Summary: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.

Top Publications

  1. Leow D, Li G, Mei T, Yu J. Activation of remote meta-C-H bonds assisted by an end-on template. Nature. 2012;486:518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this template overrides the intrinsic electronic and steric biases as well as ortho-directing effects with two broadly useful classes of arene substrates (toluene derivatives and hydrocinnamic acids). ..
  2. Burns M, Rowland M, N Guessan R, Carneiro I, Beeche A, Ruiz S, et al. Insecticide-treated plastic sheeting for emergency malaria prevention and shelter among displaced populations: an observational cohort study in a refugee setting in Sierra Leone. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:242-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Anemia rates improved under ITPS in both camps. This novel tool proved to be a convenient, safe, and long-lasting method of malaria control when used as a full shelter lining in an emergency setting. ..
  3. Lei C, Wang D, Zhao L, Zhu J, Wang M. Synthesis of substituted pyridines from cascade [1 + 5] cycloaddition of isonitriles to N-formylmethyl-substituted enamides, aerobic oxidative aromatization, and acyl transfer reaction. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:4708-11 pubmed publisher
  4. Folkerd E, Dixon J, Renshaw L, A Hern R, Dowsett M. Suppression of plasma estrogen levels by letrozole and anastrozole is related to body mass index in patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2977-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The suppressed levels of plasma estradiol and estrone sulfate in postmenopausal women with early ER-positive breast cancer treated with the AIs anastrozole and letrozole are related to BMI. ..
  5. Goss P, Ingle J, Pritchard K, Ellis M, Sledge G, Budd G, et al. Exemestane versus anastrozole in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: NCIC CTG MA.27--a randomized controlled phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:1398-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Less toxicity on bone is compatible with one hypothesis behind MA.27 but requires confirmation. Exemestane should be considered another option as up-front adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. ..
  6. Chen L, Huang D, Ren S, Dong T, Chi Y, Chen G. Preparation of graphite-like carbon nitride nanoflake film with strong fluorescent and electrochemiluminescent activity. Nanoscale. 2013;5:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-surface state ECL mechanisms of the g-C(3)N(4) NFF-coreactant systems have been studied and discussed in detail...
  7. Sgroi D, Sestak I, Cuzick J, Zhang Y, Schnabel C, Schroeder B, et al. Prediction of late distant recurrence in patients with oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer: a prospective comparison of the breast-cancer index (BCI) assay, 21-gene recurrence score, and IHC4 in the TransATAC study population. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14:1067-1076 pubmed publisher
  8. Keller V Amsberg G, Brummendorf T. Novel aspects of therapy with the dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor bosutinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012;12:1121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be causative for its favorable hematologic toxicity profile. In this review, the authors give an overview on the mechanism of action and currently available preclinical and clinical data for bosutinib in CML...
  9. Meng Z, Lou S, Tan J, Xu K, Jia Q, Zheng W, et al. Nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition can enhance therapeutic efficacy of 131I on the in vivo management of differentiated thyroid cancer. Life Sci. 2012;91:1236-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that NF-?B inhibition can be a good interventional avenue to enhance therapeutic potentiation of (131)I on the in vivo management of DTC. ..

More Information


  1. Gnant M, Pfeiler G, Stoger H, Mlineritsch B, Fitzal F, Balic M, et al. The predictive impact of body mass index on the efficacy of extended adjuvant endocrine treatment with anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer: an analysis of the randomised ABCSG-6a trial. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..07). Body mass index may be used to predict outcome benefit of extended AI treatment in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. ..
  2. Chandra N, Jain N, Sondhia S, Srivastava A. Deltamethrin induced toxicity and ameliorative effect of alpha-tocopherol in broilers. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;90:673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DM residue was found higher in liver as compared to breast and leg muscles. ..
  3. Lukashevich V, Schweizer A, Foley J, Dickinson S, Groop P, Kothny W. Efficacy of vildagliptin in combination with insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe renal impairment. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2013;9:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, vildagliptin is a suitable treatment option for patients with advanced type 2 diabetes and impaired renal function who require insulin therapy and present a serious therapeutic challenge in clinical practice. ..
  4. Kothny W, Shao Q, Groop P, Lukashevich V. One-year safety, tolerability and efficacy of vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate or severe renal impairment. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:1032-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Assess long-term safety and efficacy of the dipeptidlyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor vildagliptin in 369 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and moderate or severe renal impairment (RI)...
  5. Pfeiler G, Konigsberg R, Hadji P, Fitzal F, Maroske M, Dressel Ban G, et al. Impact of body mass index on estradiol depletion by aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:1522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Aromatase inhibitors are less efficient at suppressing estradiol serum levels in obese when compared with non-obese women. ..
  6. Cortes J, Kim D, Kantarjian H, Brummendorf T, Dyagil I, Griskevicius L, et al. Bosutinib versus imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia: results from the BELA trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3486-92 pubmed
    ..Each drug had a distinct safety profile. ..
  7. Kothny W, Foley J, Kozlovski P, Shao Q, Gallwitz B, Lukashevich V. Improved glycaemic control with vildagliptin added to insulin, with or without metformin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15:252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Vildagliptin was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar to placebo. These results were achieved without weight gain or an increase in hypoglycaemia incidence or severity in spite of improved glycaemic control. ..
  8. Loi S, Michiels S, Baselga J, Bartlett J, Singhal S, Sabine V, et al. PIK3CA genotype and a PIK3CA mutation-related gene signature and response to everolimus and letrozole in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53292 pubmed publisher
    ..Further evaluation of the PIK3CA-GS as a predictive biomarker is warranted as it may facilitate better selection of responsive patient populations for mTOR inhibition in combination with letrozole. ..
  9. Ewertz M, Gray K, Regan M, Ejlertsen B, Price K, Thurlimann B, et al. Obesity and risk of recurrence or death after adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole or tamoxifen in the breast international group 1-98 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:3967-75 pubmed publisher
    ..22 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.60) and HR = 1.18 (95% CI, 0.91 to 1.52) in the letrozole and tamoxifen groups, respectively. There was no evidence that the benefit of letrozole over tamoxifen differed according to patients' BMI. ..
  10. Adam Y, Cecchi G, Kgori P, Marcotty T, Mahama C, Abavana M, et al. The sequential aerosol technique: a major component in an integrated strategy of intervention against Riverine Tsetse in Ghana. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2135 pubmed publisher
  11. Ellis M, Ding L, Shen D, Luo J, Suman V, Wallis J, et al. Whole-genome analysis informs breast cancer response to aromatase inhibition. Nature. 2012;486:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective clinical trials based on these findings will require comprehensive genome sequencing. ..
  12. Schweizer A, Foley J, Kothny W, Ahren B. Clinical evidence and mechanistic basis for vildagliptin's effect in combination with insulin. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2013;9:57-64 pubmed publisher
  13. Dejager S, Schweizer A, Foley J. Evidence to support the use of vildagliptin monotherapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2012;8:339-48 pubmed publisher
  14. Guerci B, Monnier L, Serusclat P, Petit C, Valensi P, Huet D, et al. Continuous glucose profiles with vildagliptin versus sitagliptin in add-on to metformin: results from the randomized Optima study. Diabetes Metab. 2012;38:359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, vildagliptin induced better circadian glycaemic control than sitagliptin with a significant decrease on overall hyperglycemia, mainly driven by reduction on basal hyperglycaemia. ..
  15. Chargui I, Grissa I, Bensassi F, Hrira M, Haouem S, Haouas Z, et al. Oxidative stress, biochemical and histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney of female rats exposed to low doses of deltamethrin (DM): a molecular assessment. Biomed Environ Sci. 2012;25:672-83 pubmed publisher
    ..DM even at a very low dose displays harmful effects by disrupting hepatic and renal function and causing DNA damages in puberscent female rats. Low doses of DM are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic. ..
  16. Loha E, Lindtjørn B. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in Chano Mille, South Ethiopia: a longitudinal study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:450-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although ITNs prevented falciparum malaria for the users, we did not find that free mass ITNs distribution reduced falciparum malaria on a village level. ..
  17. Goss P, Ingle J, Martino S, Robert N, Muss H, Livingston R, et al. Impact of premenopausal status at breast cancer diagnosis in women entered on the placebo-controlled NCIC CTG MA17 trial of extended adjuvant letrozole. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Women premenopausal at diagnosis should be considered for extended adjuvant therapy with LET if menopausal after completing tamoxifen. ..
  18. Frutos R, Wei X, Patel N, Tampone T, MULDER J, Busacca C, et al. One-pot synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrimidines from nitriles. J Org Chem. 2013;78:5800-3 pubmed publisher
    ..A practical, one-step process for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrimidines is presented. The protocol proved to be general for the synthesis of a variety of pyrimidine-containing compounds bearing an assortment of functional groups. ..
  19. Lin T, Lee S, Niu Y, Xu D, Liang L, Li L, et al. Differential androgen deprivation therapies with anti-androgens casodex/bicalutamide or MDV3100/Enzalutamide versus anti-androgen receptor ASC-J9(R) Lead to promotion versus suppression of prostate cancer metastasis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest the potential risks of using anti-androgens and provide a potential new therapy using ASC-J9® to battle PCa metastasis at the castration-resistant stage. ..
  20. Peng L, Zhang L, Cheng X, Fan L, Hao H. Disruption of cellulose synthesis by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile affects the structure of the cytoskeleton and cell wall construction in Arabidopsis. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2013;15:405-14 pubmed publisher
  21. Allevi G, Strina C, Andreis D, Zanoni V, Bazzola L, Bonardi S, et al. Increased pathological complete response rate after a long-term neoadjuvant letrozole treatment in postmenopausal oestrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:1587-92 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) than in cohort A (1 out of 40 patients, 2.5%) and B (2 out of 40 patients, 5.0%) (P-value for trend <0.04). One-year neoadjuvant letrozole therapy leads to a higher pathCR rate and may be the optimal length of drug exposure. ..
  22. Hadji P, Blettner M, Harbeck N, Jackisch C, Luck H, Windemuth Kieselbach C, et al. The Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) Program: a randomized, in-practice study on the impact of a standardized information program on persistence and compliance to adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with early breast . Ann Oncol. 2013;24:1505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Modified persistence analyses found no difference between arms (N = 4397, P = 0.37). Addition of EMs to standard therapy did not significantly affect compliance and persistence with adjuvant anastrozole. CLINICALTRIALS ID: NCT00555867. ..
  23. Derosa G, Ragonesi P, Carbone A, Fogari E, D Angelo A, Cicero A, et al. Vildagliptin action on some adipocytokine levels in type 2 diabetic patients: a 12-month, placebo-controlled study. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012;13:2581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Vildagliptin + metformin also decreased resistin, RBP-4, and chemerin better. Vildagliptin seems to have a positive action on some adipocytokines related to inflammation. ..
  24. Dubsky P, Filipits M, Jakesz R, Rudas M, Singer C, Greil R, et al. EndoPredict improves the prognostic classification derived from common clinical guidelines in ER-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:640-7 pubmed publisher
    ..EPclin may reduce the indications for chemotherapy in ER-positive postmenopausal women with a limited number of clinical risk factors. ..
  25. Okamoto N, Ishikura M, Yanada R. Cleavage of carbon-carbon triple bond: direct transformation of alkynes to nitriles. Org Lett. 2013;15:2571-3 pubmed publisher
    A new cleavage reaction of carbon-carbon triple bonds proceeds efficiently with NIS and TMSN3, giving the corresponding nitriles in moderate to good yields.
  26. Lunardi G, Piccioli P, Bruzzi P, Notaro R, Lastraioli S, Serra M, et al. Plasma estrone sulfate concentrations and genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer treated with letrozole. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Letrozole suppression of the aromatase enzyme function is not affected by polymorphisms of CYP19A1 gene in postmenopausal BC patients. ..
  27. Leontieva O, Demidenko Z, Blagosklonny M. MEK drives cyclin D1 hyperelevation during geroconversion. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, inhibition of MEK was sufficient to eliminate cyclin D1, regardless of MTOR. ..
  28. Galindo Murillo R, Aguilar Suárez L, Barroso Flores J. A mixed DFT-MD methodology for the in silico development of drug releasing macrocycles. Calix and thia-calix[N]arenes as carriers for Bosutinib and Sorafenib. J Comput Chem. 2016;37:940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..According to our results, five-membered -SO3H and i-Pr functionalized-calixarenes are the best candidates for Sorafenib-carriers while six-membered ones -SO3H and C2H4NH2 functionalized- are the lead candidates for Bosutinib-carriers. ..
  29. Han Y, Wu Z, Wu T, Huang Y, Cheng Z, Li X, et al. Tumor-suppressive function of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in glioma cells by downregulation of MMP2 and inactivation of ERK/MAPK signaling. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2123 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, overall data demonstrated the tumor-suppressive role of MALAT1 in glioma by attenuating ERK/MAPK-mediated growth and MMP2-mediated invasiveness. ..
  30. Petermann J, Cauquil L, Hurlin J, Gaïa H, Hüe T. Survey of cattle tick, Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, resistance to amitraz and deltamethrin in New Caledonia. Vet Parasitol. 2016;217:64-70 pubmed publisher
  31. Lee S, Yang M, Kim J, Son Y, Kim J, Kang S, et al. Involvement of BDNF/ERK signaling in spontaneous recovery from trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2016;121:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we suggest that BDNF/ERK signaling pathways may be associated with cell differentiation and survival of immature progenitor neurons, and will eventually lead to spontaneous recovery in TMT-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration...
  32. Chang M, Tsai Y, Chang H, Lee S, Lee M, Chang C, et al. IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and secretion of human dental pulp cells is related to TAK1, MEK/ERK, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Arch Oral Biol. 2016;61:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These events are related to differential activation of TAK1, PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK 1/2 signaling and COX activation. These results are important for future pharmacologic intervention of pulpal inflammatory diseases. ..
  33. Kosmowska B, Wardas J, Głowacka U, Ananthan S, Ossowska K. Pramipexole at a Low Dose Induces Beneficial Effect in the Harmaline-induced Model of Essential Tremor in Rats. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016;22:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicates that pramipexole reduces the harmaline-induced tremor, which may suggest its beneficial effects in ET patients. However, mechanisms underlying its action are still unclear and need further examination. ..
  34. Locati L, Perrone F, Cortelazzi B, Lo Vullo S, Bossi P, Dagrada G, et al. Clinical activity of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with metastatic/relapsed androgen receptor-positive salivary gland cancers. Head Neck. 2016;38:724-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis that an androgen receptor increased gene copy number may represent a possible mechanism of primary resistance should be further investigated. ..
  35. Barszczewska Rybarek I. Characterization of urethane-dimethacrylate derivatives as alternative monomers for the restorative composite matrix. Dent Mater. 2014;30:1336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the studied UDMA monomers may be simple and effective alternative dimethacrylate comonomers. ..
  36. Yamamoto N, Tanida M, Ono Y, Kasahara R, Fujii Y, Ohora K, et al. Leptin inhibits amyloid ?-protein degradation through decrease of neprilysin expression in primary cultured astrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;445:214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, leptin inhibited the degradation of exogenous A? in primary cultured astrocytes. These results suggest that leptin suppresses A? degradation by NEP through activation of ERK. ..
  37. Zhang Q, Xiao X, Li M, Yu M, Ping F, Zheng J, et al. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184735 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota...
  38. Bartlett J, Ahmed I, Regan M, Sestak I, Mallon E, Dell Orto P, et al. HER2 status predicts for upfront AI benefit: A TRANS-AIOG meta-analysis of 12,129 patients from ATAC, BIG 1-98 and TEAM with centrally determined HER2. Eur J Cancer. 2017;79:129-138 pubmed publisher
    ..Other causes, perhaps related to subtle differences between AIs, cannot be excluded and warrant further exploration. ..
  39. Karihtala P, Rissanen T, Tuominen H. Male Malignant Phyllodes Breast Tumor After Prophylactic Breast Radiotherapy and Bicalutamide Treatment: A Case Report. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:3433-6 pubmed
    ..The imaging findings of the tumor and pathological correlation are also presented. ..
  40. Sun N, Wang H, Wang L. Ghrelin inhibits oxLDL-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages through down-regulation of LOX-1 expression via NF-κB signaling pathway. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016;62:57-61 pubmed
  41. Battilocchio C, Hawkins J, Ley S. Mild and selective heterogeneous catalytic hydration of nitriles to amides by flowing through manganese dioxide. Org Lett. 2014;16:1060-3 pubmed publisher
    A sustainable flow chemistry process for the hydration of nitriles, whereby an aqueous solution of the nitrile is passed through a column containing commercially available amorphous manganese dioxide, has been developed...
  42. Gao Y, Zou Y, Ma Y, Wang D, Sun Y, Ma G. Infrared Probe Technique Reveals a Millipede-like Structure for A?(8-28) Amyloid Fibril. Langmuir. 2016;32:937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we performed a detailed IR spectral analysis of the A?(8-28) fibril in both amide I and probe regions and proposed a millipede-like structure for the A?(8-28) fibril. ..
  43. Powell K, Han L, Sharma P, Moses J. Chemoselective palladium-catalyzed cyanation of alkenyl halides. Org Lett. 2014;16:2158-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The reaction proved to be efficient, chemoselective, easy to perform, and tolerant of a number of functional groups. ..
  44. Wang Q, Su Y, Li L, Huang H. Transition-metal catalysed C-N bond activation. Chem Soc Rev. 2016;45:1257-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this tutorial review, efficient strategies for catalytic cleavage of C(sp)-N, C(sp(2))-N and C(sp(3))-N bonds and their applications in new C-C and C-N bond formation reactions are summarized. ..
  45. Manasfi T, De Méo M, Coulomb B, Di Giorgio C, Boudenne J. Identification of disinfection by-products in freshwater and seawater swimming pools and evaluation of genotoxicity. Environ Int. 2016;88:94-102 pubmed publisher
    ..As to genotoxicity, the results of Ames test showed higher mutagenicity in the freshwater pool as a consequence of its considerably higher DBP contents in comparison to the tested seawater pool. ..
  46. Sanglard D, Coste A. Activity of Isavuconazole and Other Azoles against Candida Clinical Isolates and Yeast Model Systems with Known Azole Resistance Mechanisms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect. ..
  47. Stricker S, Beckstrom B, Mendoza C, Stanislawski E, Wodajo T. Oocyte aging in a marine protostome worm: The roles of maturation-promoting factor and extracellular signal regulated kinase form of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Dev Growth Differ. 2016;58:250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential significance of these findings is discussed relative to previously published results for apoptotic eggs and oocytes of echinoderm and vertebrate deuterostomes. ..
  48. Zhu A, Li Y, Song W, Xu Y, Yang F, Zhang W, et al. Antiproliferative Effect of Androgen Receptor Inhibition in Mesenchymal Stem-Like Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38:1003-14 pubmed publisher
  49. Arce Salinas C, Riesco Martínez M, Hanna W, Bedard P, Warner E. Complete Response of Metastatic Androgen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer to Bicalutamide: Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:e21-4 pubmed publisher
  50. Payne K, Hall R. Dosing of antifungal agents in obese people. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;14:257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..e. posaconazole). More studies are needed to determine if and when dosing changes are needed for many of the antifungal agents. Therefore, drug therapy regimens should be individually evaluated for dose optimization due to body weight. ..
  51. Ko A, Kang T. TRPC6-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation prevents dentate granule cell degeneration via inhibiting mitochondrial elongation. Neuropharmacology. 2017;121:120-129 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TRPC6 will be an interesting and important therapeutic target for neurological diseases related to impaired mitochondrial dynamics. ..
  52. Pusterla N, Packham A, Mackie S, Kass P, Hunyadi L, Conrad P. Daily feeding of diclazuril top dress pellets in foals reduces seroconversion to Sarcocystis neurona. Vet J. 2015;206:236-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference in temporal seroprevalence could be explained by the successful reduction of S. neurona infection in foals receiving a daily low-dose diclazuril. ..