oleandomycin

Summary

Summary: Antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces antibioticus.

Top Publications

  1. Shah S, Xue Q, Tang L, Carney J, Betlach M, McDaniel R. Cloning, characterization and heterologous expression of a polyketide synthase and P-450 oxidase involved in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic oleandomycin. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2000;53:502-8 pubmed
    The gene cluster encoding the deoxyoleandolide polyketide synthase (OlePKS) was isolated from the oleandomycin producing strain Streptomnyces antibioticus...
  2. Aguirrezabalaga I, Olano C, Allende N, Rodriguez L, Brana A, Mendez C, et al. Identification and expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of L-oleandrose and its intermediate L-olivose in the oleandomycin producer Streptomyces antibioticus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:1266-75 pubmed
    A 9.8-kb DNA region from the oleandomycin gene cluster in Streptomyces antibioticus was cloned...
  3. Quiros L, Aguirrezabalaga I, Olano C, Mendez C, Salas J. Two glycosyltransferases and a glycosidase are involved in oleandomycin modification during its biosynthesis by Streptomyces antibioticus. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:1177-85 pubmed
    A 5.2 kb region from the oleandomycin gene cluster in Streptomyces antibioticus located between the oleandomycin polyketide synthase gene and sugar biosynthetic genes was cloned...
  4. Shrestha P, Oh T, Liou K, Sohng J. Cytochrome P450 (CYP105F2) from Streptomyces peucetius and its activity with oleandomycin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;79:555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the in vitro hydroxylation of oleandomycin by purified CYP105F2 observed in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and mass/mass spectrometry indicated ..
  5. Quiros L, Carbajo R, Salas J. Inversion of the anomeric configuration of the transferred sugar during inactivation of the macrolide antibiotic oleandomycin catalyzed by a macrolide glycosyltransferase. FEBS Lett. 2000;476:186-9 pubmed
    ..The OleI GTF of an oleandomycin producer, Streptomyces antibioticus, catalyzes the inactivation of this macrolide by glycosylation...
  6. Doumith M, LeGrand R, Lang C, Salas J, Raynal M. Interspecies complementation in Saccharopolyspora erythraea : elucidation of the function of oleP1, oleG1 and oleG2 from the oleandomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus and generation of new erythromycin derivatives. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:1039-48 pubmed
    ..genes, oleG1 and oleG2, and a putative isomerase gene, oleP1, have previously been identified in the oleandomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus...
  7. Salas J, Hernandez C, Mendez C, Olano C, Quiros L, Rodriguez A, et al. Intracellular glycosylation and active efflux as mechanisms for resistance to oleandomycin in Streptomyces antibioticus, the producer organism. Microbiologia. 1994;10:37-48 pubmed
    ..The oleandomycin producer, Streptomyces antibioticus, possesses oleandomycin-sensitive ribosomes all along the cell cycle...
  8. Vilches C, Hernandez C, Mendez C, Salas J. Role of glycosylation and deglycosylation in biosynthesis of and resistance to oleandomycin in the producer organism, Streptomyces antibioticus. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:161-5 pubmed
    Cell extracts of Streptomyces antibioticus, an oleandomycin producer, can inactivate oleandomycin in the presence of UDP-glucose...
  9. Tang L, Fu H, McDaniel R. Formation of functional heterologous complexes using subunits from the picromycin, erythromycin and oleandomycin polyketide synthases. Chem Biol. 2000;7:77-84 pubmed
    ..We investigated this possibility by in vivo assembly of heterologous PKS complexes using natural and altered subunits from related macrolide PKSs...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Hernandez C, Olano C, Mendez C, Salas J. Characterization of a Streptomyces antibioticus gene cluster encoding a glycosyltransferase involved in oleandomycin inactivation. Gene. 1993;134:139-40 pubmed
    ..3-kb DNA fragment from the oleandomycin producer, Streptomyces antibioticus, was cloned and sequenced...
  2. Rodriguez A, Olano C, Mendez C, Hutchinson C, Salas J. A cytochrome P450-like gene possibly involved in oleandomycin biosynthesis by Streptomyces antibioticus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995;127:117-20 pubmed
    A cosmid clone from an oleandomycin producer, Streptomyces antibioticus, contains a large open reading frame encoding a type I polyketide synthase subunit and an oleandomycin resistance gene (oleB). Sequencing of a 1...
  3. Nakajima Y, Janosi L, Endou K, Matsuoka M, Hashimoto H. Inducible resistance to a 16-membered macrolide, mycinamicin, in Staphylococcus aureus resistant to 14-membered macrolides and streptogramin B antibiotics. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1992;15:319-24 pubmed
    ..29: 187-200, 1982), exhibited an inducible resistance to the 14-membered macrolides [erythromycin (EM) and oleandomycin (OL)] and streptogramin B (MKM-B) antibiotics, but not to the 16-membered macrolides and lincosamides...
  4. Ferreira A, Yeum K, Matsubara L, Matsubara B, Correa C, Pereira E, et al. Doxorubicin as an antioxidant: maintenance of myocardial levels of lycopene under doxorubicin treatment. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43:740-51 pubmed
  5. Lazarevski G, Kobrehel G, Dokić S, Kolacny Babić L, Kojić Prodić B, Jankovic D, et al. New oleandomycin 9-oximes. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1994;47:349-56 pubmed
    A series of the novel oleandomycin 9-oximes has been prepared and characterized by spectroscopic data and X-ray analysis. The antibacterial in vitro activities of the oximes (6-10) were compared with that of oleandomycin (1)...
  6. Arthur M, Courvalin P. Contribution of two different mechanisms to erythromycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986;30:694-700 pubmed
    ..The gene ereB encoded an enzyme with an Mr of 51,000 which inactivated erythromycin and oleandomycin. The two different mechanisms specified by erxA and ereB contributed in more than an additive fashion to the ..
  7. Kono M, O Hara K, Ebisu T. Purification and characterization of macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase type II from a strain of Escherichia coli highly resistant to macrolide antibiotics. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992;76:89-94 pubmed
    ..Inactivated oleandomycin was identified as oleandomycin 2'-phosphate by thin-layer chromatography...
  8. Schwarz S, Wegener H, Blobel H. Plasmid-encoded resistance to macrolides and lincosamides in Staphylococcus hyicus. J Appl Bacteriol. 1990;69:845-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the pSE2 plasmid encoded two proteins of approximately 20.5 and 30 kDa. ..
  9. González de la Huebra M, Bordin G, Rodriguez A. Comparative study of coulometric and amperometric detection for the determination of macrolides in human urine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003;375:1031-7 pubmed
    ..optimised in a previous work was applied for the separation of three macrolide antibiotics roxithromycin (Rox), oleandomycin (Ole) and rosamicin (Ros) and further determination of two of them, roxithromycin (Rox) and oleandomycin (Ole), ..
  10. Tateda K, Ishii Y, Matsumoto T, Kobayashi T, Miyazaki S, Yamaguchi K. Potential of macrolide antibiotics to inhibit protein synthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: suppression of virulence factors and stress response. J Infect Chemother. 2000;6:1-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it is likely that the macrolides may sensitize bacteria to stresses, as these antibiotics induced alterations in a major stress protein, Gro-EL, in constitutive and inducible states. ..
  11. Kao C, Katz L, Khosla C. Engineered biosynthesis of a complete macrolactone in a heterologous host. Science. 1994;265:509-12 pubmed
  12. Kimura Y, Yamanishi Y, Tokumasu Y, Terasaka H, Yoshinobu J. Characterization of the mac-1 gene encoding a putative ABC transporter from Myxococcus xanthus. J Biochem. 2001;129:351-6 pubmed
    ..Insertional inactivation of mac-1 caused enhanced sensitivity to oleandomycin, a macrolide antibiotic, while the mac-1 mutant showed normal export of antibiotic TA into the extracellular ..
  13. Parker K, Wang P. Deconstruction-reconstruction strategy for accessing valuable polyketides. Preparation of the C15-C24 stereopentad of discodermolide. Org Lett. 2007;9:4793-6 pubmed
    ..discodermolide synthesis was prepared by an efficient sequence from the readily available fermentation product oleandomycin. The scheme makes use of a new method for the direct cleavage of aminoglycosides, a critical double-bond ..
  14. Taniguchi K, Nakamura A, Tsurubuchi K, O Hara K, Sawai T. Identification of Escherichia coli clinical isolates producing macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase by a highly sensitive detection method. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;167:191-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, three new MPH(2')-producing strains were found in clinically isolated E. coli in Japan in 1997 by this method. It suggests that MPH(2')-producing E. coli have been spread in Japanese clinical fields. ..
  15. Modali S, Zgurskaya H. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:937-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins...
  16. González de la Huebra M, Vincent U, von Holst C. Sample preparation strategy for the simultaneous determination of macrolide antibiotics in animal feedingstuffs by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:1628-37 pubmed
    ..extraction included in the sample preparation procedure allows the determination of an additional macrolide (oleandomycin) with detection limits, expressed as apparent concentration in poultry feed, ranging from 0.04 to 0...
  17. Kim Y, Cha C, Cerniglia C. Purification and characterization of an erythromycin esterase from an erythromycin-resistant Pseudomonas sp. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;210:239-44 pubmed
    ..had the substrate specificity for structurally related 14-membered macrolides, which decreased in the order of oleandomycin, erythromycin A and erythromycin A enol ether...
  18. Novak P, Tomisić Z, Tepes P, Lazarevski G, Plavec J, Turkalj G. Conformational analysis of oleandomycin and its 8-methylene-9-oxime derivative by NMR and molecular modelling. Org Biomol Chem. 2005;3:39-47 pubmed
    Conformations of the 14-membered macrolide antibiotic oleandomycin and its 8-methylene-9-oxime derivative were determined in various solvents...
  19. Delaforge M, Sartori E. In vivo effects of erythromycin, oleandomycin and erythralosamine derivatives on hepatic cytochrome P-450. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990;40:223-8 pubmed
    Rats have been treated with several derivatives of the erythromycin, erythralosamine or oleandomycin series, in order to compare their ability to induce cytochrome P-450 and to form stable 456 nm-absorbing cytochrome P-450 metabolite ..
  20. Rodriguez L, Rodriguez D, Olano C, Brana A, Mendez C, Salas J. Functional analysis of OleY L-oleandrosyl 3-O-methyltransferase of the oleandomycin biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces antibioticus. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5358-63 pubmed
    b>Oleandomycin, a macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces antibioticus, contains two sugars attached to the aglycon: L-oleandrose and D-desosamine. oleY codes for a methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of L-oleandrose...
  21. Sartori E, Delaforge M, Mansuy D. In vitro interaction of rat liver cytochromes P-450 with erythromycin, oleandomycin and erythralosamine derivatives. Importance of structural factors. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989;38:2061-8 pubmed
    Several derivatives of the erythromycin, erythralosamine and oleandomycin series have been prepared...
  22. Tymchyk O, Matseliukh B, Lavrinchuk V. [Sensitivity of Streptomyces globisporus 3-1--a highly active producer of landomycin E to its own and the other polyketide antibiotics]. Mikrobiol Z. 2004;66:69-73 pubmed
    ..of angucyclins has been studied for its resistance to its own and known polyketide antibiotics--tetracycline, oleandomycin and doxorubicine as well as to aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin...
  23. Kim B, Oh H, Kim S, Park J, Yoon Y, Lee S, et al. Identification and antibacterial activity of a new oleandomycin derivative from Streptomyces antibioticus. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2005;58:196-201 pubmed
    During the study on the oleandomycin production, we purified a new oleandomycin derivative having a macrolactone of which biosynthesis does not follow the genetic architecture of the oleandomycin PKS...
  24. Weidlich M, Klammt C, Bernhard F, Karas M, Stein T. Differential activity profiles of translation inhibitors in whole-cell and cell-free approaches. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;46:155-9 pubmed
    ..7/1.96; streptomycin 1.45/1.57), three macrolides (erythromycin, 1.53/56.9; josamycin, 1.61/87.7; oleandomycin, 5.12/565.9), chloramphenicol (11.9/3.04), and two tetracyclines (tetracycline hydrochloride, not determined/0...
  25. Bauer J, Vine M, Corić I, Bosnar M, Pasalic I, Turkalj G, et al. Impact of stereochemistry on the biological activity of novel oleandomycin derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:2274-81 pubmed publisher
    A set of 8-methylene-, 8-methyl-, and 8-methyl-9-dihydro-oleandomycin derivatives having different combinations of stereochemistries at positions C-8 and/or C-9 have been prepared in a chemoselective and stereoselective manner and tested ..
  26. Karou S, Nadembega M, Zeba B, Ilboudo D, Ouermi D, Pignatelli S, et al. [Evolution of antibiotic-resistance Staphylococcus aureus in Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou]. Med Trop (Mars). 2010;70:241-4 pubmed
    ..Resistance to pristinamycin and erythromycin showed a tendency to increase while resistance to gentamicin and oleandomycin showed no statistically significant change. This study demonstrated that S...
  27. O Hara K, Kanda T, Matsuyama H, Noguchi N. [Determination of 1H- or 13C NMR spectra of oleandomycin (OL), the esterolitic cleavage compound of OL and OL 2'-phosphate using two-dimensional methods in D2O solution]. Jpn J Antibiot. 1995;48:437-40 pubmed
    All signals of 1H- and 13C NMR spectra of oleandomycin and the esterolitic cleavage compound of oleandomycin, and all signals of 1H-NMR spectra of oleandomycin 2'-phosphate were determined using two-dimensional methods as 1H-1H and 13C-1H ..
  28. Labro M, el Benna J, Babin Chevaye C. Comparison of the in-vitro effect of several macrolides on the oxidative burst of human neutrophils. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989;24:561-72 pubmed
    We have compared the in-vitro interaction of five macrolides (roxithromycin, erythromycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin and josamycin) with human neutrophils (PMN)...
  29. Nilsson L, Walldorf B, Paulsen O. Determination of erythromycin in human plasma, using column liquid chromatography with a polymeric packing material, alkaline mobile phase and amperometric detection. J Chromatogr. 1987;423:189-97 pubmed
    ..2 mumol/l could be measured, using automated sample injection. Oleandomycin was used as internal standard...
  30. Quiros L, Carbajo R, Brana A, Salas J. Glycosylation of macrolide antibiotics. Purification and kinetic studies of a macrolide glycosyltransferase from Streptomyces antibioticus. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:11713-20 pubmed
    The oleD gene has been identified in the oleandomycin producer Streptomyces antibioticus and it codes a macrolide glycosyltransferase that is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) to many macrolides...
  31. Toreson H, Eriksson B. Determination of erythromycin in gastric juice and blood plasma by liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995;673:81-9 pubmed
    ..Erythromycin and the internal standard, oleandomycin, were extracted from alkalinized samples with a mixture of 1-hexane and 2-butanol...
  32. Wang J, Leung D, Butterworth F. Determination of five macrolide antibiotic residues in eggs using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:1857-65 pubmed
    ..LC/ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of trace levels of five macrolide antibiotics (spiramycin, tilmicosin, oleandomycin, erythromycin, and tylosin) in eggs is presented...
  33. O Hara K. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to measure the activity of bacterial macrolide esterase. Microbios. 1994;79:231-9 pubmed
    ..The structure of the enzymatically esterolytic cleavage compound of oleandomycin was clearly shown to be the cyclic hemiacetal between the C-9 keto and the hydroxy group of C-13 in the open ..
  34. Elo G, Boda A. [Experience in the management of osteomyelitis of the fibula]. Magy Traumatol Ortop Kezseb Plasztikai Seb. 1994;37:143-50 pubmed
    ..The more frequent occurrence of the disease on the right fibula in their material is an accidental finding. ..
  35. Quiros L, Hernandez C, Salas J. Purification and characterization of an extracellular enzyme from Streptomyces antibioticus that converts inactive glycosylated oleandomycin into the active antibiotic. Eur J Biochem. 1994;222:129-35 pubmed
    Cell-free extracts from the oleandomycin producer, Streptomyces antibioticus, possess an intracellular glycosyltransferase capable of inactivating oleandomycin by glycosylation of the 2'-hydroxyl group in the desosamine moiety of the ..
  36. Rodriguez A, Olano C, Vilches C, Mendez C, Salas J. Streptomyces antibioticus contains at least three oleandomycin-resistance determinants, one of which shows similarity with proteins of the ABC-transporter superfamily. Mol Microbiol. 1993;8:571-82 pubmed
    Three different DNA fragments of an oleandomycin producer, Streptomyces antibioticus, conferring oleandomycin resistance were cloned in plasmid pIJ702 and expressed in Streptomyces lividans and in Streptomyces albus...
  37. Terasawa T, Watanabe M, Okubo T, Mitsuhashi S. In vitro activity of YM133, a new semisynthesized macrolide. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991;35:1370-5 pubmed
    ..In a time-kill curve study, the reduction of viable cells started within 2 h after the addition of YM133. ..
  38. Olano C, Rodriguez A, Mendez C, Salas J. Topological studies of the membrane component of the OleC ABC transporter involved in oleandomycin resistance in Streptomyces antibioticus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;143:133-9 pubmed
    ..In the topological model proposed there will be six alpha-helix transmembrane regions, two cytoplasmic and four periplasmic loops and a hydrophobic linker domain. ..
  39. Wang J. Determination of five macrolide antibiotic residues in honey by LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:171-81 pubmed
    ..and LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of five macrolide antibiotics including spiramycin, tilmicosin, oleandomycin, erythromycin, and tylosin in honey are presented...
  40. Bajic S, Doerge D, Lu L, Hansen E. Analysis of erythromycin by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using involatile mobile phases with a novel atmospheric pressure ionization source. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2000;14:156-60 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the ability of a novel API-MS ion source to perform analyses that require the use of involatile mobile phase additives. ..
  41. Vilches C, Mendez C, Hardisson C, Salas J. Biosynthesis of oleandomycin by Streptomyces antibioticus: influence of nutritional conditions and development of resistance. J Gen Microbiol. 1990;136:1447-54 pubmed
    The influence of different nutritional compounds on oleandomycin biosynthesis by Streptomyces antibioticus was studied, resulting in the design of a chemically defined medium for production of the antibiotic...
  42. Flurer C. Analysis of macrolide antibiotics by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 1996;17:359-66 pubmed
    ..e. pharmaceutical glycoconjugates) clarithromycin, erythromycin, oleandomycin, troleandomycin, and spiramycin...
  43. Scheu A, Martinez E, Soliveri J, Malpartida F. abaB, a putative regulator for secondary metabolism in Streptomyces. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;147:29-36 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis revealed that abaB gene is highly conserved among all streptomycetes tested. ..
  44. Aparicio G, Buche A, Mendez C, Salas J. Characterization of the ATPase activity of the N-terminal nucleotide binding domain of an ABC transporter involved in oleandomycin secretion by Streptomyces antibioticus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;141:157-62 pubmed
    The oleB gene of Streptomyces antibioticus, oleandomycin producer, encodes an ABC transporter containing two putative ATP-binding domains and is involved in oleandomycin resistance and secretion in this organism...
  45. Edder P, Coppex L, Cominoli A, Corvi C. Analysis of erythromycin and oleandomycin residues in food by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. Food Addit Contam. 2002;19:232-40 pubmed
    A reliable and sensitive procedure is presented for the analysis of erythromycin (ERY) and oleandomycin (OLE) in food of animal origin, such as meat, liver, kidney, raw milk and egg...
  46. Le Noc P, Croize J, Bryskier A, Le Noc D, Robert J. [Comparative in vitro bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of 5 macrolides: roxithromycin, erythromycin, oleandomycin, josamycin and spiramycin against 284 hospital bacterial strains]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1989;37:553-9 pubmed
    ..7% (spiramycin), 31.9% (roxithromycin), 20.8% (troleandomycin). Among various tested species, this bactericidal effect concerned especially group A streptococci, N. meningitidis and Corynebacterium (except D2 and JK species). ..
  47. Petrovich Y, Yarema I, Kichenko S, Urtaev B. Study of drug transport between the blood and lymph in the predominant direction. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;147:357-60 pubmed
  48. Yang M, Proctor M, Bolam D, Errey J, Field R, Gilbert H, et al. Probing the breadth of macrolide glycosyltransferases: in vitro remodeling of a polyketide antibiotic creates active bacterial uptake and enhances potency. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:9336-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these (1-Gal) is enhanced over its parent oleandomycin (1) by "glycotargeting", allowing higher uptake through active internalization by virtue of the attachment of a ..
  49. Danielson N, Holeman J, Bristol D, Kirzner D. Simple methods for the qualitative identification and quantitative determination of macrolide antibiotics. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993;11:121-30 pubmed
    ..a rapid straightforward method for the qualitative differentiation of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, oleandomycin, troleandomycin, spiramycin and tylosin...
  50. Gaisser S, Lill R, Staunton J, Mendez C, Salas J, Leadlay P. Parallel pathways for oxidation of 14-membered polyketide macrolactones in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:771-81 pubmed
    The glycosyltransferases OleG1 and OleG2 and the cytochrome P450 oxidase OleP from the oleandomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces antibioticus have been expressed, either separately or from artificial gene cassettes, in ..
  51. Xie W, Ding H, Xi J, Qian Y, Huang L. [Determination of five macrolide antibiotic residues in royal jelly samples by using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2007;25:404-7 pubmed
    ..spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the confirmation of five macrolide antibiotic residues (spiramycin, oleandomycin, tylosin, roxithromycin, josamycin) in royal jelly samples...
  52. Fierro J, Hardisson C, Salas J. Resistance to oleandomycin in Streptomyces antibioticus, the producer organism. J Gen Microbiol. 1987;133:1931-9 pubmed
    Resistance to oleandomycin in Streptomyces antibioticus, the producer organism, was studied. The organism was highly resistant in vivo to the antibiotic but sensitive to other macrolides and lincosamides...
  53. Smirnov V, Onyshchenko O, Kiprianova O. [Gram-negative eubacteria isolated from the water, molluscs and algae of the Black Sea]. Mikrobiol Z. 2001;63:3-8 pubmed