tylosin

Summary

Summary: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.

Top Publications

  1. Chen J, Fluharty F, St Pierre N, Morrison M, Yu Z. Technical note: Occurrence in fecal microbiota of genes conferring resistance to both macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and tetracyclines concomitant with feeding of beef cattle with tylosin. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:2385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the association between inclusion of tylosin in feed and occurrence of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) in the entire fecal ..
  2. Jackson C, Fedorka Cray P, Barrett J, Ladely S. Effects of tylosin use on erythromycin resistance in enterococci isolated from swine. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4205-10 pubmed
    The effect of tylosin on erythromycin-resistant enterococci was examined on three farms; farm A used tylosin for growth promotion, farm B used tylosin for treatment of disease, and farm C did not use tylosin for either growth promotion ..
  3. Bate N, Butler A, Gandecha A, Cundliffe E. Multiple regulatory genes in the tylosin biosynthetic cluster of Streptomyces fradiae. Chem Biol. 1999;6:617-24 pubmed
    The macrolide antibiotic tylosin is composed of a polyketide lactone substituted with three deoxyhexose sugars...
  4. Jacob M, Fox J, Narayanan S, Drouillard J, Renter D, Nagaraja T. Effects of feeding wet corn distillers grains with solubles with or without monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne pathogenic and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:1182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to assess the effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle...
  5. McDougall S, Agnew K, Cursons R, Hou X, Compton C. Parenteral treatment of clinical mastitis with tylosin base or penethamate hydriodide in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:779-89 pubmed
    ..the clinical and bacteriological cure rates of cows with clinical mastitis following treatment with either tylosin base (5 g injected 3 times at 24-h intervals; n = 306) or penethamate hydriodide (5 g injected 3 times at 24-h ..
  6. Juntunen P, Heiska H, Olkkola S, Myllyniemi A, Hänninen M. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli selected by tylosin treatment at a pig farm. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Faeces were sampled from untreated sows and piglets (n=57), weaned pigs treated with tylosin (n=68) and pigs of the same group 3-5 weeks after withdrawal of tylosin (n=15)...
  7. Westermarck E, Frias R, Skrzypczak T. Effect of diet and tylosin on chronic diarrhea in beagles. J Vet Intern Med. 2005;19:822-7 pubmed
    ..The dogs were subsequently treated with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. During the treatment period, the feces became firmer but remained loose...
  8. Stratigopoulos G, Bate N, Cundliffe E. Positive control of tylosin biosynthesis: pivotal role of TylR. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:1326-34 pubmed
    Control of tylosin production in Streptomyces fradiae features interplay between a repressor, TylQ, and an activator, TylS, during regulation of tylR...
  9. Loria G, Sammartino C, Nicholas R, Ayling R. In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae to oxytetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin-spectinomycin. Res Vet Sci. 2003;75:3-7 pubmed
    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline, enrofloxacin, tylosin, spiramycin and a lincomycin:spectinomycin 1:2 combination, against 24 Sicilian isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae, the causative organism of contagious ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Douthwaite S, Jakobsen L, Yoshizawa S, Fourmy D. Interaction of the tylosin-resistance methyltransferase RlmA II at its rRNA target differs from the orthologue RlmA I. J Mol Biol. 2008;378:969-75 pubmed publisher
    ..resultant methyl group extends into the peptide channel of the 50 S ribosomal subunit and confers resistance to tylosin and other mycinosylated macrolide antibiotics...
  2. Caldow M, Stead S, Day J, Sharman M, Situ C, Elliott C. Development and validation of an optical SPR biosensor assay for tylosin residues in honey. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:7367-70 pubmed
    In recent years there has been an increase in the use of tylosin in apiculture as bacterial brood diseases become resistant to oxytetracycline...
  3. Westermarck E, Skrzypczak T, Harmoinen J, Steiner J, Ruaux C, Williams D, et al. Tylosin-responsive chronic diarrhea in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2005;19:177-86 pubmed
    ..Diarrhea had been successfully treated with tylosin for at least 6 months but recurred when treatment was withdrawn on at least 2 occasions...
  4. Jung W, Lee S, Hong J, Park S, Jeong S, Han A, et al. Heterologous expression of tylosin polyketide synthase and production of a hybrid bioactive macrolide in Streptomyces venezuelae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:763-9 pubmed
    b>Tylosin polyketide synthase (Tyl PKS) was heterologously expressed in an engineered strain of Streptomyces venezuelae bearing a deletion of pikromycin PKS gene cluster using two compatible low-copy plasmids, each under the control of a ..
  5. Vicca J, Maes D, Jonker L, de Kruif A, Haesebrouck F. Efficacy of in-feed medication with tylosin for the treatment and control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections. Vet Rec. 2005;156:606-10 pubmed
    The efficacy of in-feed medication with tylosin for the treatment of enzootic pneumonia was examined in an experimental Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection model. One group of 10 conventional M...
  6. Cundliffe E. Control of tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1485-91 pubmed
    b>Tylosin biosynthesis is controlled in cascade fashion by multiple transcriptional regulators, acting positively or negatively, in conjunction with a signalling ligand that acts as a classical inducer...
  7. Stratigopoulos G, Cundliffe E. Expression analysis of the tylosin-biosynthetic gene cluster: pivotal regulatory role of the tylQ product. Chem Biol. 2002;9:71-8 pubmed
    ..tylQ was disrupted or overexpressed, showed that the TylQ protein is a transcriptional repressor that blocks tylosin biosynthesis by controlling expression of the activator, tylR...
  8. Reynaldi F, Lacunza J, Alippi A, Rule R. [Binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to proteins from honeybees, larvae and beehive products]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2010;42:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present work was to determine, through a biological method, the protein binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to worker jelly; honey; pollen; adult bees and larvae in order to propose their ..
  9. Cao X, Dong M, Shen J, Wu B, Wu C, Du X, et al. Tilmicosin and tylosin have anti-inflammatory properties via modulation of COX-2 and iNOS gene expression and production of cytokines in LPS-induced macrophages and monocytes. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006;27:431-8 pubmed
    ..We examined the in vitro effect of the macrolides tilmicosin and tylosin, which are only used in the veterinary clinic, on the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))..
  10. Ter Laak T, Wouter A, Tolls J. The effect of pH and ionic strength on the sorption of sulfachloropyridazine, tylosin, and oxytetracycline to soil. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:904-11 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the soil sorption of three antimicrobial agents--sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), tylosin (TYL), and oxytetracycline (OTC)--was investigated...
  11. Alt D, Zuerner R, Bolin C. Evaluation of antibiotics for treatment of cattle infected with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219:636-9 pubmed
    ..Cost, safety, and withdrawal times of these various treatment options need to be considered. ..
  12. Zhang Q, Yang C, Huang W, Dang Z, Shu X. Sorption of tylosin on clay minerals. Chemosphere. 2013;93:2180-6 pubmed publisher
    The equilibrium sorption of tylosin (TYL) on kaolinite and montmorillonite was measured at different solution pH using batch reactor systems...
  13. Aust M, Godlinski F, Travis G, Hao X, McAllister T, Leinweber P, et al. Distribution of sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin in manure and soil of Canadian feedlots after subtherapeutic use in cattle. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:1243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..antibiotics into the environment due to common use of antibiotics such as sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hence soils and manures originating from a grassland control, an experimental and a commercial feedlot were ..
  14. Collier C, van der Klis J, Deplancke B, Anderson D, Gaskins H. Effects of tylosin on bacterial mucolysis, Clostridium perfringens colonization, and intestinal barrier function in a chick model of necrotic enteritis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3311-7 pubmed
    ..16S rDNA]) and culture-based microbiological techniques to investigate the impact of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin phosphate (100 ppm) and a dietary NSP (pectin) on the community structure of the small intestinal microbiota ..
  15. Kilpinen S, Spillmann T, Syrjä P, Skrzypczak T, Louhelainen M, Westermarck E. Effect of tylosin on dogs with suspected tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, prospective clinical trial. Acta Vet Scand. 2011;53:26 pubmed publisher
    The macrolid antibiotic tylosin has been widely used to treat canine chronic diarrhea, although its efficacy is based on anecdotal reports and experimental studies in dogs and not on strong scientific evidence...
  16. Petropoulos A, Kouvela E, Dinos G, Kalpaxis D. Stepwise binding of tylosin and erythromycin to Escherichia coli ribosomes, characterized by kinetic and footprinting analysis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4756-65 pubmed
    Erythromycin and tylosin are 14- and 16-membered lactone ring macrolides, respectively...
  17. Rérat M, Albini S, Jaquier V, Hüssy D. Bovine respiratory disease: efficacy of different prophylactic treatments in veal calves and antimicrobial resistance of isolated Pasteurellaceae. Prev Vet Med. 2012;103:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of tulathromycin (group A, n=20), by a peroral administration of chlortetracycline, sulphadimidine, and tylosin (group B, n=20) for seven consecutive days, or were not prophylactically treated (group C, n=19)...
  18. Suchodolski J, Dowd S, Westermarck E, Steiner J, Wolcott R, Spillmann T, et al. The effect of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin on microbial diversity in the canine small intestine as demonstrated by massive parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:210 pubmed publisher
    ..The antibiotic tylosin is often successfully used for the treatment of chronic diarrhea in dogs, but its exact mode of action and its ..
  19. Lebars I, Yoshizawa S, Stenholm A, Guittet E, Douthwaite S, Fourmy D. Structure of 23S rRNA hairpin 35 and its interaction with the tylosin-resistance methyltransferase RlmAII. EMBO J. 2003;22:183-92 pubmed
    The bacterial rRNA methyltransferase RlmAII (formerly TlrB) contributes to resistance against tylosin-like 16-membered ring macrolide antibiotics...
  20. Berrang M, Ladely S, Meinersmann R, Fedorka Cray P. Subtherapeutic tylosin phosphate in broiler feed affects Campylobacter on carcasses during processing. Poult Sci. 2007;86:1229-33 pubmed
    b>Tylosin phosphate is an antimicrobial drug approved for use in broiler feed at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion. Erythromycin is often the drug of choice for treating humans with campylobacteriosis...
  21. Alippi A, Albo G, Reynaldi F, De Giusti M. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of the honeybee bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae to the antibiotic tylosin. Vet Microbiol. 2005;109:47-55 pubmed
    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tylosin were determined to 67 strains of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) disease, from different geographical origins...
  22. Dinos G, Kalpaxis D. Kinetic studies on the interaction between a ribosomal complex active in peptide bond formation and the macrolide antibiotics tylosin and erythromycin. Biochemistry. 2000;39:11621-8 pubmed
    The inhibition of peptide bond formation by tylosin, a 16-membered ring macrolide, was studied in a model system derived from Escherichia coli...
  23. Er A, Yazar E, Uney K, Elmas M, Altan F, Cetin G. Effects of tylosin on serum cytokine levels in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. Acta Vet Hung. 2010;58:75-81 pubmed publisher
    The effects of different doses of tylosin on serum cytokine concentrations were investigated in healthy and lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. The mice were divided into seven groups...
  24. Gyemant N, Engi H, Schelz Z, Szatmari I, Toth D, Fulop F, et al. In vitro and in vivo multidrug resistance reversal activity by a Betti-base derivative of tylosin. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..A search for MDR-reversing compounds was conducted among various Betti-base derivatives of tylosin. Here, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-modulating activity of the most promising ..
  25. De Liguoro M, Cibin V, Capolongo F, Halling Sørensen B, Montesissa C. Use of oxytetracycline and tylosin in intensive calf farming: evaluation of transfer to manure and soil. Chemosphere. 2003;52:203-12 pubmed
    ..The levels of oxytetracycline and tylosin over time were followed in faeces, bedding and manure, and then in the soil of a manured field and surrounding ..
  26. Stratigopoulos G, Gandecha A, Cundliffe E. Regulation of tylosin production and morphological differentiation in Streptomyces fradiae by TylP, a deduced gamma-butyrolactone receptor. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:735-44 pubmed
    ..fradiae strains specifically disrupted in tylP. Under the latter conditions, tylosin production was brought forward and enhanced, whereas overexpression of tylP resulted in reduced levels of the ..
  27. Gautier Bouchardon A, Reinhardt A, Kobisch M, Kempf I. In vitro development of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin and oxytetracycline in Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma iowae and Mycoplasma synoviae. Vet Microbiol. 2002;88:47-58 pubmed
    The in vitro emergence of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin, and oxytetracycline in three avian Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae was studied...
  28. Ali M, Wang J, DeLaune R, Seo D, Dodla S, Hernandez A. Effect of redox potential and pH status on degradation and adsorption behavior of tylosin in dairy lagoon sediment suspension. Chemosphere. 2013;91:1583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the antibiotics, tylosin, a macrolide class of antibiotics, has been widely used for disease prevention and growth promotion in swine, ..
  29. Wu C, Wu H, Ning Y, Wang J, Du X, Shen J. Induction of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma gallisepticum in vitro and its resistance-related mutations within domain V of 23S rRNA. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;247:199-205 pubmed
    ..in vitro from the susceptible strains S6 and BG44T by serial passages in stepwise concentrations of erythromycin, tylosin, or tilmicosin...
  30. Yang S, Cha J, Carlson K. Trace analysis and occurrence of anhydroerythromycin and tylosin in influent and effluent wastewater by liquid chromatography combined with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;385:623-36 pubmed
    Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of northern Colorado were monitored for anhydroerythromycin and tylosin. An analytical method has been developed and validated for the trace determination and confirmation of these compounds in the ..
  31. Bate N, Bignell D, Cundliffe E. Regulation of tylosin biosynthesis involving 'SARP-helper' activity. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:148-56 pubmed
    b>Tylosin production in Streptomyces fradiae is regulated via interplay between a repressor, TylQ, and an activator of the SARP family, TylS, during regulation of tylR...
  32. Prapasarakul N, Ochi K, Adachi Y. In vitro susceptibility and a new point mutation associated with tylosin-resistance in Japanese canine intestinal spirochetes. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:1275-80 pubmed
    ..In addition, the genetic basis of tylosin resistance in in vitro selected resistant mutants of two reference strains and three tylosin-susceptible field ..
  33. Granja R, Niño A, Zucchetti R, Niño R, Patel R, Salerno A. Determination of erythromycin and tylosin residues in honey by LC/MS/MS. J AOAC Int. 2009;92:975-80 pubmed
    ..As a result of the development of resistance to oxytetracycline, erythromycin and tylosin are increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of these diseases...
  34. Loke M, Tjørnelund J, Halling Sørensen B. Determination of the distribution coefficient (log Kd) of oxytetracycline, tylosin A, olaquindox and metronidazole in manure. Chemosphere. 2002;48:351-61 pubmed
    ..This corresponds with the negative log Kow values of these antibiotics. Tylosin (log Kow = 1.63) and oxytetracycline (log Kow = -1...
  35. Cundliffe E, Bate N, Butler A, Fish S, Gandecha A, Merson Davies L. The tylosin-biosynthetic genes of Streptomyces fradiae. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2001;79:229-34 pubmed
    The tylosin-biosynthetic (tyl) gene cluster occupies about 1% of the genome of Streptomycesfradiae and includes at least 43 open reading frames...
  36. Kim M, Gebru E, Chang Z, Choi J, Hwang M, Kang E, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of tylosin or florfenicol after a single intramuscular administration at two different doses of tylosin-florfenicol combination in pigs. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70:99-102 pubmed
    ..m.) administration to pigs with a commercial tylosin-florfenicol combination product at a dose of 2...
  37. Ramlachan N, Anderson R, Andrews K, Harvey R, Nisbet D. A comparative study on the effects of tylosin on select bacteria during continuous flow culture of mixed populations of gut microflora derived from a feral and a domestic pig. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008;5:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Cultures were continuously infused with 25 or 100 microg tylosin/mL and sampled at intervals to assess effects on total culturable anaerobes, Bacteroides and Enterococcus via ..
  38. Fouces R, Mellado E, Diez B, Barredo J. The tylosin biosynthetic cluster from Streptomyces fradiae: genetic organization of the left region. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 4):855-68 pubmed
    The genetic organization of the left edge (tyIEDHFJ region) of the tylosin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces fradiae has been determined. Sequence analysis of a 12...
  39. Diarra M, Malouin F, Jacques M. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1999;12:229-37 pubmed
    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus ..
  40. Ladely S, Harrison M, Fedorka Cray P, Berrang M, Englen M, Meinersmann R. Development of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter in broilers administered subtherapeutic or therapeutic concentrations of tylosin. J Food Prot. 2007;70:1945-51 pubmed
    ..this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of therapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin on the erythromycin susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from the ceca of ..
  41. Menozzi A, Pozzoli C, Poli E, Lazzaretti M, Cantoni A, Grandi D, et al. Effect of the macrolide antibacterial drug, tylosin, on TNBS-induced colitis in the rat. Pharmacology. 2005;74:135-42 pubmed
    ..b>Tylosin, a macrolide antimicrobial agent, has proven to be effective in cat and dog chronic colitis, but the reasons ..
  42. Onan L, LaPara T. Tylosin-resistant bacteria cultivated from agricultural soil. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;220:15-20 pubmed
    In this study we analyzed the numbers and types of cultivable tylosin-resistant bacteria from six agricultural soils that differed with respect to their association with subtherapeutic antibiotic use...
  43. Brennan J, Moore G, Poe S, Zimmermann A, Vessie G, Barnum D, et al. Efficacy of in-feed tylosin phosphate for the treatment of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2001;80:1451-4 pubmed
    The efficacy of tylosin phosphate for the treatment of necrotic enteritis (NE) was investigated in a floor pen study of 2,000 broiler chickens...
  44. Poulsen S, Kofoed C, Vester B. Inhibition of the ribosomal peptidyl transferase reaction by the mycarose moiety of the antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin and tylosin. J Mol Biol. 2000;304:471-81 pubmed
    ..The 16-member ring macrolide antibiotics carbomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin inhibit peptidyl transferase...
  45. Demoling L, Bååth E. No long-term persistence of bacterial pollution-induced community tolerance in tylosin-polluted soil. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:6917-21 pubmed
    Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of soil bacteria to the antibiotic tylosin was studied over 95 days...
  46. Hilton G, Montgomery J, Krehbiel C, Yates D, Hutcheson J, Nichols W, et al. Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with and without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat palatability of beef steers. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:1394-406 pubmed publisher
    ..using 200 beef carcasses to evaluate the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat sensory variables...
  47. Blackwood R, Tarara R, Christe K, Spinner A, Lerche N. Effects of the macrolide drug tylosin on chronic diarrhea in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Comp Med. 2008;58:81-7 pubmed
    ..the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea...
  48. Carlson J, Mabury S. Dissipation kinetics and mobility of chlortetracycline, tylosin, and monensin in an agricultural soil in Northumberland County, Ontario, Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:1-10 pubmed
    A robust high-throughput method was refined to extract three growth-promoting antibiotics, tylosin (TYL), chlortetracycline (CTC), and monensin (MON), from soil...
  49. Lee S, Kim T, Park S, Song C, Chang H, Yeh J, et al. Prevalence of porcine proliferative enteropathy and its control with tylosin in Korea. J Vet Sci. 2001;2:209-12 pubmed
    ..The infection frequency was 57, 44.9, and 59.4% according to age respectively. Administration of tylosin in feed at a concentration of 110 ppm for 14 days reduced the infection rate of the farms...
  50. Saurit A, Rubio M, Baroni E, San A, Sanchez S, Boggio J. Some comparative aspects of the pharmacokinetics of tylosin in buffaloes and cattle. Vet Res Commun. 2002;26:49-54 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetics of tylosin were compared in cattle (Bos taurus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Six animals received each a single dose of 10 mg/kg of tylosin tartrate by the intramuscular route...
  51. Thompson T, Pernal S, Noot D, Melathopoulos A, van den Heever J. Degradation of incurred tylosin to desmycosin--implications for residue analysis of honey. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;586:304-11 pubmed
    As a result of the application of tylosin to honey bee colonies for the control of American foulbrood disease, antibiotic residues may exist in honey destined for human consumption...
  52. Bignell D, Bate N, Cundliffe E. Regulation of tylosin production: role of a TylP-interactive ligand. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:838-47 pubmed
    ..These genes all control tylosin production in Streptomyces fradiae...
  53. Liu M, Douthwaite S. Resistance to the macrolide antibiotic tylosin is conferred by single methylations at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058 acting in synergy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14658-63 pubmed
    The macrolide antibiotic tylosin has been used extensively in veterinary medicine and exerts potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria...