antimycin a


Summary: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Ma X, Jin M, Cai Y, Xia H, Long K, Liu J, et al. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III is required for antimycin A to inhibit autophagy. Chem Biol. 2011;18:1474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that antimycin A, a known inhibitor of mETC complex III, can inhibit autophagy...
  2. Choi E, Lee Y. Mitochondrial defects and cytotoxicity by antimycin A on cultured osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2459-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimycin A (AMA), which inhibits complex III of the electron transport system, has been used as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in biological systems...
  3. Lee Y, Choi E. Apocynin stimulates osteoblast differentiation and inhibits bone-resorbing mediators in MC3T3-E1 cells. Cell Immunol. 2011;270:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Antimycin A (AMA), which inhibits complex III of the electron transport system, has been used as a reactive oxygen species (..
  4. Seipke R, Gruschow S, Goss R, Hutchings M. Isolating antifungals from fungus-growing ant symbionts using a genome-guided chemistry approach. Methods Enzymol. 2012;517:47-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This validates our approach, which clearly has the potential to identify numerous new compounds, even from well-characterized actinomycete strains...
  5. Han Y, Kim S, Kim S, Park W. Antimycin A as a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor prevents the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells. Oncol Rep. 2008;20:689-93 pubmed
    b>Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits mitochondrial electron transport between cytochromes b and c. We evaluated the effects of AMA on the growth of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells in relation to cell cycle and apoptosis...
  6. King M. Antimycin A-induced killing of HL-60 cells: apoptosis initiated from within mitochondria does not necessarily proceed via caspase 9. Cytometry A. 2005;63:69-76 pubmed
    b>Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits mitochondrial electron transport, collapses the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causes the production of reactive oxygen species...
  7. Han Y, Park W. The effects of N-acetyl cysteine, buthionine sulfoximine, diethyldithiocarbamate or 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on antimycin A-treated Calu-6 lung cells in relation to cell growth, reactive oxygen species and glutathione. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:385-91 pubmed
    b>Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits mitochondrial electron transport between cytochrome b and c...
  8. Plaisance I, Duthe F, Sarrouilhe D, Hervé J. The metabolic inhibitor antimycin A can disrupt cell-to-cell communication by an ATP- and Ca(2+)-independent mechanism. Pflugers Arch. 2003;447:181-94 pubmed
    ..However, another metabolic inhibitor, antimycin A, which like cyanide inhibits electron transfer in the respiratory chain, totally interrupted cell-to-cell ..
  9. Li Q, Sato E, Kira Y, Nishikawa M, Utsumi K, Inoue M. A possible cooperation of SOD1 and cytochrome c in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40:173-81 pubmed
    ..Although inhibitors of electron transport, such as rotenone, antimycin A, and KCN, also increased ROS generation, they failed to (i) oxidize the critical thiol groups in ANT, (ii) ..

More Information


  1. Sergeant G, Bradley E, Thornbury K, McHale N, Hollywood M. Role of mitochondria in modulation of spontaneous Ca2+ waves in freshly dispersed interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra. J Physiol. 2008;586:4631-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of the mitochondrial membrane potential with the electron transport chain inhibitors rotenone (10 microm) and antimycin A (5 microm) abolished Ca(2+) waves and increased basal Ca(2+) levels...
  2. Kim J, Campbell B, Mahoney N, Chan K, Molyneux R. Chemosensitization of aflatoxigenic fungi to antimycin A and strobilurin using salicylaldehyde, a volatile natural compound targeting cellular antioxidation system. Mycopathologia. 2011;171:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In chemosensitization experiments, co-application of SA with either antimycin A or strobilurin (inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration) resulted in complete growth inhibition of Aspergillus ..
  3. Shiomi K, Hatae K, Hatano H, Matsumoto A, Takahashi Y, Jiang C, et al. A new antibiotic, antimycin Ag, produced by Streptomyces sp. K01-0031. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2005;58:74-8 pubmed
    ..It showed potent nematocidal and insecticidal activities against Caenorhabditis elegans and Artemia salina, respectively. It inhibited bovine heart NADH oxidase at nanomolar level like other known antimycins. ..
  4. You S, Kong B, Jeon S, Foster D, Kim H. Deregulation of catalase, not MnSOD, is associated with necrotic death of p53-defective DF-1 cells under antimycin A-induced oxidative stress. Mol Cells. 2004;18:220-9 pubmed
    ..found that DF-1 cells were more sensitive to oxidative stress than their primary counterparts when treated with antimycin A. The increased DF-1 cell death by oxidative stress was accompanied by an increase in the levels of ..
  5. Park W, Han Y, Kim S, Kim S, Cho K, Kim S. Antimycin A induces apoptosis in As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells. Cancer Lett. 2007;251:68-77 pubmed
    b>Antimycin A, an inhibitor of electron transport in mitochondria, has been used as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in the biological system. Here, we investigated the in vitro effect of antimycin A on apoptosis in As4...
  6. Love A, Laval V, Geri C, Laird J, Tomos A, Hooks M, et al. Components of Arabidopsis defense- and ethylene-signaling pathways regulate susceptibility to Cauliflower mosaic virus by restricting long-distance movement. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2007;20:659-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, mutations with enhanced systemic acquired resistance or compromised ET signaling show diminished long-distance virus movement...
  7. Kabir A, Cao X, Gorog D, Tanno M, Bassi R, Bellahcene M, et al. Antimycin A induced cardioprotection is dependent on pre-ischemic p38-MAPK activation but independent of MKK3. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;39:709-17 pubmed
    ..kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) in the cardioprotection afforded by antimycin A. Langendorff perfused murine hearts exposed to antimycin A or vehicle prior to global ischemia with p38-MAPK ..
  8. Mayers C, Lee K, Moore C, Wong S, Carr J. Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in squash and Arabidopsis thaliana: contrasting mechanisms of induction and antiviral action. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005;18:428-34 pubmed
    ..of systemic virus movement and is induced via a signal transduction pathway that also can be triggered by antimycin A, an inducer of the mitochondrial enzyme alternative oxidase (AOX)...
  9. Hales D, Allen J, Shankara T, Janus P, Buck S, Diemer T, et al. Mitochondrial function in Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1061:120-34 pubmed
    ..The electron transport inhibitor antimycin A significantly reduced cellular ATP, inhibited steroidogenesis, and reduced StAR protein expression...
  10. Han Y, Park W. The effects of MAPK inhibitors on antimycin A-treated Calu-6 lung cancer cells in relation to cell growth, reactive oxygen species, and glutathione. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;333:211-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits succinate oxidase, NADH oxidase, and mitochondrial electron transport chain between cytochrome b and c. We recently demonstrated that AMA inhibited the growth of Calu-6 lung cancer cells through apoptosis...
  11. Piskernik C, Haindl S, Behling T, Gerald Z, Kehrer I, Redl H, et al. Antimycin A and lipopolysaccharide cause the leakage of superoxide radicals from rat liver mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1782:280-5 pubmed publisher
    Here we show that both Antimycin A, a respiratory chain inhibitor inducing apoptosis, and endotoxic shock, a syndrome accompanied by both necrosis and apoptosis, cause not only an increase but also the leakage of superoxide radicals (O(2)..
  12. Firth A, Yuill K, Smirnov S. Mitochondria-dependent regulation of Kv currents in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;295:L61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Such effects were most prominent as a result of inhibition of Complex III by antimycin A. Investigation of the mechanism of antimycin A-mediated effects on Kv channel currents (I(Kv)) revealed the ..
  13. Han Y, Park W. Growth inhibition in antimycin A treated-lung cancer Calu-6 cells via inducing a G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:150-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits mitochondrial electron transport between cytochrome b and c. We evaluated the effects of AMA on the growth of human lung cancer cell line, Calu-6. AMA inhibited the growth of Calu-6 cells...
  14. Han Y, Kim S, Kim S, Park W. The changes of intracellular H2O2 are an important factor maintaining mitochondria membrane potential of antimycin A-treated As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73:863-72 pubmed
    We investigated an involvement of ROS, such as H2O2 and O2- and GSH in the As4.1 cell death by antimycin A and examined whether ROS scavengers rescue antimycin A-induced As4.1 cell death and its mechanism...
  15. Yan Y, Liu J, Wei C, Li K, Xie W, Wang Y, et al. Bidirectional regulation of Ca2+ sparks by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species in cardiac myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;77:432-41 pubmed
    ..Photoactivated or antimycin A (AA, 5 microg/mL)-induced mitochondrial ROS production elicited a transient increase in Ca(2+) spark activity, ..
  16. Han Y, Kim S, Kim S, Park W. Antimycin A as a mitochondria damage agent induces an S phase arrest of the cell cycle in HeLa cells. Life Sci. 2008;83:346-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimycin A (AMA), an electron transport chain inhibitor in mitochondria can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells...
  17. Ogita M, Ogita A, Usuki Y, Fujita K, Tanaka T. Antimycin A-induced cell death depends on AIF translocation through NO production and PARP activation and is not involved in ROS generation, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in HL-60 cells. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009;62:145-52 pubmed publisher
    A respiratory inhibitor, antimycin A (AA), induced an apoptotic-like cell death characterized by nuclear and DNA fragmentation in human leukemia HL-60 cells...
  18. Han D, Canali R, Rettori D, Kaplowitz N. Effect of glutathione depletion on sites and topology of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in mitochondria. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;64:1136-44 pubmed
    ..The greater the rate of H2O2 generation the greater the effect 50% GSH depletion had on enhancing H2O2 production. ..
  19. Choi E. Honokiol protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:1005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Antimycin A, which inhibits complex III of the electron transport system, has been used as a reactive oxygen species ..
  20. Tarr S, Nisbet R, Howe C. Transcript level responses of Plasmodium falciparum to antimycin A. Protist. 2012;163:755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles of synchronous Plasmodium falciparum treated with an LD(50) concentration of the complex III inhibitor antimycin A, to investigate whether such pathways exist in the parasite. There was a broad perturbation of gene expression...
  21. Wu Y, Yang Y. An expeditious enantioselective synthesis of antimycin A3b. J Org Chem. 2006;71:4296-301 pubmed
    ..Closing the dilactone ring was achieved in 62% yield (previously 0.8%, 13.4%, or 20%) in the presence of the C-8 ester functionality. The overall yield (34.5%) was significantly higher than that (0.019-3.6%) of the earlier routes. ..
  22. Dairaku N, Kato K, Honda K, Koike T, Iijima K, Imatani A, et al. Oligomycin and antimycin A prevent nitric oxide-induced apoptosis by blocking cytochrome C leakage. J Lab Clin Med. 2004;143:143-51 pubmed
    ..effects of a F0F1-ATPase inhibitor, oligomycin, and a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III inhibitor, antimycin A, on NO-induced apoptosis...
  23. Choi E. Regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) by reactive oxygen species in osteoblasts treated with antimycin A. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:118-25 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the effects of antimycin A (AMA), an inhibitor of electron transport in mitochondria, on the release of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca(2+) ](i) ), ROS and bone resorbing factors in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells...
  24. Matsukawa K, Kamata T, Ito K. Functional expression of plant alternative oxidase decreases antimycin A-induced reactive oxygen species production in human cells. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that skunk cabbage AOX can be used to create an alternative respiration pathway, which might be important for therapy against various mitochondrial diseases. ..
  25. Yeremenko N, Jeanjean R, Prommeenate P, Krasikov V, Nixon P, Vermaas W, et al. Open reading frame ssr2016 is required for antimycin A-sensitive photosystem I-driven cyclic electron flow in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:1433-6 pubmed
    ..frame ssr2016 encodes a protein with substantial sequence similarities to PGR5 identified as a component of the antimycin A-sensitive ferredoxin:plastoquinone reductase (FQR) in PSI cyclic photophosphorylation in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  26. Park W, Han Y, Kim S, Kim S. An ROS generator, antimycin A, inhibits the growth of HeLa cells via apoptosis. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:98-109 pubmed
    b>Antimycin A (AMA), an inhibitor of electron transport in mitochondria, has been used as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in biological systems. Here, we investigated the in vitro effect of AMA on apoptosis in HeLa cells...
  27. Gilliland A, Singh D, Hayward J, Moore C, Murphy A, York C, et al. Genetic modification of alternative respiration has differential effects on antimycin A-induced versus salicylic acid-induced resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:1518-28 pubmed
    Salicylic acid (SA), a natural defensive signal chemical, and antimycin A, a cytochrome pathway inhibitor, induce resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)...
  28. Weissmann N, Ebert N, Ahrens M, Ghofrani H, Schermuly R, Hänze J, et al. Effects of mitochondrial inhibitors and uncouplers on hypoxic vasoconstriction in rabbit lungs. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;29:721-32 pubmed
    ..b>Antimycin A suppressed HPV, an effect being specific in lungs with intact NO synthesis and only partly specific while ..
  29. Choi E. Deoxyactein Isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:488-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of deoxyactein on antimycin A (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor)-induced toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells...
  30. Seipke R, Barke J, Brearley C, Hill L, Yu D, Goss R, et al. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22028 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds. ..
  31. Strodtkötter I, Padmasree K, Dinakar C, Speth B, Niazi P, Wojtera J, et al. Induction of the AOX1D isoform of alternative oxidase in A. thaliana T-DNA insertion lines lacking isoform AOX1A is insufficient to optimize photosynthesis when treated with antimycin A. Mol Plant. 2009;2:284-97 pubmed publisher
    ..growth conditions, these plants did not show any phenotype, but restriction of electron flow through CP by antimycin A, which induces AOX1A expression in the wild-type, led to an increased expression of AOX1D in leaves of the ..
  32. Im A, Kim Y, Uddin M, Chae S, Lee H, Jung W, et al. Protection from antimycin A-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by Nelumbo nucifera seed extracts. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36:19-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimycin A (AMA) damages the mitochondria through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport...
  33. Choi E, Lee Y. Protective effect of apocynin on antimycin A-induced cell damage in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of apocynin on antimycin A (AMA)-induced toxicicy in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells...
  34. Han Y, Park W. Tiron, a ROS scavenger, protects human lung cancer Calu-6 cells against antimycin A-induced cell death. Oncol Rep. 2009;21:253-61 pubmed
    b>Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits the mitochondrial electron transport between cytochromes b and c. However, the relationship between AMA and lung cancer cells is poorly understood...
  35. Zarkovic J, Anderson S, Rhoads D. A reporter gene system used to study developmental expression of alternative oxidase and isolate mitochondrial retrograde regulation mutants in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;57:871-88 pubmed
    ..Analysis of transgene expression suggests that this is true for emerging leaves as well. Antimycin A (AA), a mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitor, and monofluroacetate (MFA), a TCA cycle inhibitor, ..
  36. Tudella V, Curti C, Soriani F, Santos A, Uyemura S. In situ evidence of an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein in the respiratory chain of Aspergillus fumigatus. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:162-72 pubmed
    ..the presence of an alternative NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase; the partial sensitivity of respiration to antimycin A and cyanide, in association with the sensitivity to benzohydroxamic acid, indicates the presence of an ..
  37. Manion M, O Neill J, Giedt C, Kim K, Zhang K, Hockenbery D. Bcl-XL mutations suppress cellular sensitivity to antimycin A. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2159-65 pubmed
    ..high levels of the BCL-X(L) anti-apoptotic protein are preferentially killed by the mitochondrial inhibitor antimycin A (AA)...
  38. Braet F, Muller M, Vekemans K, Wisse E, Le Couteur D. Antimycin A-induced defenestration in rat hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Hepatology. 2003;38:394-402 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we investigated the effect of antimycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial energy production, on the number of fenestrae in cultured LSECs using high-..
  39. Lai L, Kissinger M, Burke P, Kwast K. Comparison of the transcriptomic "stress response" evoked by antimycin A and oxygen deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:627 pubmed publisher
    ..functional and regulatory aspects of the stress responses elicited by the acute inhibition of respiration with antimycin A and oxygen deprivation under catabolite non-repressed (galactose) conditions...
  40. Han Z, Xu Y, McConnell O, Liu L, Li Y, Qi S, et al. Two antimycin A analogues from marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces lusitanus. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:668-76 pubmed publisher
    Two new antimycin A analogues, antimycin B1 and B2 (1-2), were isolated from a spent broth of a marine-derived bacterium, Streptomyces lusitanus...
  41. Choi E. Magnolol protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against antimycin A-induced cytotoxicity through activation of mitochondrial function. Inflammation. 2012;35:1204-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimycin A treatment of cells blocks the mitochondrial electron transport chain and leads to elevated ROS generation...
  42. Liao J, Perkins J. Differential effects of antimycin A on endocytosis and exocytosis of transferrin also are observed for internalization and externalization of beta-adrenergic receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1993;44:364-70 pubmed
    ..Previously, we demonstrated that reduction of cellular ATP content with antimycin A completely blocked endocytosis of epidermal growth factor and translocation of beta-adrenergic receptors in ..
  43. Saisho D, Nambara E, Naito S, Tsutsumi N, Hirai A, Nakazono M. Characterization of the gene family for alternative oxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 1997;35:585-96 pubmed
    ..whether expression of Arabidopsis AOX genes, like the tobacco AOX1a gene, is enhanced by treatment with antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III in the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
  44. Epstein C, Waddle J, Hale W, Dave V, Thornton J, Macatee T, et al. Genome-wide responses to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:297-308 pubmed
    ..Transcript profiling of cells harboring null alleles of RTG1, RTG2, or RTG3, genes known to control signaling from mitochondria to the nucleus, suggests that there are multiple pathways of cross-talk between these organelles in yeast. ..
  45. Schnaufer A, Sbicego S, Blum B. Antimycin A resistance in a mutant Leishmania tarentolae strain is correlated to a point mutation in the mitochondrial apocytochrome b gene. Curr Genet. 2000;37:234-41 pubmed
    In this paper we report the first case of antimycin A resistance in a protozoan parasite that is attributable to a mutation in the mitochondrial apocytochrome b (CYb) gene...
  46. Tinel H, Cancela J, Mogami H, Gerasimenko J, Gerasimenko O, Tepikin A, et al. Active mitochondria surrounding the pancreatic acinar granule region prevent spreading of inositol trisphosphate-evoked local cytosolic Ca(2+) signals. EMBO J. 1999;18:4999-5008 pubmed
    ..When mitochondrial function is inhibited, this barrier disappears and the Ca(2+) signals spread all over the cytosol. ..
  47. Selwood D, Livingstone D, Comley J, O Dowd A, Hudson A, Jackson P, et al. Structure-activity relationships of antifilarial antimycin analogues: a multivariate pattern recognition study. J Med Chem. 1990;33:136-42 pubmed
    ..The analysis indicated that membrane or lipid solubility is an important determinant in biological activity agreeing with the proposed primary mode of action of the compounds as disrupters of cuticular glucose uptake. ..
  48. Waypa G, Chandel N, Schumacker P. Model for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction involving mitochondrial oxygen sensing. Circ Res. 2001;88:1259-66 pubmed
    ..Cyanide and antimycin A inhibit electron transfer in the distal region of the ETC, but they did not abolish HPV...
  49. Yao N, Tada Y, Sakamoto M, Nakayashiki H, Park P, Tosa Y, et al. Mitochondrial oxidative burst involved in apoptotic response in oats. Plant J. 2002;30:567-79 pubmed
    ..Both aminoacetonitrile (a specific GDC inhibitor) and antimycin A (a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor) also induced mitochondrial H2O2 eruption, and led to the apoptotic ..
  50. St Pierre J, Buckingham J, Roebuck S, Brand M. Topology of superoxide production from different sites in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44784-90 pubmed
    ..This difference was solely due to an elevated concentration of complex I in rat compared with pigeon heart mitochondria. ..
  51. Hutter E, Renner K, Jansen Durr P, Gnaiger E. Biphasic oxygen kinetics of cellular respiration and linear oxygen dependence of antimycin A inhibited oxygen consumption. Mol Biol Rep. 2002;29:83-7 pubmed a major mitochondrial hyperbolic component in the low-oxygen range and a linear increase of rotenone- and antimycin A-inhibited oxygen consumption in the high-oxygen range...
  52. Djajanegara I, Finnegan P, Mathieu C, McCabe T, Whelan J, Day D. Regulation of alternative oxidase gene expression in soybean. Plant Mol Biol. 2002;50:735-42 pubmed
    ..Incubation with antimycin A, citrate, salicylic acid or at low temperature (10 degrees C) specifically induced the accumulation of the Aox1 ..
  53. Paquin C, Williamson V. Ty insertions at two loci account for most of the spontaneous antimycin A resistance mutations during growth at 15 degrees C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking ADH1. Mol Cell Biol. 1986;6:70-9 pubmed
    The mutation rate to antimycin A resistance was determined for strains of Sacchromyces cerevisiae lacking a functional copy of the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADH1)...