fadrozole

Summary

Summary: A selective aromatase inhibitor effective in the treatment of estrogen-dependent disease including breast cancer.

Top Publications

  1. Smith C, Katz M, Sinclair A. DMRT1 is upregulated in the gonads during female-to-male sex reversal in ZW chicken embryos. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:560-70 pubmed
    ..chicken embryos during experimentally induced female-to-male sex reversal, using the aromatase enzyme inhibitor fadrozole. DMRT1 expression was analyzed by whole mount in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain ..
  2. Wacker D, Schlinger B, Wingfield J. Combined effects of DHEA and fadrozole on aggression and neural VIP immunoreactivity in the non-breeding male song sparrow. Horm Behav. 2008;53:287-94 pubmed
    ..However, administration of fadrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, decreases non-breeding aggression in the field...
  3. Villeneuve L, Wang R, Bencic D, Biales A, Martinovic D, Lazorchak J, et al. Altered gene expression in the brain and ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole: microarray analysis and hypothesis generation. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:1767-82 pubmed publisher
    ..different modes of action, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 25 or 100 microg/L of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for 24, 48, or 96 h...
  4. Villeneuve D, Knoebl I, Kahl M, Jensen K, Hammermeister D, Greene K, et al. Relationship between brain and ovary aromatase activity and isoform-specific aromatase mRNA expression in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Aquat Toxicol. 2006;76:353-68 pubmed
    ..different ages and stages of reproductive activity, and from fathead minnows exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for 7d...
  5. Langlois V, Duarte Guterman P, Ing S, Pauli B, Cooke G, Trudeau V. Fadrozole and finasteride exposures modulate sex steroid- and thyroid hormone-related gene expression in Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis early larval development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;166:417-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposures to fadrozole (an aromatase inhibitor; 0.5, 1.0 and 2...
  6. Mulder P, Mellin V, Favre J, Vercauteren M, Remy Jouet I, Monteil C, et al. Aldosterone synthase inhibition improves cardiovascular function and structure in rats with heart failure: a comparison with spironolactone. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:2171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that aldosterone synthase inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CHF. ..
  7. Nunez S, Calis K, Cutler G, Jones J, Feuillan P. Lack of efficacy of fadrozole in treating precocious puberty in girls with the McCune-Albright syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5730-3 pubmed
    We administered the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole to 16 girls with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty due to the McCune-Albright syndrome. The girls' ages ranged from 3.2-9.7 yr, and their bone ages ranged from 5.75-14.25 yr...
  8. Tominaga T, Adachi I, Sasaki Y, Tabei T, Ikeda T, Takatsuka Y, et al. Double-blind randomised trial comparing the non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors letrozole and fadrozole in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2003;14:62-70 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of letrozole, an advanced non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, and fadrozole hydrochloride, an older-generation drug in this class, we conducted a randomised double-blind trial in ..
  9. Ménard J, Pascoe L. Can the dextroenantiomer of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole be useful for clinical investigation of aldosterone-synthase inhibition?. J Hypertens. 2006;24:993-7 pubmed
    ..FAD 286A, the dextroenantiomer of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, might be a first candidate to investigate in humans, the physiological impact and therapeutic properties of ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Vaillant S, Dorizzi M, Pieau C, Richard Mercier N. Sex reversal and aromatase in chicken. J Exp Zool. 2001;290:727-40 pubmed
    ..To analyze the process of sex reversal, we have followed for several months the changes induced by Fadrozole, a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, in gonadal aromatase activity and in morphology and structure of the female ..
  2. Roumen L, Peeters J, Emmen J, Beugels I, Custers E, de Gooyer M, et al. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of 1-benzyl-1H-imidazoles as selective inhibitors of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). J Med Chem. 2010;53:1712-25 pubmed publisher
    ..binding modes of the natural substrate 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the recently published CYP11B2 inhibitor R-fadrozole as a rational guide to design 44 structurally simple and achiral 1-benzyl-1H-imidazoles...
  3. Gunson D, Steele R, Chau R. Prevention of spontaneous tumours in female rats by fadrozole hydrochloride, an aromatase inhibitor. Br J Cancer. 1995;72:72-5 pubmed
    ..It also slows the spontaneous development of pituitary pars distalis adenomas in female rats, and reduces the incidence of spontaneous hepatocellular tumours in male and female rats. ..
  4. Villeneuve D, Larkin P, Knoebl I, Miracle A, Kahl M, Jensen K, et al. A graphical systems model to facilitate hypothesis-driven ecotoxicogenomics research on the teleost brain-pituitary-gonadal axis. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:321-30 pubmed
    ..of the model is illustrated in the context of a study examining effects of the competitive aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, on gene expression in gonad, brain, and liver tissue of fathead minnows...
  5. Duarte Guterman P, Langlois V, Hodgkinson K, Pauli B, Cooke G, Wade M, et al. The aromatase inhibitor fadrozole and the 5-reductase inhibitor finasteride affect gonadal differentiation and gene expression in the frog Silurana tropicalis. Sex Dev. 2009;3:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of inhibition of cyp19 by fadrozole (FAD), and srd5alpha and srd5beta by finasteride (FIN) during anuran larval development...
  6. Gobbi S, Cavalli A, Rampa A, Belluti F, Piazzi L, Paluszcak A, et al. Lead optimization providing a series of flavone derivatives as potent nonsteroidal inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme. J Med Chem. 2006;49:4777-80 pubmed
    ..on the 2-phenyl ring alone did not cause improvement in potency, these modifications and the removal of the 7-methoxy group led to compounds showing inhibitory activity in the nanomolar range, comparable to the marketed drug fadrozole.
  7. Zhang D, Popesku J, Martyniuk C, Xiong H, Duarte Guterman P, Yao L, et al. Profiling neuroendocrine gene expression changes following fadrozole-induced estrogen decline in the female goldfish. Physiol Genomics. 2009;38:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific inhibition of aromatase activity by fadrozole has been shown to impair estrogen production and influence neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in fish, ..
  8. Ramsey M, Shoemaker C, Crews D. Gonadal expression of Sf1 and aromatase during sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination. Differentiation. 2007;75:978-91 pubmed
    ..Our data do not lend support to a role for Sf1 in the regulation of aromatase expression during slider turtle sex determination, but do support a critical role for estrogen in ovarian development...
  9. Vaillant S, Guemene D, Dorizzi M, Pieau C, Richard Mercier N, Brillard J. Degree of sex reversal as related to plasma steroid levels in genetic female chickens (Gallus domesticus) treated with Fadrozole. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003;65:420-8 pubmed
    ..of testosterone and estradiol reflect the various grades of sex reversal in genetic female chickens treated with Fadrozole (CGS 16949 A), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, and whether gonadal aromatase activity and plasma levels of ..
  10. Montserrat N, Gonzalez A, Mendez E, Piferrer F, Planas J. Effects of follicle stimulating hormone on estradiol-17 beta production and P-450 aromatase (CYP19) activity and mRNA expression in brown trout vitellogenic ovarian follicles in vitro. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004;137:123-31 pubmed
    ..The basal and FSH-stimulated E(2) production was completely blocked by fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor...
  11. Ankley G, Kahl M, Jensen K, Hornung M, Korte J, Makynen E, et al. Evaluation of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole in a short-term reproduction assay with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Toxicol Sci. 2002;67:121-30 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to assess effects of the CYP19 inhibitor fadrozole on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproductive endocrinology and physiology in a short-term reproduction ..
  12. Wade J, Schlinger B, Hodges L, Arnold A. Fadrozole: a potent and specific inhibitor of aromatase in the zebra finch brain. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1994;94:53-61 pubmed
    ..The potency and specificity of fadrozole hydrochloride as an aromatase inhibitor was tested in zebra finch telencephalon...
  13. Ralston Hooper K, Turner M, Soderblom E, Villeneuve D, Ankley G, Moseley M, et al. Application of a label-free, gel-free quantitative proteomics method for ecotoxicological studies of small fish species. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:1091-100 pubmed publisher
    ..to identify and quantify differentially expressed hepatic proteins from female fathead minnows exposed to fadrozole, a potent inhibitor of estrogen synthesis. Female fathead minnows were exposed to 0 (control), 0.04, and 1...
  14. Wozniak A, Holman S, Hutchison J. In vitro potency and selectivity of the non-steroidal androgen aromatase inhibitor CGS 16949A compared to steroidal inhibitors in the brain. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1992;43:281-7 pubmed
    ..03 and 0.60 nM, respectively, with A as substrate). We conclude that the imidazole is an effective aromatase inhibitor in both the adult and developing brain. ..
  15. Steinetz B, Williams A, Lust G, Schwabe C, Bullesbach E, Goldsmith L. Transmission of relaxin and estrogens to suckling canine pups via milk and possible association with hip joint laxity. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotypic expression of hip dysplasia may therefore be preventable by antihormone treatment. ..
  16. Olmstead A, Kosian P, Korte J, Holcombe G, Woodis K, Degitz S. Sex reversal of the amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis, following larval exposure to an aromatase inhibitor. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;91:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that exposure to the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, during the larval development of the tropical clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, would result in masculinization ..
  17. Hausler A, Schenkel L, Krähenbühl C, Monnet G, Bhatnagar A. An in vitro method to determine the selective inhibition of estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem. 1989;33:125-31 pubmed
    ..Thus a simple, effective and reproducible method is described for assessing the selectivity with which aromatase inhibitors inhibit aromatase. ..
  18. Roselli C, Cross E, Poonyagariyagorn H, Stadelman H. Role of aromatization in anticipatory and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior in male rats. Horm Behav. 2003;44:146-51 pubmed
    ..One group was then treated with the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole (2.5 mg/kg/day), given subcutaneously in beta-cyclodextrin and the other group was treated with vehicle...
  19. Tamada H, Mizuta Y, Kawate N, Inaba T, Sawada T. Delayed implantation induced by fadrozole hydrochloride in rats. Contraception. 2003;68:65-8 pubmed
    ..examined the anti-implantation action in rats of a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor of high specific activity, fadrozole hydrochloride (Fad)...
  20. Ali S, Leitzel K, Chinchilli V, Engle L, Demers L, Harvey H, et al. Relationship of serum HER-2/neu and serum CA 15-3 in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Clin Chem. 2002;48:1314-20 pubmed
    ..similar studies to receive second-line hormone therapy with either megestrol acetate or an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole)...
  21. Navarro Martín L, Blázquez M, Piferrer F. Masculinization of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by treatment with an androgen or aromatase inhibitor involves different gene expression and has distinct lasting effects on maturation. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;160:3-11 pubmed publisher
    ..undifferentiated sea bass were administered 17alpha-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT), estradiol-17beta (E(2)), fadrozole (Fz), cyproterone acetate (CPA) or tamoxifen (Tx)...
  22. Sierra A, Azcoitia I, Garcia Segura L. Endogenous estrogen formation is neuroprotective in model of cerebellar ataxia. Endocrine. 2003;21:43-51 pubmed
    ..In a second experiment, animals were treated with fadrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, to assess the role of endogenous estradiol formation in neuroprotection...
  23. Zuloaga K, Davis C, Zhang W, Alkayed N. Role of aromatase in sex-specific cerebrovascular endothelial function in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014;306:H929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies were performed in WT mice treated with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole or vehicle. WT female mice had significantly greater responses to ACh compared with WT males (P < 0...
  24. Villeneuve D, Breen M, Bencic D, Cavallin J, Jensen K, Makynen E, et al. Developing predictive approaches to characterize adaptive responses of the reproductive endocrine axis to aromatase inhibition: I. Data generation in a small fish model. Toxicol Sci. 2013;133:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were either exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (0...
  25. Ivanova T, Kuppers E, Engele J, Beyer C. Estrogen stimulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in embryonic mouse midbrain neurons through a membrane-mediated and calcium-dependent mechanism. J Neurosci Res. 2001;66:221-30 pubmed
    ..This particular E effect appears to be transmitted through Ca(2+)-dependent signaling cascades upon activation of putative membrane estrogen receptors. ..
  26. Wang R, Bencic D, Biales A, Lattier D, Kostich M, Villeneuve D, et al. DNA microarray-based ecotoxicological biomarker discovery in a small fish model species. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008;27:664-75 pubmed
    ..from both microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, displayed greater similarity between fadrozole and 17beta-trenbolone than either one to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol...
  27. Kim Y, Perlman W, Arnold A. Expression of androgen receptor mRNA in zebra finch song system: developmental regulation by estrogen. J Comp Neurol. 2004;469:535-47 pubmed
    ..of AR mRNA in HVC and area X by P11, whereas treatment of hatchling males with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole decreased the expression of AR mRNA at P11...
  28. Lee Y, Du J, Yen F, Lee C, Dufour S, Huang J, et al. Regulation of plasma gonadotropin II secretion by sex steroids, aromatase inhibitors, and antiestrogens in the protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli Bleeker. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;129:399-406 pubmed
    ..and fadrozole-treated (1 microg g(-1), 3 microg g(-1) body wt.) groups compared to control...
  29. Hecker M, Newsted J, Murphy M, Higley E, Jones P, Wu R, et al. Human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cells for rapid in vitro determination of effects on steroidogenesis: hormone production. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;217:114-24 pubmed
    ..In cells exposed to fadrozole, E2 decreased in a dose-dependent manner while T and P only decreased at the greatest dose tested...
  30. Conley A, Mapes S, Corbin C, Greger D, Walters K, Trant J, et al. A comparative approach to structure-function studies of mammalian aromatases. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;79:289-97 pubmed
    ..These studies are currently in progress. ..
  31. Trainor B, Greiwe K, Nelson R. Individual differences in estrogen receptor alpha in select brain nuclei are associated with individual differences in aggression. Horm Behav. 2006;50:338-45 pubmed
    ..When males were treated with fadrozole (an aromatase inhibitor), aggressive behavior was reduced, although castration did not reduce aggression...
  32. Attila M, Oksala R, Agmo A. Sexual incentive motivation in male rats requires both androgens and estrogens. Horm Behav. 2010;58:341-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In Experiment 2 the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (F) was combined with testosterone (T)...
  33. Rashid H, Kitano H, Lee K, Nii S, Shigematsu T, Kadomura K, et al. Fugu (Takifugu rubripes) sexual differentiation: CYP19 regulation and aromatase inhibitor induced testicular development. Sex Dev. 2007;1:311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..sex differentiation and development of the Japanese fugu (Takifugu rubripes), an aromatase inhibitor (AI, fadrozole) was administered to developing fishes from the 'first feeding' till the 100th day after hatching...
  34. Loge C, Le Borgne M, Marchand P, Robert J, le Baut G, Palzer M, et al. Three-dimensional model of cytochrome P450 human aromatase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2005;20:581-5 pubmed
    ..rabbit CYP2C5, the first solved X-ray structure of an eukaryotic cytochrome P450 and was evaluated by docking S-fadrozole and the steroidal competitive inhibitor (19R)-10-thiiranylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione, into the enzyme active site...
  35. Lee D, Fernando G, Peterson R, Allen T, Schlinger B. Estrogen mediation of injury-induced cell birth in neuroproliferative regions of the adult zebra finch brain. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:1107-17 pubmed
    ..involved, estrogen was depleted in Experiment 2 through either OVX or administration of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD)...
  36. Leboucher G, Béguin N, Mauget R, Kreutzer M. Effects of fadrozole on sexual displays and reproductive activity in the female canary. Physiol Behav. 1998;65:233-40 pubmed
    We used fadrozole, a potent inhibitor of the aromatization of androgens to estrogens, to investigate the influence of estradiol on copulation solicitation displays (CSD) and reproductive activity in female canaries (Serinus canaria)...
  37. Juliet P, Hayashi T, Daigo S, Matsui Hirai H, Miyazaki A, Fukatsu A, et al. Combined effect of testosterone and apocynin on nitric oxide and superoxide production in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1693:185-91 pubmed
    ..Even though apocynin does not have any role on NO production, addition of apocynin together with testosterone is effective in suppressing iNOS activity. ..
  38. Afonso L, Wassermann G, Terezinha de Oliveira R. Sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. J Exp Zool. 2001;290:177-81 pubmed
    ..were divided in seven groups, which were fed with diets containing different amounts of the aromatase inhibitor Fadrozole (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) during 15 and 30 days, starting 9 days after hatching...
  39. Adkins Regan E. Development of sexual partner preference in the zebra finch: a socially monogamous, pair-bonding animal. Arch Sex Behav. 2002;31:27-33 pubmed
    ..Females treated with estradiol or fadrozole (an estrogen synthesis inhibitor) as nestlings or embryos showed masculinized sexual-partner preference as ..
  40. Wynne R, Walters B, Bailey D, Saldanha C. Inhibition of injury-induced glial aromatase reveals a wave of secondary degeneration in the songbird brain. Glia. 2008;56:97-105 pubmed
    ..Adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were injured with a needle that contained the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole or vehicle into contralateral hemispheres. Birds were killed at 0, 2, 6, 24, 72h, 2 or 6 weeks postinjury...
  41. Tekmal R, Durgam V. A novel in vitro and in vivo breast cancer model for testing inhibitors of estrogen biosynthesis and its action using mammary tumor cells with an activated int-5/aromatase gene. Cancer Lett. 1997;118:21-8 pubmed
  42. Charlier T, Po K, Newman A, Shah A, Saldanha C, Soma K. 17beta-Estradiol levels in male zebra finch brain: combining Palkovits punch and an ultrasensitive radioimmunoassay. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;167:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol allows one to measure E(2) in discrete brain regions and potentially relate local E(2) concentrations to aromatase activity and behavior. ..
  43. Buzdar A. A summary of second-line randomized studies of aromatase inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;79:109-14 pubmed
    ..Studies in the adjuvant setting will ultimately determine whether the differences in pharmacokinetics and phamacodynamics will be of clinical relevance. ..
  44. Zerulla M, Lange R, Steger Hartmann T, Panter G, Hutchinson T, Dietrich D. Morphological sex reversal upon short-term exposure to endocrine modulators in juvenile fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Toxicol Lett. 2002;131:51-63 pubmed
    ..vivo test system was established to study the effects of methyltestosterone (MT, a potential model androgen) and fadrozole (F, an aromatase inhibitor) as well as the combination of MT and F on juvenile, sexually undifferentiated ..
  45. Huddleston G, Michael R, Zumpe D, Clancy A. Estradiol in the male rat amygdala facilitates mounting but not ejaculation. Physiol Behav. 2003;79:239-46 pubmed
    ..Infusion of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, into the MEA reduced mating, presumably by inhibiting conversion of testosterone (T) to estradiol (E(2))...
  46. Vo M, Evans M, Leitzel K, Ali S, Wilson M, Demers L, et al. Elevated plasma endoglin (CD105) predicts decreased response and survival in a metastatic breast cancer trial of hormone therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119:767-71 pubmed publisher
    ..947 days) (P = 0.005). Conclusion Elevated pretreatment plasma endoglin levels predicted for decreased clinical benefit and a shorter overall survival in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with 2nd-line hormone therapy. ..
  47. Lipton A, Ali S, Leitzel K, Demers L, Evans D, Hamer P, et al. Elevated plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 level predicts decreased response and survival in metastatic breast cancer. Cancer. 2007;109:1933-9 pubmed
    ..0001) and the presence of visceral metastases (P = .008). Elevated pretreatment plasma levels of TIMP-1 predicted a decreased response to second-line hormone therapy and reduced survival in women with metastatic breast cancer. ..
  48. Dutta U, Pant K. Aromatase inhibitors: past, present and future in breast cancer therapy. Med Oncol. 2008;25:113-24 pubmed
    ..A comprehensive discussion of the past, present, and future of aromatase inhibitors is conducted in this review. ..
  49. Bhandari R, Komuro H, Higa M, Nakamura M. Sex inversion of sexually immature honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra) by aromatase inhibitor. Zoolog Sci. 2004;21:305-10 pubmed
    ..Female honeycomb groupers were implanted with various doses of Fadrozole (0, 100, 500 and 1000 microg/fish) in the non-breeding season, and resultant changes in the gonadal structures ..
  50. Kitano T, Takamune K, Nagahama Y, Abe S. Aromatase inhibitor and 17alpha-methyltestosterone cause sex-reversal from genetical females to phenotypic males and suppression of P450 aromatase gene expression in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Mol Reprod Dev. 2000;56:1-5 pubmed
    ..J Mol Endocrinol 23:167-176). In the present study, we show that treatment of genetically female larvae with fadrozole (aromatase inhibitor) or 17alpha-methyltestosterone induces sex-reversal as well as suppression of P450arom gene ..
  51. Lyou S, Kawano S, Yamada T, Okuyama S, Terashima T, Hayase K, et al. Role of estrogen receptors and aromatase on brain protein synthesis rates in ovariectomized female rats fed genistein. Nutr Neurosci. 2008;11:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Wistar female rats were treated with genistein, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, and/or fadrozole a systemic aromatase inhibitor...
  52. Burke W, Henry M. Gonadal development and growth of chickens and turkeys hatched from eggs injected with an aromatase inhibitor. Poult Sci. 1999;78:1019-33 pubmed
    ..Thereafter, both types of females were of equal weight and significantly lighter than males. Fadrazole treatment did not affect pectoral muscle mass of either sex of turkeys. ..
  53. Díaz Hernández V, Vázquez Gómez A, Marmolejo Valencia A, Montaño L, Merchant Larios H. 17?-Estradiol modulates cell proliferation of medullary cords during ovarian differentiation of the Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtle. Dev Biol. 2017;431:263-271 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we decided to use fadrozole and fulvestrant, an aromatase inhibitor and an estrogen-receptor antagonist, respectively, to provide insights ..