simoes M. Pathogenesis of chronic Chagas heart disease. Circulation. 2007;115:1109-23 pubmed
    ..Most clinical studies have been performed in very small number of patients. Future research should explore the clinical potential implications and therapeutic opportunities of these 2 fundamental underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. ..
  33. Manjunatha U, Boshoff H, Dowd C, Zhang L, Albert T, Norton J, et al. Identification of a nitroimidazo-oxazine-specific protein involved in PA-824 resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:431-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the sensitivity of Mtb to PA-824 and related compounds is mediated by a protein that is highly specific for subtle structural variations in these bicyclic nitroimidazoles.
  34. Piert M, Machulla H, Picchio M, Reischl G, Ziegler S, Kumar P, et al. Hypoxia-specific tumor imaging with 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside. J Nucl Med. 2005;46:106-13 pubmed
    ..02). (18)F-FAZA shows superior biokinetics and is, thus, a promising PET tracer for the visualization of tumor hypoxia. This study also verified a hypoxia-specific uptake mechanism for (18)F-FAZA in murine tumor models. ..
  35. DiazGranados C, Saavedra Trujillo C, Mantilla M, Valderrama S, Alquichire C, Franco Paredes C. Chagasic encephalitis in HIV patients: common presentation of an evolving epidemiological and clinical association. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9:324-30 pubmed publisher
  36. Barry C, Boshoff H, Dowd C. Prospects for clinical introduction of nitroimidazole antibiotics for the treatment of tuberculosis. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10:3239-62 pubmed
    ..will describe the whole-cell structure-activity relationships that have been reported for antimycobacterial nitroimidazoles as well as the available in vivo data supporting efficacy with a particular emphasis on nitroimidazo[2,1-b]..
  37. Naimi E, Kumar P, McEwan A, Wiebe L. A one-pot synthesis of 1-alpha- and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-nitroimidazoles: synthons to the markers of tumor hypoxia. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24:173-8 pubmed
  38. Kim P, Zhang L, Manjunatha U, Singh R, Patel S, Jiricek J, et al. Structure-activity relationships of antitubercular nitroimidazoles. 1. Structural features associated with aerobic and anaerobic activities of 4- and 5-nitroimidazoles. J Med Chem. 2009;52:1317-28 pubmed publisher
    The 4-nitroimidazole PA-824 is active against aerobic and anaerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) while 5-nitroimidazoles like metronidazole are active against only anaerobic Mtb...
  39. Tyagi S, Nuermberger E, Yoshimatsu T, Williams K, Rosenthal I, Lounis N, et al. Bactericidal activity of the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 in a murine model of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2289-93 pubmed
  40. Maya J, Cassels B, Iturriaga Vasquez P, Ferreira J, Faundez M, Galanti N, et al. Mode of action of natural and synthetic drugs against Trypanosoma cruzi and their interaction with the mammalian host. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;146:601-20 pubmed
    ..cruzi infection as a possible chemotherapeutic target is discussed. A large set of chemicals of plant origin and a few animal metabolites active against T. cruzi are enumerated and their likely modes of action are briefly discussed. ..
  41. Thorwarth D, Eschmann S, Holzner F, Paulsen F, Alber M. Combined uptake of [18F]FDG and [18F]FMISO correlates with radiation therapy outcome in head-and-neck cancer patients. Radiother Oncol. 2006;80:151-6 pubmed
    ..008) to predict treatment success probabilities. FMISO and FDG PET data provide independent information about the examined tumour. A quantification of the correlated tracer uptake seems to be meaningful. ..
  42. Fabbro D, Streiger M, Arias E, Bizai M, Del Barco M, Amicone N. Trypanocide treatment among adults with chronic Chagas disease living in Santa Fe city (Argentina), over a mean follow-up of 21 years: parasitological, serological and clinical evolution. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2007;40:1-10 pubmed
    ..05). Treatment caused deparasitation in at least 37% of the chronically infected adults and a protective effect on their clinical evolution. ..
  43. Manarin R, Bottasso E, Bottasso O, Serra E, Revelli S. Beneficial effects of benznidazole during an infectious-based situation of systemic inflammatory response: cecal ligation and puncture. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:793-6 pubmed
    ..BZL failed to inhibit in vitro bacterial growth, suggesting that these effects may be partly caused by the immunomodulatory effects of BZL. ..
  44. Hoogsteen I, Lok J, Marres H, Takes R, Rijken P, van der Kogel A, et al. Hypoxia in larynx carcinomas assessed by pimonidazole binding and the value of CA-IX and vascularity as surrogate markers of hypoxia. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:2906-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of staining patterns of exogenous and endogenous markers might give important additive information about tumour biology and behaviour. ..
  45. Nogueira F, Krieger M, Nirde P, Goldenberg S, Romanha A, Murta S. Increased expression of iron-containing superoxide dismutase-A (TcFeSOD-A) enzyme in Trypanosoma cruzi population with in vitro-induced resistance to benznidazole. Acta Trop. 2006;100:119-32 pubmed
    ..cruzi samples revealed a correlation between expression and activity. Our findings show an increased expression of the TcFeSOD-A enzyme in the T. cruzi population with in vitro-induced resistance to benznidazole. ..
  46. Viotti R, Vigliano C, Lococo B, Petti M, Bertocchi G, Alvarez M, et al. [Clinical predictors of chronic chagasic myocarditis progression]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2005;58:1037-44 pubmed
    ..Specific clinical indicators and a derived clinical risk score can be used to predict the progression of chronic chagasic myocarditis in patients without heart failure. ..
  47. Fraselle S, Derop V, Degroodt J, Van Loco J. Validation of a method for the detection and confirmation of nitroimidazoles and the corresponding hydroxy metabolites in pig plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;586:383-93 pubmed
    b>Nitroimidazoles (Ronidazole, Dimetridazole, Metronidazole, Ipronidazole) and their hydroxy metabolites are banned substances with antibiotic and anticoccidial activity. They are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic...
  48. Nuermberger E, Tyagi S, Tasneen R, Williams K, Almeida D, Rosenthal I, et al. Powerful bactericidal and sterilizing activity of a regimen containing PA-824, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide in a murine model of tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:1522-4 pubmed publisher
    ..If applicable to humans, regimens containing this combination may radically shorten the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. ..
  49. Sosa Estani S, Armenti A, Araujo G, Viotti R, Lococo B, Ruiz Vera B, et al. [Treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole and thioctic acid]. Medicina (B Aires). 2004;64:1-6 pubmed
    ..However, a single month cycle of this parasiticide permitted a high compliance rate to therapy among infected outpatients. ..
  50. Anderson R, Shinde S, Maroz A, Boyd M, Palmer B, Denny W. Intermediates in the reduction of the antituberculosis drug PA-824, (6S)-2-nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine, in aqueous solution. Org Biomol Chem. 2008;6:1973-80 pubmed publisher
    ..compounds through electron transfer from the CO(2) (-) species revealed that, unlike related nitroimidazoles, 2-electron addition resulted in the reduction of the imidazole ring in preference to the nitro group...
  51. Campos F, Liarte D, Mortara R, Romanha A, Murta S. Characterization of a gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase in benznidazole-susceptible and -resistant populations of Trypanosoma cruzi. Acta Trop. 2009;111:56-63 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi population, a situation that has not been observed in the in vivo selected BZ-resistant and naturally resistant strains. ..
  52. Thompson A, Blaser A, Anderson R, Shinde S, Franzblau S, Ma Z, et al. Synthesis, reduction potentials, and antitubercular activity of ring A/B analogues of the bioreductive drug (6S)-2-nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine (PA-824). J Med Chem. 2009;52:637-45 pubmed publisher
  53. Janssen H, Hoebers F, Sprong D, Goethals L, Williams K, Stratford I, et al. Differentiation-associated staining with anti-pimonidazole antibodies in head and neck tumors. Radiother Oncol. 2004;70:91-7 pubmed
    ..These data argue against a causative role for locally high reductase levels in differentiation-associated staining. DT-diaphorase appears to play no role in pimonidazole reduction. ..