nitro compounds


Summary: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.

Top Publications

  1. Nguyen B, Saegerman C, Pirard C, Mignon J, Widart J, Thirionet B, et al. Does imidacloprid seed-treated maize have an impact on honey bee mortality?. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:616-23 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that imidacloprid seed-treated maize has no negative impact on honey bees. ..
  2. Fourie J, Crafford D, Horak I, Stanneck D. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:151 pubmed publisher
    ..5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes...
  3. Böttger R, Feibicke M, Schaller J, Dudel G. Effects of low-dosed imidacloprid pulses on the functional role of the caged amphipod Gammarus roeseli in stream mesocosms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;93:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, repeated low-level and short-term exposition may have adverse long-term effects on G. roeseli in the field with regard to both the population size and the functional role as key shredder. ..
  4. Roessink I, Merga L, Zweers H, Van den Brink P. The neonicotinoid imidacloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:1096-100 pubmed publisher
    ..03?µg/L). The results indicated a high aquatic risk of chronic exposure of imidacloprid to mayflies. ..
  5. Colle D, Santos D, Hartwig J, Godoi M, Braga A, Farina M. Succinobucol versus probucol: higher efficiency of succinobucol in mitigating 3-NP-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in vitro. Mitochondrion. 2013;13:125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings suggest that succinobucol might be a novel strategy to slow or halt oxidative events in neurodegenerative conditions. ..
  6. Wyllie S, Patterson S, Fairlamb A. Assessing the essentiality of Leishmania donovani nitroreductase and its role in nitro drug activation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:901-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of nitroreductase levels in Trypanosoma brucei directly affected sensitivity to nitro compounds, with reduced concentrations of the enzyme leading to moderate nitro drug resistance...
  7. Bouhsira E, Lienard E, Jacquiet P, Warin S, Kaltsatos V, Baduel L, et al. Efficacy of permethrin, dinotefuran and pyriproxyfen on adult fleas, flea eggs collection, and flea egg development following transplantation of mature female fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis) from cats to dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2012;190:541-6 pubmed publisher
    ..20%, p<0.05). The egg laying inhibition was over 92.3% for up to 29 days (p<0.05). The adult emergence inhibition remained 100% during 8 weeks after treatment and was 99.8% nine weeks after treatment (p<0.001). ..
  8. Cresswell J, Thompson H. Comment on "A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees". Science. 2012;337:1453; author reply 1453 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that collapse disappears when the model is recalculated with parameter values appropriate to the season when most pesticide-treated flowering crops bloom. ..
  9. Agatz A, Ashauer R, Brown C. Imidacloprid perturbs feeding of Gammarus pulex at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:648-53 pubmed publisher
    ..34 µg/L) were used for this comparison. The present study discusses the potential that effects on feeding may evoke effects at the population level or disturb leaf litter breakdown in the environment. ..

More Information


  1. Menze E, Tadros M, Abdel tawab A, Khalifa A. Potential neuroprotective effects of hesperidin on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1265-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests a potential neuroprotective role of hesperidin against 3-NP-induced Huntington's disease-like manifestations. Such neuroprotection can be referred to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. ..
  2. Gopinath K, Sudhandiran G. Naringin modulates oxidative stress and inflammation in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurodegeneration through the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 signalling pathway. Neuroscience. 2012;227:134-43 pubmed publisher
  3. Cresswell J, Page C, Uygun M, Holmbergh M, Li Y, Wheeler J, et al. Differential sensitivity of honey bees and bumble bees to a dietary insecticide (imidacloprid). Zoology (Jena). 2012;115:365-71 pubmed publisher
  4. Gill R, Ramos Rodriguez O, Raine N. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature. 2012;491:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. ..
  5. Van Dijk T, van Staalduinen M, Van der Sluijs J. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62374 pubmed publisher
  6. Xie W, Yang X, Wang S, Wu Q, Yang N, Li R, et al. Gene expression profiling in the thiamethoxam resistant and susceptible B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. J Insect Sci. 2012;12:46 pubmed publisher
    ..The distributed profiles show that it was highly expressed during the egg stage, and was most abundant in the abdomen of adult females. ..
  7. Yang E, Chang H, Wu W, Chen Y. Impaired olfactory associative behavior of honeybee workers due to contamination of imidacloprid in the larval stage. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49472 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a low dose of imidacloprid may affect the survival condition of the entire colony, even though the larvae survive to adulthood. ..
  8. Zhang L, Greenberg S, Zhang Y, Liu T. Effectiveness of thiamethoxam and imidacloprid seed treatments against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of thiamethoxam and imidacloprid seed treatments against B. tabaci on cotton...
  9. Bass C, Puinean A, Andrews M, Cutler P, Daniels M, Elias J, et al. Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ? subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:51 pubmed publisher
  10. Stanneck D, Ebbinghaus Kintscher U, Schoenhense E, Kruedewagen E, Turberg A, Leisewitz A, et al. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:73 pubmed publisher
    ..This collar is therefore a convenient and safe tool for a long-term protection against ectoparasites. ..
  11. Henry M, Béguin M, Requier F, Rollin O, Odoux J, Aupinel P, et al. A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. Science. 2012;336:348-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments offer new insights into the consequences of common neonicotinoid pesticides used worldwide. ..
  12. Schneider C, Tautz J, Grunewald B, Fuchs S. RFID tracking of sublethal effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30023 pubmed publisher
    ..We contribute further information on the understanding of how honeybees are affected by sublethal doses of insecticides. ..
  13. Pettis J, vanEngelsdorp D, Johnson J, Dively G. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide. ..
  14. Boina D, Onagbola E, Salyani M, Stelinski L. Antifeedant and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65:870-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, reduced feeding by ACP adults on plants treated with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid may potentially decrease the capacity of ACP to successfully acquire and transmit the HLB causal pathogen. ..
  15. Murphy M, Ball C, Gross S. Comparative in vivo adulticidal activity of a topical dinotefuran versus an imidacloprid-based formulation against cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats. Vet Ther. 2009;10:9-16 pubmed
    ..05) fewel fleas than cats treated with imidacloprid on days 0 (2 hours after treatment), 9, 16, 23, 29 (6 and 12 hours after infestation), and 30. ..
  16. Yang E, Chuang Y, Chen Y, Chang L. Abnormal foraging behavior induced by sublethal dosage of imidacloprid in the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J Econ Entomol. 2008;101:1743-8 pubmed
    ..Returning bees also showed delay in their return trips. Our results demonstrated that sublethal dosages of imidacloprid were able to affect foraging behavior of honey bees. ..
  17. Hayasaka D, Korenaga T, Suzuki K, Saito F, Sanchez Bayo F, Goka K. Cumulative ecological impacts of two successive annual treatments of imidacloprid and fipronil on aquatic communities of paddy mesocosms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;80:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that realistic prediction and assessment of pesticide effects at the community level should also include the long-term ecological risks of their residues whenever these persist in paddies over a year. ..
  18. Byrne R, Ventura C, Benito Lopez F, Walther A, Heise A, Diamond D. Characterisation and analytical potential of a photo-responsive polymeric material based on spiropyran. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;26:1392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we describe a polymeric gel and a linear polymer modified with a photochromic moiety and show that it is possible to utilize photochromic molecules for performing sensing and actuating functions. ..
  19. Liot G, Bossy B, Lubitz S, Kushnareva Y, Sejbuk N, Bossy Wetzel E. Complex II inhibition by 3-NP causes mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal cell death via an NMDA- and ROS-dependent pathway. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:899-909 pubmed publisher
    ..These results improve our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying HD pathogenesis. ..
  20. Tunez I, Tasset I, Perez De La Cruz V, Santamaria A. 3-Nitropropionic acid as a tool to study the mechanisms involved in Huntington's disease: past, present and future. Molecules. 2010;15:878-916 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will focus on the past and present research of this molecule, to finally bring a perspective on what will be next in this promising field of study. ..
  21. Kumar P, Kalonia H, Kumar A. Role of LOX/COX pathways in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like symptoms in rats: protective effect of licofelone. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:644-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate the involvement of pro-inflammatory compounds and the apoptotic cascade in the neuroprotective effect of licofelone against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity. ..
  22. Feng Y, Wu Q, Wang S, Chang X, Xie W, Xu B, et al. Cross-resistance study and biochemical mechanisms of thiamethoxam resistance in B-biotype Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Reasonable resistance management that avoids the use of cross-resistance insecticides may delay the development of resistance to thiamethoxam in this species. ..
  23. Shah S, Yarrow C, Dunning R, Cheek B, Vass S, Windass J, et al. Insecticide detoxification indicator strains as tools for enhancing chemical discovery screens. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:38-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The complexity of the system means that a panel of single and multiple gene knockdown transgenic lines may be required. ..
  24. Hayasaka D, Korenaga T, Sanchez Bayo F, Goka K. Differences in ecological impacts of systemic insecticides with different physicochemical properties on biocenosis of experimental paddy fields. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:191-201 pubmed publisher
  25. Szczepaniec A, Creary S, Laskowski K, Nyrop J, Raupp M. Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid causes outbreaks of spider mites on elm trees in urban landscapes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20018 pubmed publisher
    ..Widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides, however, can disrupt ecosystems tipping the ecological balance in favor of herbivores and creating pest outbreaks. ..
  26. Roditakis E, Grispou M, Morou E, Kristoffersen J, Roditakis N, Nauen R, et al. Current status of insecticide resistance in Q biotype Bemisia tabaci populations from Crete. Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65:313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Imidacloprid resistance seems less established and less persistent than alpha-cypermethrin resistance. The low resistance levels for pirimiphos-methyl suggest absence of cross-resistance with other organophosphates or carbamates used. ..
  27. Tielemans E, Manavella C, Pollmeier M, Chester T, Murphy M, Gale B. Comparative acaricidal efficacy of the topically applied combinations fipronil/(S)-methoprene, permethrin/imidacloprid and metaflumizone/ amitraz against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick (ornate dog tick, Fabricius, 1794) in dogs. Parasite. 2010;17:343-8 pubmed
    ..From the third week onwards, fipronil/(S)-methoprene treated dogs had significantly fewer ticks than imidacloprid/permethrin or metaflumizone/amitraz treated dogs (p < 0.05)...
  28. Han P, Niu C, Lei C, Cui J, Desneux N. Use of an innovative T-tube maze assay and the proboscis extension response assay to assess sublethal effects of GM products and pesticides on learning capacity of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:1612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these results are discussed in terms of risks of transgenic CCRI41 cotton crops for honey bees. ..
  29. Mommaerts V, Reynders S, Boulet J, Besard L, Sterk G, Smagghe G. Risk assessment for side-effects of neonicotinoids against bumblebees with and without impairing foraging behavior. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:207-15 pubmed publisher
  30. Blacquière T, Smagghe G, Van Gestel C, Mommaerts V. Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:973-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular markers may be used to improve risk assessment by a better understanding of the mode of action (interaction with receptors) of neonicotinoids in bees leading to the identification of environmentally safer compounds. ..
  31. Wang Z, Yan H, Yang Y, Wu Y. Biotype and insecticide resistance status of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci from China. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:1360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Field populations of both B- and Q-biotypes of B. tabaci have developed high levels of resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Abamectin is the most effective insecticide against adult B. tabaci from all populations. ..
  32. Dondero F, Negri A, Boatti L, Marsano F, Mignone F, Viarengo A. Transcriptomic and proteomic effects of a neonicotinoid insecticide mixture in the marine mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lam.). Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:3775-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results unveil also the incongruousness of the actual concept of pesticide mode of action in the context of ecological risk assessment analysis of chemical mixtures. ..
  33. Stanneck D, Kruedewagen E, Fourie J, Horak I, Davis W, Krieger K. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:82 pubmed publisher
  34. Ning S, Bednarski M, Oronsky B, Scicinski J, Saul G, Knox S. Dinitroazetidines are a novel class of anticancer agents and hypoxia-activated radiation sensitizers developed from highly energetic materials. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2600-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings offer preclinical proof-of-concept for ABDNAZ as a promising new anticancer agent with a favorable toxicity profile, either as a chemotherapeutic agent or a radiosensitizer. ..
  35. Franc M, Genchi C, Bouhsira E, Warin S, Kaltsatos V, Baduel L, et al. Efficacy of dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen combination spot-on against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2012;189:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse events were observed following treatment, including observations conducted 2, 4 and 24h after the last dog was treated. ..
  36. Fourie J, Horak I, de la Puente Redondo V. Efficacy of a spot-on formulation of pyriprole on dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. Vet Rec. 2010;167:442-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Those treated with imidacloprid and moxidectin had 100 per cent resolution of papules and crusts. Hair regrowth, to greater than 90 per cent of pretreatment hair cover, was observed on all 20 dogs...
  37. Kumar P, Kumar A. Protective effect of rivastigmine against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease like symptoms: possible behavioural, biochemical and cellular alterations. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;615:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that rivastigmine could be used as an effective therapeutic agent in the management of Huntington's disease and related conditions...
  38. Fan S, Li Y, Yue P, Khuri F, Sun S. The eIF4E/eIF4G interaction inhibitor 4EGI-1 augments TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through c-FLIP Down-regulation and DR5 induction independent of inhibition of cap-dependent protein translation. Neoplasia. 2010;12:346-56 pubmed
    ..These results collectively suggest that 4EGI-1 augments TRAIL-induced apoptosis through induction of DR5 and down-regulation of c-FLIP, independent of inhibition of cap-dependent protein translation. ..
  39. Han P, Niu C, Lei C, Cui J, Desneux N. Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:1452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of the results are discussed in terms of risk assessment for bees as well as for directions of future work involving risk assessment of CCRI41 cotton. ..
  40. Casida J. Neonicotinoid metabolism: compounds, substituents, pathways, enzymes, organisms, and relevance. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:2923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These relationships explain much of neonicotinoid comparative toxicology and provide the basis for continued and improved safety and effectiveness of this chemotype. ..
  41. Chung M, Bosquesi P, Dos Santos J. A prodrug approach to improve the physico-chemical properties and decrease the genotoxicity of nitro compounds. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17:3515-26 pubmed
    In therapeutics research, the nitro compounds are part of an important group of drugs with multiple pharmacological activities...
  42. Wilkinson S, Bot C, Kelly J, Hall B. Trypanocidal activity of nitroaromatic prodrugs: current treatments and future perspectives. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:2072-84 pubmed
    ..This approach has led to the identification of two new classes of anti-trypanosomal agents, nitrobenzylphosphoramide mustards and aziridinyl nitrobenzamides, and promises to yield new, safer, more effective drugs. ..
  43. Li P, Ann J, Akk G. Activation and modulation of human ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:1295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, subunit stoichiometry affected inhibition by CTD, with (?4)(2) (?2)(3) receptors significantly more strongly inhibited than the (?4)(3) (?2)(2) receptors. ..
  44. Stanneck D, Rass J, Radeloff I, Kruedewagen E, Le Sueur C, Hellmann K, et al. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:66 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it can be used as sustainable long-term preventative, covering the whole flea and tick season. ..
  45. He Y, Zhao J, Zheng Y, Desneux N, Wu K. Lethal effect of imidacloprid on the coccinellid predator Serangium japonicum and sublethal effects on predator voracity and on functional response to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:1291-300 pubmed publisher
    ..These results hint at the importance of assessing potential effects of imidacloprid on S. japonicum for developing effective integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci in China. ..
  46. Pestana J, Loureiro S, Baird D, Soares A. Pesticide exposure and inducible antipredator responses in the zooplankton grazer, Daphnia magna Straus. Chemosphere. 2010;78:241-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Markussen M, Kristensen M. Low expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit Md?2 in neonicotinoid-resistant strains of Musca domestica L. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:1257-62 pubmed publisher
  48. Valdovinos Núñez G, Quezada Euán J, Ancona Xiu P, Moo Valle H, Carmona A, Ruiz Sanchez E. Comparative toxicity of pesticides to stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini). J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:1737-42 pubmed
    ..It is important to take actions to prevent damage to these key species for the ecology and agriculture of Mexico and Latin America ..
  49. Al Mutairy A, Al Kadasah S, Elfaki I, Arshaduddin M, Malik D, Al Moutaery K, et al. Trolox ameliorates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010;32:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clearly suggest that protective effect of trolox against 3-NPA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated through its free radical scavenging activity. ..
  50. Tisler T, Jemec A, Mozetic B, Trebse P. Hazard identification of imidacloprid to aquatic environment. Chemosphere. 2009;76:907-14 pubmed publisher
  51. Azevedo Pereira H, Lemos M, Soares A. Effects of imidacloprid exposure on Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae: linking acetylcholinesterase activity to behaviour. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:1210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights the importance of linking parameters with ecological relevance at individual level (behavioural parameters) with biochemical responses, to unravel xenobiotics mode of action. ..
  52. Parry R, Nishino S, Spain J. Naturally-occurring nitro compounds. Nat Prod Rep. 2011;28:152-67 pubmed publisher
    Naturally-occurring nitro compounds display great structural diversity, and a wide range of biological activities...
  53. Pavlaki M, Pereira R, Loureiro S, Soares A. Effects of binary mixtures on the life traits of Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:99-110 pubmed publisher