nitrofurantoin

Summary

Summary: A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.

Top Publications

  1. Linnebur S, Parnes B. Pulmonary and hepatic toxicity due to nitrofurantoin and fluconazole treatment. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:612-6 pubmed
    To reemphasize potential risks associated with chronic nitrofurantoin use and to report a case of combined pulmonary and hepatic toxicity precipitated from acute use of fluconazole concomitantly with chronic nitrofurantoin...
  2. Rogers R, Kammerer Doak D, Olsen A, Thompson P, Walters M, Lukacz E, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of the effect of nitrofurantoin monohydrate macrocrystals on the development of urinary tract infections after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and/or stress urinary incontinence with suprapu. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191:182-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine if antibiotic prophylaxis with nitrofurantoin monohydrate macrocrystals (study drug) after pelvic organ prolapse and/or urinary incontinence surgery with suprapubic catheterization (SPC) ..
  3. Mendez J, Nadrous H, Hartman T, Ryu J. Chronic nitrofurantoin-induced lung disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:1298-302 pubmed
    To reassess the clinical and radiological features of chronic nitrofurantoin-induced lung disease and eventual clinical outcome...
  4. An R, Oh H, Kim Y. Phenolic constituents of galla Rhois with hepatoprotective effects on tacrine- and nitrofurantoin-induced cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:2155-7 pubmed
    ..39+/-5.4 and 29.51+/-0.7 microM, respectively, against tacrine-induced cytotoxicity, and 150.9+/-6.4 and 23.81+/-0.5 microM, respectively, against nitrofurantoin-induced cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cells.
  5. Bhullar S, Lele S, Kraman S. Severe nitrofurantoin lung disease resolving without the use of steroids. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:111-3 pubmed
    We report a case of an elderly woman who developed a severe, chronic pulmonary reaction to nitrofurantoin therapy that she had taken continuously for three years to prevent urinary tract infections...
  6. Sandegren L, Lindqvist A, Kahlmeter G, Andersson D. Nitrofurantoin resistance mechanism and fitness cost in Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified mutations conferring nitrofurantoin resistance and examined their effect on the fitness of clinical Escherichia coli isolates...
  7. Kashanian J, Hakimian P, Blute M, Wong J, Khanna H, Wise G, et al. Nitrofurantoin: the return of an old friend in the wake of growing resistance. BJU Int. 2008;102:1634-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to be inappropriately excessive and will eventually have a detrimental impact; thus we hypothesise that nitrofurantoin might be the best choice for this indication, due to its low frequency of use and its high susceptibility rate ..
  8. Mavromanolakis E, Maraki S, Samonis G, Tselentis Y, Cranidis A. Effect of norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and nitrofurantoin on fecal flora of women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Chemother. 1997;9:203-7 pubmed
    ..The patients of each group received monotherapy with oral norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or nitrofurantoin for one month...
  9. Velema M, Voerman H. DRESS syndrome caused by nitrofurantoin. Neth J Med. 2009;67:147-9 pubmed
    Systemic side effects of nitrofurantoin are rare but can be life-threatening. Serious side effects are pulmonary involvement and Stevens-Johnson syndrome...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wang X, Morris M. Effects of the flavonoid chrysin on nitrofurantoin pharmacokinetics in rats: potential involvement of ABCG2. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:268-74 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic interactions between chrysin and nitrofurantoin (a specific BCRP substrate) in rats...
  2. Omoregie R, Eghafona N. Urinary tract infection among asymptomatic HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Br J Biomed Sci. 2009;66:190-3 pubmed
    ..Staphylococcus aureus was the most common uropathogen (27.2%) and nitrofurantoin was the most active antibacterial agent...
  3. Karpman E, Kurzrock E. Adverse reactions of nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in children. J Urol. 2004;172:448-53 pubmed
    ..We present a concise and relevant review on the use and adverse reactions of nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in children...
  4. Raz R, Colodner R, Rohana Y, Battino S, Rottensterich E, Wasser I, et al. Effectiveness of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries and nitrofurantoin macrocrystal therapy in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1362-8 pubmed
    We compared the efficacy and safety of estriol-containing vaginal pessary use with those of oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystal (NM) therapy for preventing urinary tract infection (UTI) in postmenopausal women with recurrent UTI...
  5. Hari P, Chandy T, Sharma C. Chitosan/calcium alginate microcapsules for intestinal delivery of nitrofurantoin. J Microencapsul. 1996;13:319-29 pubmed
    A new sustained-release dosage form of nitrofurantoin (NF) as microcapsules has been prepared by a mild chitosan/calcium alginate microencapsulation process...
  6. Zhang Y, Wang H, Unadkat J, Mao Q. Breast cancer resistance protein 1 limits fetal distribution of nitrofurantoin in the pregnant mouse. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:2154-8 pubmed
    ..whether Bcrp1, the murine homolog of human BCRP, limits fetal distribution of the model BCRP/Bcrp1 substrate, nitrofurantoin (NFT), in the pregnant mouse. NFT was administered i.v. to FVB wild-type and Bcrp1(-/-) pregnant mice...
  7. Holmberg L, Boman G, Böttiger L, Eriksson B, Spross R, Wessling A. Adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin. Analysis of 921 reports. Am J Med. 1980;69:733-8 pubmed
    Reports on adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin today are common in Sweden and constitute 10 to 12 percent of all incoming reports...
  8. Karlowsky J, Kelly L, Thornsberry C, Jones M, Sahm D. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract infection isolates of Escherichia coli from female outpatients in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2540-5 pubmed
    ..To determine trends in the activities of SXT, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin among urine isolates of Escherichia coli from female outpatients, susceptibility testing data from The ..
  9. Athikomrattanakul U, Katterle M, Gajovic Eichelmann N, Scheller F. Development of molecularly imprinted polymers for the binding of nitrofurantoin. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;25:82-7 pubmed publisher
    Novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the recognition of nitrofurantoin (NFT) were prepared by photoinitiated polymerisation in polar solvent using 2,6-bis(methacrylamido) pyridine (BMP) as the functional monomer and ..
  10. Karlowsky J, Thornsberry C, Jones M, Sahm D. Susceptibility of antimicrobial-resistant urinary Escherichia coli isolates to fluoroquinolones and nitrofurantoin. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:183-7 pubmed
    ..Alternative therapies for uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women include fluoroquinolones and nitrofurantoin, but the activities of these agents against TMP-SMX-resistant isolates are rarely reported...
  11. Athikomrattanakul U, Gajovic Eichelmann N, Scheller F. Thermometric sensing of nitrofurantoin by noncovalently imprinted polymers containing two complementary functional monomers. Anal Chem. 2011;83:7704-11 pubmed publisher
    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for nitrofurantoin (NFT) recognition addressing in parallel of two complementary functional groups were created using a noncovalent imprinting approach...
  12. Goettsch W, Janknegt R, Herings R. Increased treatment failure after 3-days' courses of nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim for urinary tract infections in women: a population-based retrospective cohort study using the PHARMO database. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;58:184-9 pubmed
    ..In primary care 16 703 Dutch women who received a first course (3, 5 or 7 days) of trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin or norfloxacin between 1 January 1992 through 31 December 1997 and who were between 15 and 65 years old at the ..
  13. Rafii F, Shahverdi A. Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria. Chemotherapy. 2007;53:21-5 pubmed
    Piperitone from plant essential oils enhancesbactericidal activities of nitrofurantoin and furazolidone against bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, the essential oils of spearmint (Mentha spicata L...
  14. Liu H, Lin H, Lin Y, Yu S, Wu W, Lee Y. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of urinary extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin in a teaching hospital in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011;44:364-8 pubmed publisher
    ..6% in ESBL-EC), nitrofurantoin (2.4% in ESBL-KP) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (9.8% in ESBL-KP) (p<0...
  15. Christiaens T, De Meyere M, Verschraegen G, Peersman W, Heytens S, De Maeseneer J. Randomised controlled trial of nitrofurantoin versus placebo in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adult women. Br J Gen Pract. 2002;52:729-34 pubmed
    ..To measure the symptomatic and bacteriological short-term effect of nitrofurantoin treatment versus placebo, in the treatment of uncomplicated UTI in adult non-pregnant women...
  16. Cherukuvada S, Babu N, Nangia A. Nitrofurantoin-p-aminobenzoic acid cocrystal: hydration stability and dissolution rate studies. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:3233-3244 pubmed publisher
    b>Nitrofurantoin (NF) drug is known to transform to a hydrate form in aqueous medium. The hydration stability and dissolution rate of a few cocrystals of NF were compared with that of its stable β polymorph and hydrate form II...
  17. Dubuisson M, de Wergifosse B, Kremers P, Marchand Brynaert J, Trouet A, Rees J. Protection against nitrofurantoin-induced oxidative stress by coelenterazine analogues and their oxidation products in rat hepatocytes. Free Radic Res. 2001;34:285-96 pubmed
    ..and several imidazolopyrazinone (IMPZs) analogues to protect primary cultures of rat hepatocytes against a nitrofurantoin (NF)-induced oxidative stress...
  18. Aksamija A, Horvat G, Habek D, Zalac D, Jendris E. Nitrofurantoin-induced acute liver damage in pregnancy. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009;60:357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the 36th week of gestation, the patient was introduced nitrofurantoin 100 mg a day due to symptoms of dysuria and enterococcus isolated from urine culture...
  19. Garau J. Other antimicrobials of interest in the era of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin and tigecycline. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14 Suppl 1:198-202 pubmed
    ..The activity and potential use of two old antimicrobials, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin, and the new compound tigecycline for treatment of infections due to ESBL-producing ..
  20. Gupta K, Hooton T, Roberts P, Stamm W. Short-course nitrofurantoin for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2207-12 pubmed
    There is a paucity of data on the efficacy of nitrofurantoin for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in regimens shorter than 7 days...
  21. Lumbiganon P, Villar J, Laopaiboon M, Widmer M, Thinkhamrop J, Carroli G, et al. One-day compared with 7-day nitrofurantoin for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:339-45 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate whether a 1-day nitrofurantoin regimen is as effective as a 7-day regimen in eradicating asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy...
  22. Merino G, Perez M, Real R, Egido E, Prieto J, Alvarez A. In vivo inhibition of BCRP/ABCG2 mediated transport of nitrofurantoin by the isoflavones genistein and daidzein: a comparative study in Bcrp1 (-/-) mice. Pharm Res. 2010;27:2098-105 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine in vivo inhibition by the isoflavones genistein and daidzein of nitrofurantoin (NTF), a well-known substrate of the ABC transporter BCRP/ABCG2...
  23. Kumar S, Bag S, Ganesamoni R, Mandal A, Taneja N, Singh S. Risk factors for urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: role of 1 week of nitrofurantoin in reducing the risk of urosepsis. Urol Res. 2012;40:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..risk factors for urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and to study the role of 1-week nitrofurantoin before PNL in reducing the risk of urosepsis...
  24. Sastry S, Jayaraman R. Nitrofurantoin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli: isolation and mapping. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;196:379-80 pubmed
    Mutants of Escherichia coli resistant to nitrofurantoin have been isolated. The mutations, designated nfnA and nfnB were introduced individually into a multiply auxotrophic E. coli F- strain and mapped by conjugation and transduction...
  25. Tan I, Polydefkis M, Ebenezer G, Hauer P, McArthur J. Peripheral nerve toxic effects of nitrofurantoin. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:265-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of skin biopsy in nitrofurantoin peripheral neuropathy. We describe the clinical features and skin biopsies of 2 cases of non-length-dependent small-fiber neuropathy/ganglionopathy attributable to nitrofurantoin...
  26. Al Zarouni M, Senok A, Al Zarooni N, Al Nassay F, Panigrahi D. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin and tigecycline. Med Princ Pract. 2012;21:543-7 pubmed publisher
    ..extended-spectrum ?-Iactamase (ESBL)-producing urinary isolates with particular reference to fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin and tigecycline...
  27. Poulsen H, Johansson A, Granholm S, Kahlmeter G, Sundqvist M. High genetic diversity of nitrofurantoin- or mecillinam-resistant Escherichia coli indicates low propensity for clonal spread. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:1974-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Canada) resistant to either of two other common treatment alternatives for uncomplicated UTIs, mecillinam or nitrofurantoin, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
  28. Cunha B. New uses for older antibiotics: nitrofurantoin, amikacin, colistin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, and minocycline revisited. Med Clin North Am. 2006;90:1089-107 pubmed
    b>Nitrofurantoin, amikacin, colistin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, and minocycline are antibiotics with proven effectiveness against selected pathogens. These antibiotics have not developed resistance over time...
  29. Merino G, Jonker J, Wagenaar E, van Herwaarden A, Schinkel A. The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) affects pharmacokinetics, hepatobiliary excretion, and milk secretion of the antibiotic nitrofurantoin. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:1758-64 pubmed
    b>Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used urinary tract antibiotic prescribed to lactating woman. It is actively transported into human and rat milk by an unknown mechanism...
  30. Koulaouzidis A, Bhat S, Moschos J, Tan C, De Ramon A. Nitrofurantoin-induced lung- and hepatotoxicity. Ann Hepatol. 2007;6:119-21 pubmed
    ..She had been taking nitrofurantoin for 16 months as prophylaxis against urinary tract infections...
  31. Cunha B. Nitrofurantoin: an update. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1989;44:399-406 pubmed
    b>Nitrofurantoin has been in clinical use for more than 35 years for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs)...
  32. Gerk P, Moscow J, McNamara P. Basolateral active uptake of nitrofurantoin in the CIT3 cell culture model of lactation. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003;31:691-3 pubmed
    b>Nitrofurantoin and other agents are actively transported into human and rodent milk...
  33. Mohamed A, Dresser G, Mehta S. Acute respiratory failure during pregnancy: a case of nitrofurantoin-induced pneumonitis. CMAJ. 2007;176:319-20 pubmed
  34. Shahverdi A, Rafii F, Tavassoli F, Bagheri M, Attar F, Ghahraman A. Piperitone from Mentha longifolia var. chorodictya Rech F. reduces the nitrofurantoin resistance of strains of enterobacteriaceae. Phytother Res. 2004;18:911-4 pubmed
    ..var. chlorodictya Rech F. foliage enhanced the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin decreasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nitrofurantoin for nitrofurantoin-resistant strains ..
  35. Jager L, de Graaf G, Widjaja Greefkes H. Differential effects of nitrofurans on the production/release of steroid hormones by porcine adrenocortical cells in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;331:325-31 pubmed
    ..The three nitrofurans used: furazolidone, furaltadone and nitrofurantoin, altered the steroid production/release by porcine adrenocortical cells in vitro during 1 h incubations...
  36. Zhanel G, Karlowsky J, Harding G, Carrie A, Mazzulli T, Low D, et al. A Canadian national surveillance study of urinary tract isolates from outpatients: comparison of the activities of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin. The Canadian Urinary Isolate Study Group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:1089-92 pubmed
    Ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin mean resistance rates for 2,000 urinary tract isolates collected from outpatients across Canada in 1998 were 41.1, 19.2, 14.7, 5.0, and 1...
  37. Ferreira A, Polonini H, Loures da Silva S, Cerqueira de Melo V, de Andrade L, Brandão M. Stability of Alprazolam, Atropine Sulfate, Glutamine, Levofloxacin, Metoprolol Tartrate, Nitrofurantoin, Ondansetron Hydrochloride, Oxandrolone, Pregabaline, and Riboflavin in SyrSpend SF pH4 Oral Suspensions. Int J Pharm Compd. 2017;21:255-263 pubmed
    ..1 mg/mL, glutamine 250.0 mg/mL, levofloxacin 50.0 mg/mL, metoprolol tartrate 10.0 mg/mL, nitrofurantoin 2.0 mg/mL, ondansetron hydrochloride 0.8 mg/mL, oxandrolone 3.0 mg/mL, pregabaline 20.0 mg/mL, riboflavin 10...
  38. Uhari M, Nuutinen M, Turtinen J. Adverse reactions in children during long-term antimicrobial therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996;15:404-8 pubmed
    ..None of the patients had serious life-threatening reactions, and none of those receiving nitrofurantoin had pulmonary problems...
  39. Winzer K, Van Noorden C, Kohler A. Sex-specific biotransformation and detoxification after xenobiotic exposure of primary cultured hepatocytes of European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). Aquat Toxicol. 2002;59:17-33 pubmed
    ..of known effective pro-oxidants such as 100,200 and 400 microM benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p), 50 microM nitrofurantoin (NF) and 100 microM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on biotransformation pathways were studied in isolated ..
  40. Arredondo García J, Amabile Cuevas C. High resistance prevalence towards ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin, among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in Mexico City. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008;2:350-3 pubmed
    ..from patients in Mexico City by disk diffusion and further characterized ciprofloxacin, cephalosporin and nitrofurantoin resistant strains. Isolates were mostly resistant to ampicillin (74%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (60...
  41. Qi C, Pilla V, Yu J, Reed K. Changing prevalence of Escherichia coli with CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in outpatient urinary E. coli between 2003 and 2008. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;67:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..coli isolates. Ertapenem and nitrofurantoin showed good in vitro activity against CTX-M producers.
  42. Tvede M, Høiby N, Larsen L, Raben A, Astrup A. [Antibiotic resistance of E coli isolated from healthy persons]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2001;163:4868-71 pubmed
    ..trimethoprim, the combination of sulfamethizole and trimethoprim, ampicillin, mecillinam, cefuroxime, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin. Altogether, 184 strains of E. coli were isolated from 66 of the 69 persons...
  43. Warren J, Abrutyn E, Hebel J, Johnson J, Schaeffer A, Stamm W. Guidelines for antimicrobial treatment of uncomplicated acute bacterial cystitis and acute pyelonephritis in women. Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:745-58 pubmed
    ..Performance measures are described to aid in monitoring compliance with the guideline. The guideline will be listed on the IDSA home page at http://www.idsociety.org It will be evaluated for updating in 2 years. ..
  44. Zhanel G, Karlowsky J, Schwartz B, Jensen S, Hoban D. Mecillinam activity compared to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin against urinary tract isolates of gram-negative bacilli. Chemotherapy. 1998;44:391-6 pubmed
    ..test this assertion, the activity of mecillinam was compared with ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin against 258 consecutive gram-negative urinary tract isolates collected at a Canadian ..
  45. Slekovec C, Leroy J, Vernaz Hegi N, Faller J, Sekri D, Hoen B, et al. Impact of a region wide antimicrobial stewardship guideline on urinary tract infection prescription patterns. Int J Clin Pharm. 2012;34:325-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The antibiotic prescription data of nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin-trometamol and fluoroquinolones for women aged 15-65 years were obtained from the regional agency ..
  46. Broes M, Roelofs B, Mudde A, Hoornenborg E. [Pulmonary toxicity resulting from the use of nitrofurantoin]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2012;156:A4990 pubmed
    Acute pulmonary syndrome is an uncommon but severe adverse reaction to nitrofurantoin. This syndrome is seldom recognised at the moment of presentation, which potentially subjects patients to unnecessary treatment and delays in the ..
  47. Areses R, Arruebarrena D, Urbieta M, Alzueta M, Eizaguirre I, Rodriguez F, et al. [Severe primary vesicoureteral reflux in infants. A follow-up of 203 cases]. Nefrologia. 2004;24:131-41 pubmed
    ..None of the patients had terminal renal failure nor hypertension and 4) Risk patients would be male infants with bilateral injuries although these are infrequent. ..
  48. Pouwels K, Visser S, Bos H, Hak E. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment and the development of urinary tract infections: a prescription sequence symmetry analysis. Drug Saf. 2013;36:1079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We selected all patients from the IADB who were incident users of both ACEi and nitrofurantoin (a proxy for UTIs)...
  49. Aviv G, Tsyba K, Steck N, Salmon Divon M, Cornelius A, Rahav G, et al. A unique megaplasmid contributes to stress tolerance and pathogenicity of an emergent Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis strain. Environ Microbiol. 2014;16:977-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It is highly likely that pESI plays a key role in the successful spread of the emergent clone that replaced the local S. Infantis community in the short time of only 2-3 years. ..
  50. Fenton M, Kanthan R, Cockcroft D. Nitrofurantoin-associated bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: report of a case. Can Respir J. 2008;15:311-2 pubmed
    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia due to nitrofurantoin has rarely been reported and is associated with poor outcomes...
  51. Winzer K, Van Noorden C, Kohler A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: the key to sex-related xenobiotic toxicity in hepatocytes of European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)?. Aquat Toxicol. 2002;56:275-88 pubmed
    ..such as 100 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), 100, 200 and 400 microM benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p) and 50 microM nitrofurantoin (NF) during culture...
  52. Talan D. Urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1674-6; author reply 1674-6 pubmed
  53. Nordeng H, Lupattelli A, Romøren M, Koren G. Neonatal outcomes after gestational exposure to nitrofurantoin. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121:306-13 pubmed publisher
    To estimate whether first-trimester exposure to nitrofurantoin is associated with increased malformation rates and, secondarily, to estimate whether exposure to nitrofurantoin is associated with increased rates of negative pregnancy ..