acrylonitrile

Summary

Summary: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.

Top Publications

  1. Leonard A, Gerber G, Stecca C, Rueff J, Borba H, Farmer P, et al. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of acrylonitrile. Mutat Res. 1999;436:263-83 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (AN) is an important intermediary for the synthesis of a variety of organic products, such as artificial fibres, household articles and resins...
  2. Wang Z, Ke B, Xu Z. Covalent immobilization of redox enzyme on electrospun nonwoven poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes: a comprehensive study. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007;97:708-20 pubmed
    ..conductive composite nanofiber mesh possessing reactive groups was electrospun from solutions containing poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PANCAA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for redoxase immobilization, assuming ..
  3. Nerland D, Cai J, Pierce W, Benz F. Covalent binding of acrylonitrile to specific rat liver glutathione S-transferases in vivo. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001;14:799-806 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (AN) is an industrial vinyl monomer that is acutely toxic. When administered to rats, AN covalently binds to tissue proteins in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner [Benz, F. W., Nerland, D. E., Li, J., and Corbett, D...
  4. Khan H, Alhomida A, Arif I. Neurovestibular toxicities of acrylonitrile and iminodipropionitrile in rats: a comparative evaluation of putative mechanisms and target sites. Toxicol Sci. 2009;109:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of individual and concomitant exposures of the two nitrile compounds, the industrially important acrylonitrile (ACN; 5, 15, 45 mg/kg/day) and the positive control iminodipropionitrile (IDPN; 100 mg/kg/day) in rats...
  5. Swaen G, Bloemen L, Twisk J, Scheffers T, Slangen J, Collins J, et al. Mortality update of workers exposed to acrylonitrile in The Netherlands. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:691-8 pubmed
    To study the possible carcinogenic effects of acrylonitrile, we updated the follow up of a cohort of 2842 acrylonitrile workers. The comparison group consisted of 3961 workers from a nitrogen fixation plant...
  6. Nagasawa K, Tanino H, Shimohama S, Fujimoto S. Effects of hyperoxia and acrylonitrile on the phospholipase C isozyme protein levels in rat heart and brain. Life Sci. 2003;73:1453-62 pubmed
    ..b>Acrylonitrile (ACN) appears to induce astrocytomas through induction of oxidative stress on the rat brain selectively...
  7. Godjevargova T, Nenkova R, Dimova N. Covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase onto new modified acrylonitrile copolymer/silica gel hybrid supports. Macromol Biosci. 2005;5:760-6 pubmed
    New polymer/silica gel hybrid supports were prepared by coating high surface area of silica gel with modified acrylonitrile copolymer. The concentrations of the modifying agent (NaOH) and the modified polymer were varied...
  8. Campian E, Cai J, Benz F. Acrylonitrile irreversibly inactivates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by alkylating the catalytically active cysteine 149. Chem Biol Interact. 2002;140:279-91 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (AN) is a vinyl monomer used in the production of synthetic fibers, rubber and plastics. AN is acutely toxic but its mechanism of toxicity remains to be established...
  9. Schettgen T, Broding H, Angerer J, Drexler H. Hemoglobin adducts of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, acrylonitrile and acrylamide-biomarkers in occupational and environmental medicine. Toxicol Lett. 2002;134:65-70 pubmed
    ..The levels of the adducts of acrylonitrile (ACN) and acrylamide (AA) were also determined, though they were mainly accounted for by smoking and diet...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Isla A, Gascón A, Maynar J, Arzuaga A, Corral E, Martin A, et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of enoxaparin removal by continuous renal replacement therapies with acrylonitrile and polysulfone membranes. Clin Ther. 2005;27:1444-51 pubmed
    ..The elimination of enoxaparin by CRRT, using acrylonitrile (AN69) or polysulfone (PS) membranes, was studied in vitro and among critically ill patients...
  2. Guangwei X, Rongzhu L, Wenrong X, Suhua W, Xiaowu Z, Shizhong W, et al. Curcumin pretreatment protects against acute acrylonitrile-induced oxidative damage in rats. Toxicology. 2010;267:140-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Acrylonitrile (AN) is widely used in the manufacturing of fibers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation is implicated in the toxicity of AN...
  3. Murata M, Ohnishi S, Kawanishi S. Acrylonitrile enhances H2O2-mediated DNA damage via nitrogen-centered radical formation. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001;14:1421-7 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (ACN) is widely used as a monomer in the polymer industry...
  4. Derosa F, Kibbe M, Najjar S, Citro M, Keefer L, Hrabie J. Nitric oxide-releasing fabrics and other acrylonitrile-based diazeniumdiolates. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:3786-7 pubmed
  5. Fennell T, MacNeela J, Morris R, Watson M, Thompson C, Bell D. Hemoglobin adducts from acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in cigarette smokers: effects of glutathione S-transferase T1-null and M1-null genotypes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9:705-12 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (ACN) is used to manufacture plastics and fibers. It is carcinogenic in rats and is found in cigarette smoke. Ethylene oxide (EO) is a metabolite of ethylene, also found in cigarette smoke, and is carcinogenic in rodents...
  6. Schettgen T, Musiol A, Alt A, Ochsmann E, Kraus T. A method for the quantification of biomarkers of exposure to acrylonitrile and 1,3-butadiene in human urine by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;393:969-81 pubmed publisher
    1,3-Butadiene and acrylonitrile are important industrial chemicals that have a high production volume and are ubiquitous environmental pollutants...
  7. Thier R, Lewalter J, Selinski S, Bolt H. Possible impact of human CYP2E1 polymorphisms on the metabolism of acrylonitrile. Toxicol Lett. 2002;128:249-55 pubmed
    Case reports of human accidental poisonings point to significant individual differences in human acrylonitrile metabolism and toxicity...
  8. Thier R, Lewalter J, Bolt H. Species differences in acrylonitrile metabolism and toxicity between experimental animals and humans based on observations in human accidental poisonings. Arch Toxicol. 2000;74:184-9 pubmed
    The high acute toxicity of acrylonitrile may be a result of its intrinsic biological reactivity or of its metabolite cyanide...
  9. Nasralla S, Ghoneim A, Khalifa A, Gad M, Abdel Naim A. Lactoperoxidase catalyzes in vitro activation of acrylonitrile to cyanide. Toxicol Lett. 2009;191:347-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used industrial chemical. Although it is a well reported animal carcinogen, its current designation to humans is "possibly carcinogenic"...
  10. Kirman C, Sweeney L, Gargas M, Strother D, Collins J, Deskin R. Derivation of noncancer reference values for acrylonitrile. Risk Anal. 2008;28:1375-94 pubmed publisher
    Dose-response assessments were conducted for the noncancer effects of acrylonitrile (AN) for the purposes of deriving subchronic and chronic oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values...
  11. Leng G, Lewalter J. Polymorphism of glutathione S-transferases and susceptibility to acrylonitrile and dimethylsulfate in cases of intoxication. Toxicol Lett. 2002;134:209-17 pubmed
    ..This may be one reason for the abundance of controversial data on GST polymorphisms and adverse health effects. ..
  12. Pouyatos B, Gearhart C, Fechter L. Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005;204:46-56 pubmed
    ..If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL...
  13. Fechter L, Klis S, Shirwany N, Moore T, Rao D. Acrylonitrile produces transient cochlear function loss and potentiates permanent noise-induced hearing loss. Toxicol Sci. 2003;75:117-23 pubmed
    ..b>Acrylonitrile (ACN) metabolism entails conjugation with glutathione, resulting in rapid and pronounced depletion of this ..
  14. Pu X, Kamendulis L, Klaunig J. Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Sci. 2009;111:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in brain tumor induction in rats by acrylonitrile. The present study examined whether acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats and whether ..
  15. Wu H, Glaser R. Amino effect on the protonation of beta-aminoacrylonitrile. Chem Res Toxicol. 2005;18:111-4 pubmed
    The protonation of acrylonitrile (1) and of Z- and E-3-aminoacrylonitrile (5 and 9) was studied with the Gaussian-2 method. Ammoniumacrylonitrile ion formation is not important...
  16. Minet E, Cheung F, Errington G, Sterz K, Scherer G. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption. Biomarkers. 2011;16:89-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure...
  17. Pouyatos B, Gearhart C, Nelson Miller A, Fulton S, Fechter L. Oxidative stress pathways in the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss by acrylonitrile. Hear Res. 2007;224:61-74 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis was tested using acrylonitrile (ACN), a widely used industrial chemical whose metabolism is associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion and ..
  18. Nigam V, Khandelwal A, Gothwal R, Mohan M, Choudhury B, Vidyarthi A, et al. Nitrilase-catalysed conversion of acrylonitrile by free and immobilized cells of Streptomyces sp. J Biosci. 2009;34:21-6 pubmed
    The biotransformation of acrylonitrile was investigated using thermophilic nitrilase produced from a new isolate Streptomyces sp. MTCC 7546 in both the free and immobilized state...
  19. Chanas B, Wang H, Ghanayem B. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;193:293-302 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen...
  20. Nerland D, Cai J, Benz F. Selective covalent binding of acrylonitrile to Cys 186 in rat liver carbonic anhydrase III in vivo. Chem Res Toxicol. 2003;16:583-9 pubmed
    ..b>Acrylonitrile (AN) is a commercial vinyl monomer that is acutely toxic and readily binds to tissue proteins...
  21. Xu D, Zhu Q, Zheng L, Wang Q, Shen H, Deng L, et al. Exposure to acrylonitrile induced DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome aneuploidy in human spermatozoa. Mutat Res. 2003;537:93-100 pubmed
    To explore acrylonitrile (ACN)-induced DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome aneuploidy in human spermatozoa, semen parameters were examined among 30 acrylonitrile-exposed workers according to WHO laboratory manual for the examination ..
  22. Wang H, Chanas B, Ghanayem B. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is essential for acrylonitrile metabolism to cyanide: comparative studies using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30:911-7 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (AN) is a rodent carcinogen and suspected human carcinogen. Metabolism of AN proceeds via conjugation with glutathione or epoxidation via cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO)...
  23. Petric A, Jacobson A, Barrio J. Functionalization of a viscosity-sensitive fluorophore for probing of biological systems. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1998;8:1455-60 pubmed
    ..Spiperone, a highly potent ligand for the dopamine D2 receptors, was conjugated via an ethylpiperazine moiety to the fluorophore giving fluorescent probes that can be excited in the UV and Vis range. ..
  24. Czeizel A, Hegedus S, Timar L. Congenital abnormalities and indicators of germinal mutations in the vicinity of an acrylonitrile producing factory. Mutat Res. 1999;427:105-23 pubmed
    ..epidemiological study are presented which was performed in inhabitants living in the surrounding region of an acrylonitrile factory in Nyergesújfalu...
  25. Suhua W, Rongzhu L, Wenrong X, Guangwei X, Xiaowu Z, Shizhong W, et al. Induction or inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 modifies the acute toxicity of acrylonitrile in rats: biochemical evidence. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to examine the effects of the inhibition or induction of CYP2E1 activity on acute acrylonitrile (AN) toxicity in rats...
  26. Woutersen R. Toxicologic profile of acrylonitrile. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24 Suppl 2:5-9 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile is a monomer used extensively as a raw material in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, plastics, synthetic rubbers, and acrylamide...
  27. Lieber S, Scheer F, Meissner W, Naruhn S, Adhikary T, Müller Brüsselbach S, et al. (Z)-2-(2-bromophenyl)-3-{[4-(1-methyl-piperazine)amino]phenyl}acrylonitrile (DG172): an orally bioavailable PPAR?/?-selective ligand with inverse agonistic properties. J Med Chem. 2012;55:2858-68 pubmed publisher
    ..One compound, (Z)-3-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-2-phenyl-acrylonitrile, was used for a systematic SAR study...
  28. Fechter L, Gearhart C, Shirwany N. Acrylonitrile potentiates noise-induced hearing loss in rat. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2004;5:90-8 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile, one of the 50 most commonly produced industrial chemicals, has recently been identified as a promoter of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This agent has the potential to produce oxidative stress through multiple pathways...
  29. Thier R, Balkenhol H, Lewalter J, Selinski S, Dommermuth A, Bolt H. Influence of polymorphisms of the human glutathione transferases and cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme on the metabolism and toxicity of ethylene oxide and acrylonitrile. Mutat Res. 2001;482:41-6 pubmed
    A cohort of 59 persons with industrial handling of low levels of acrylonitrile is being studied as part of a medical surveillance programme...
  30. Ohno H, Kawamura Y. Analysis of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and related compounds in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:1965-71 pubmed
    ..spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-..
  31. Zhang H, Kamendulis L, Klaunig J. Mechanisms for the induction of oxidative stress in Syrian hamster embryo cells by acrylonitrile. Toxicol Sci. 2002;67:247-55 pubmed
    Chronic administration of acrylonitrile to rats resulted in an increase in the incidence of glial neoplasms of the brain. Recent studies have shown that acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress in rat brain and cultured rat glial cells...
  32. Yamazaki R, Nishiyama Y, Furuta T, Hatano H, Igarashi Y, Asakawa N, et al. Novel acrylonitrile derivatives, YHO-13177 and YHO-13351, reverse BCRP/ABCG2-mediated drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:1252-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the reversing effects of YHO-13177, a novel acrylonitrile derivative, and its water-soluble diethylaminoacetate prodrug YHO-13351 on the BCRP-mediated drug resistance...
  33. Rongzhu L, Suhua W, Guangwei X, Chunlan R, Fangan H, Suxian C, et al. Effects of acrylonitrile on antioxidant status of different brain regions in rats. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:552-7 pubmed publisher
    While the adverse effects of acrylonitrile (AN) on the central nervous system (CNS) are known to be mediated, at least in part, by the generation of free radicals and oxidative stress, there is a paucity of data on region-specific ..
  34. Sumner S, Fennell T, Moore T, Chanas B, Gonzalez F, Ghanayem B. Role of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the metabolism of acrylamide and acrylonitrile in mice. Chem Res Toxicol. 1999;12:1110-6 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile (AN) and acrylamide (AM) are commonly used in the synthesis of plastics and polymers. In rodents, AM and AN are metabolized to the epoxides glycidamide and cyanoethylene oxide, respectively...
  35. Zey J, Stewart P, Hornung R, Herrick R, McCammon C, Zaebst D, et al. Evaluation of concurrent personal measurements of acrylonitrile using different sampling techniques. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2002;17:88-95 pubmed
    In a retrospective assessment of employee exposure to acrylonitrile (AN) for an epidemiological study, investigators from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated ..
  36. Ghanayem B, Nyska A, Haseman J, Bucher J. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in male and female B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Sci. 2002;68:59-68 pubmed
    b>Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile, which is used in the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, resins, and rubber...
  37. Blair A, Stewart P, Zaebst D, Pottern L, Zey J, Bloom T, et al. Mortality of industrial workers exposed to acrylonitrile. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24 Suppl 2:25-41 pubmed
    This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between occupational exposure to acrylonitrile and cancer mortality...
  38. Vasileva N, Godjevargova T, Ivanova D, Gabrovska K. Application of immobilized horseradish peroxidase onto modified acrylonitrile copolymer membrane in removing of phenol from water. Int J Biol Macromol. 2009;44:190-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The immobilized HRP has shown good operational stability. Deactivation of the immobilized enzyme to 50% of the initial activity has been observed after the 20th day of the enzyme operation. ..
  39. Repicky A, Jantova S, Cipak L. Apoptosis induced by 2-acetyl-3-(6-methoxybenzothiazo)-2-yl-amino-acrylonitrile in human leukemia cells involves ROS-mitochondrial mediated death signaling and activation of p38 MAPK. Cancer Lett. 2009;277:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..2-Acetyl-3-(6-methoxybenzothiazo)-2-yl-amino-acrylonitrile (AMBAN) is a new synthetically prepared derivative, which in our previous study showed cytotoxic effects ..
  40. Kumar A, Prasad B, Mishra I. Optimization of process parameters for acrylonitrile removal by a low-cost adsorbent using Box-Behnken design. J Hazard Mater. 2008;150:174-82 pubmed
    In the present work, acrylonitrile removal from wastewater was investigated using an agri-based adsorbent-sugarcane bagasse fly ash (BFA)...
  41. Cristallini C, Ciardelli G, Barbani N, Giusti P. Acrylonitrile-acrylic acid copolymer membrane imprinted with uric acid for clinical uses. Macromol Biosci. 2004;4:31-8 pubmed
    ..Membranes, based on an acrylic acid-acrylonitrile copolymer, produced through phase inversion, were modified by introducing specific binding sites for uric acid ..
  42. Scelo G, Constantinescu V, Csiki I, Zaridze D, Szeszenia Dabrowska N, Rudnai P, et al. Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile and styrene and lung cancer risk (europe). Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15:445-52 pubmed
    ..industry-based cohort studies have addressed the risk of lung cancer following exposure to vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile and styrene, with inconsistent results and usually without smoking adjustment...
  43. McCarthy M, O Brien T, Charrier J, Hafner H. Characterization of the chronic risk and hazard of hazardous air pollutants in the United States using ambient monitoring data. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were also often greater than the 10(-6) cancer risk level, but we have less ..
  44. Tomioka T, Takahashi Y, Vaughan T, Yanase T. A facile, one-pot synthesis of beta-substituted (Z)-acrylonitriles utilizing an alpha-diaminoboryl carbanion. Org Lett. 2010;12:2171-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Various aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes were smoothly converted into the corresponding (Z)-olefin products (up to 96:4 ratio) in good yields (80-98%). ..
  45. Thier R, Lewalter J, Kempkes M, Selinski S, Bruning T, Bolt H. Haemoglobin adducts of acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in acrylonitrile workers, dependent on polymorphisms of the glutathione transferases GSTT1 and GSTM1. Arch Toxicol. 1999;73:197-202 pubmed
    Fifty-nine persons with industrial handling of low levels of acrylonitrile (AN) were studied. As part of a medical surveillance programme an extended haemoglobin adduct monitoring [N-(cyanoethyl)valine, CEV; N-(methyl)valine...
  46. Lithner D, Nordensvan I, Dave G. Comparative acute toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of polypropylene, polyethylene, PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and epoxy to Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:1763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..g., PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene [ABS], and epoxy)...
  47. Sahiner N, Yu H, Tan G, He J, John V, Blake D. Highly porous acrylonitrile-based submicron particles for UO2(2+) absorption in an immunosensor assay. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2012;4:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In polymerization, acrylonitrile was used as the initial monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and 2-hydroxymethacrylate, ..
  48. Medrasi H, Al Sheikh M, Salaheldin A. Enaminonitriles in heterocyclic synthesis: a route to 1,3-diaryl-4-aminopyrazole derivatives. Molecules. 2013;18:535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These coupled with aromatic diazonium salts to yield the 2-arylhydrazno-2-arylethane nitriles in good yields. The latter were converted into 4-aminopyrazoles in good yields using the Thorpe-Ziegler cyclization. ..
  49. AlNeyadi S, Salem A, Ghattas M, Atatreh N, Abdou I. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of the benzazole acrylonitrile-based compounds: In vitro, spectroscopic, and docking studies. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;136:270-282 pubmed publisher
    ..The synergistic effect with amoxicillin was studied. The newly synthesized compounds reported in this study warrant further consideration as prospective antimicrobial agents. ..
  50. Al Omran F, Mohareb R, El Khair A. Synthesis and E/Z configuration determination of novel derivatives of 3-aryl-2-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio) acrylonitrile, 3-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio)-4-(furan-2''-yl)-3-buten-2-one and 2-(1-(furan-2''-yl)-3'-oxobut-1''-en-2-ylthio)-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3. Molecules. 2011;16:6129-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR spectra, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOE, MS and X-ray crystallographic investigations. ..
  51. Ali A, Bliese M, Rasmussen J, Sargent R, Saubern S, Sawutz D, et al. Discovery of (Z)-2-phenyl-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)acrylonitrile derivatives active against Haemonchus contortus and Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:993-7 pubmed
    A series of 2-phenyl-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)acrylonitrile derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro activity against the endoparasite Haemonchus contortus and the ectoparasite Ctenocephalides felis...
  52. DeSain J, Jusinski L, Taatjes C. Ultraviolet photochemistry of trichlorovinylsilane and allyltrichlorosilane: vinyl radical (HCCH2) and allyl radical (H2CCHCH2) production in 193 nm photolysis. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2006;8:2240-8 pubmed
    ..9 +/- 0.2) per 193 nm photon absorbed, and the allyl radical yield from allyltrichlorosilane phi = (0.7 +/- 0.2) per 193 nm photon absorbed. ..
  53. Huang X, Xu Z, Wan L, Wang Z, Wang J. Novel acrylonitrile-based copolymers containing phospholipid moieties: synthesis and characterization. Macromol Biosci. 2005;5:322-30 pubmed
    Novel acrylonitrile-based copolymers containing phospholipid moieties were synthesized by a three-step process, which included the copolymerization of acrylonitrile and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in water and the reaction of the ..