3 hydroxybutyric acid

Summary

Summary: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.

Top Publications

  1. Nocek J, Kautz W. Direct-fed microbial supplementation on ruminal digestion, health, and performance of pre- and postpartum dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:260-6 pubmed
    ..Cows consuming DFM, however, experienced a lower, but not depressed, fat percentage compared with nonsupplemented cows...
  2. Smith S, Heal D, Martin K. KTX 0101: a potential metabolic approach to cytoprotection in major surgery and neurological disorders. CNS Drug Rev. 2005;11:113-40 pubmed
    ..These issues are being addressed by designing and synthesizing orally bioavailable multimers of betaOHB with improved pharmacokinetics...
  3. Balietti M, Giorgetti B, Fattoretti P, Grossi Y, Di Stefano G, Casoli T, et al. Ketogenic diets cause opposing changes in synaptic morphology in CA1 hippocampus and dentate gyrus of late-adult rats. Rejuvenation Res. 2008;11:631-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies risks but also promising potentialities for their therapeutic use during aging...
  4. Evans K, Burdge G, Wootton S, Collins J, Clark M, Tan G, et al. Tissue-specific stable isotope measurements of postprandial lipid metabolism in familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:164-70 pubmed
    ..We used stable isotope techniques combined with tissue-specific measurements in adipose tissue and forearm muscle to investigate fatty acid handling by these tissues in the fasting and postprandial states...
  5. Maalouf M, Sullivan P, Davis L, Kim D, Rho J. Ketones inhibit mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species production following glutamate excitotoxicity by increasing NADH oxidation. Neuroscience. 2007;145:256-64 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may, in part, contribute to the neuroprotective activity of ketones by restoring normal bioenergetic function in the face of oxidative stress...
  6. Imamura K, Takeshima T, Kashiwaya Y, Nakaso K, Nakashima K. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate protects dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells in a rotenone model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci Res. 2006;84:1376-84 pubmed
    ..Ketone bodies, the alternative energy source in the mammalian brain, appear to have therapeutic potential in PD...
  7. Butler S, Pelton S, Butler W. Energy balance, metabolic status, and the first postpartum ovarian follicle wave in cows administered propylene glycol. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:2938-51 pubmed
    ..The nonovulatory low estradiol cows also had postpartum metabolic hormone and metabolite profiles indicative of more severe negative energy balance...
  8. Vice E, Privette J, Hickner R, Barakat H. Ketone body metabolism in lean and obese women. Metabolism. 2005;54:1542-5 pubmed
    ..The decreased oxidation of ketone bodies by muscle is consistent with aberrations in muscle metabolism in the obese individuals that most likely relates to a decrease in mitochondrial numbers...
  9. Denny C, Kasperzyk J, Gorham K, Bronson R, Seyfried T. Influence of caloric restriction on motor behavior, longevity, and brain lipid composition in Sandhoff disease mice. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:1028-38 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the CR delays disease progression in SD and possibly in other ganglioside storage diseases through anti-inflammatory mechanisms...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Odensten M, Chilliard Y, Holtenius K. Effects of two different feeding strategies during dry-off on metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:2072-82 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that dry-off markedly affected the metabolism in the blood and in the rumen of the cows, and that the cows offered only straw during the dry-off were most affected...
  2. Guretzky N, Carlson D, Garrett J, Drackley J. Lipid metabolite profiles and milk production for Holstein and Jersey cows fed rumen-protected choline during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:188-200 pubmed
    ..More research is needed to determine how choline affects prevention or alleviation of fatty liver syndrome and to confirm potential differences between Holstein and Jersey cows...
  3. Pickett M, Piepenbrink M, Overton T. Effects of propylene glycol or fat drench on plasma metabolites, liver composition, and production of dairy cows during the periparturient period. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:2113-21 pubmed
  4. Veech R, Chance B, Kashiwaya Y, Lardy H, Cahill G. Ketone bodies, potential therapeutic uses. IUBMB Life. 2001;51:241-7 pubmed
    ..This technical strategy will be critical to the characterization of polygenic disorders by enhancing the knowledge gained from gene analysis and from the subsequent steps and modifications of the protein products themselves...
  5. Tieu K, Perier C, Caspersen C, Teismann P, Wu D, Yan S, et al. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate rescues mitochondrial respiration and mitigates features of Parkinson disease. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:892-901 pubmed
    ..Because of the safety record of ketone bodies in the treatment of epilepsy and their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, DbetaHB may be a novel neuroprotective therapy for PD...
  6. Seyfried T, Sanderson T, El Abbadi M, McGowan R, Mukherjee P. Role of glucose and ketone bodies in the metabolic control of experimental brain cancer. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:1375-82 pubmed
    ..Our results in a mouse astrocytoma suggest that malignant brain tumours are potentially manageable with dietary therapies that reduce glucose and elevate ketone bodies...
  7. Ravikumar B, Carey P, Snaar J, Deelchand D, Cook D, Neely R, et al. Real-time assessment of postprandial fat storage in liver and skeletal muscle in health and type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;288:E789-97 pubmed
    ..009). We conclude that the postprandial uptake of fatty acids by liver and skeletal muscle is increased in type 2 diabetes and may underlie the elevated tissue triglyceride stores and consequent insulin resistance...
  8. Masuda R, Monahan J, Kashiwaya Y. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate is neuroprotective against hypoxia in serum-free hippocampal primary cultures. J Neurosci Res. 2005;80:501-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that ketone bodies may be a candidate for widening the therapeutic window before thrombolytic therapy and at the same time decreasing apoptotic damage in the ischemic penumbra...
  9. Holtenius K, Agenäs S, Delavaud C, Chilliard Y. Effects of feeding intensity during the dry period. 2. Metabolic and hormonal responses. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:883-91 pubmed
    ..In early lactation plasma leptin concentration was not related to adiposity as reflected by body condition scoring. It was suggested that lactation as such affected the leptin concentration in plasma...
  10. Izumi Y, Ishii K, Katsuki H, Benz A, Zorumski C. beta-Hydroxybutyrate fuels synaptic function during development. Histological and physiological evidence in rat hippocampal slices. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1121-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that D-betaHB is not only able to substitute for glucose as an energy substrate but is also able to preserve neuronal integrity and stability, particularly during early development...
  11. Phipps R, Wilkinson J, Jonker L, Tarrant M, Jones A, Hodge A. Effect of monensin on milk production of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2000;83:2789-94 pubmed
    ..Efficiency of milk production was increased by 5% in experiment 1. In experiment 2, lactation 2, monensin decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate but increased blood glucose concentration...
  12. Greene A, Todorova M, McGowan R, Seyfried T. Caloric restriction inhibits seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice by reducing blood glucose. Epilepsia. 2001;42:1371-8 pubmed
    ..The influence of CR on seizure susceptibility was investigated at both juvenile (30 days) and adult (70 days) ages in the EL mouse, a genetic model of multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy...
  13. Pan J, de Graaf R, Petersen K, Shulman G, Hetherington H, Rothman D. [2,4-13 C2 ]-beta-Hydroxybutyrate metabolism in human brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002;22:890-8 pubmed
    ..6% of total acetyl coenzyme A oxidation. These results are consistent with minimal accumulation of cerebral ketones with rapid utilization, implying blood-brain barrier control of ketone oxidation in the nonfasted adult human brain...
  14. Doepel L, Lapierre H, Kennelly J. Peripartum performance and metabolism of dairy cows in response to prepartum energy and protein intake. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85:2315-34 pubmed
    ..Increasing the protein content of the prepartum diet did not appear to confer any advantages to cow productivity...
  15. Hagopian K, Ramsey J, Weindruch R. Influence of age and caloric restriction on liver glycolytic enzyme activities and metabolite concentrations in mice. Exp Gerontol. 2003;38:253-66 pubmed
    ..Increased ketone body levels indicate increased utilization of non-carbohydrate fuels while decreased fructose-2,6-bisphosphate level suggests its importance in the control of glycolysis in CR...
  16. Halkes C, Van Dijk H, Verseyden C, De Jaegere P, Plokker H, Meijssen S, et al. Gender differences in postprandial ketone bodies in normolipidemic subjects and in untreated patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:1875-80 pubmed
    ..Gender differences in postprandial ketone bodies and C3 changes were investigated in normolipidemic patients and patients with untreated FCHL...
  17. Suzuki M, Sato K, Dohi S, Sato T, Matsuura A, Hiraide A. Effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate, a cerebral function improving agent, on cerebral hypoxia, anoxia and ischemia in mice and rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;87:143-50 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that BHB, unlike glycerin, when used as an energy substrate in ischemic brain, has protective effects on cerebral hypoxia, anoxia and ischemia-induced metabolic change...
  18. LeBlanc S, Leslie K, Duffield T. Metabolic predictors of displaced abomasum in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:159-70 pubmed
    ..Serum calcium concentration was not associated with LDA. Strategic use of metabolic tests to monitor transition dairy cows should focus on NEFA in the last week prepartum and BHBA in the first week postpartum...
  19. Juchem S, Santos F, Imaizumi H, Pires A, Barnabé E. Production and blood parameters of Holstein cows treated prepartum with sodium monensin or propylene glycol. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:680-9 pubmed
    ..Prepartum administration of M decreased milk protein content, but no effect was observed on protein yield...
  20. Litten J, Mostyn A, Laws J, Corson A, Symonds M, Clarke L. Effect of Acute Administration of Recombinant Human Leptin during the Neonatal Period on Body Temperature and Endocrine Profile of the Piglet. Neonatology. 2008;93:171-7 pubmed
    ..Leptin is produced predominantly by white adipocytes; in adults it regulates appetite and energy expenditure but its role in the neonate remains to be fully established...
  21. Buszewicz G, Teresiński G, Bańka K, Madro R. [Diagnostic usefulness of the beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetone ratio in medico-legal diagnostics of sudden deaths]. Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol. 2007;57:289-93 pubmed
    ..In some cases, thus, the use of beta-HBA as an additional diagnostic criterion allows for explaining the pathomechanism of premortal metabolic disturbances...
  22. Madsen T, Nielsen M, Andersen J, Ingvartsen K. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:1791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated...
  23. Tyo K, Ajikumar P, Stephanopoulos G. Stabilized gene duplication enables long-term selection-free heterologous pathway expression. Nat Biotechnol. 2009;27:760-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also increased the yield of the nutraceutical lycopene by 60%. CIChE should be applicable in many organisms, as it only requires having targeted genomic integration methods and a recA homolog...
  24. Barrena H, Gazola V, Furlan M, Garcia R, de Souza H, Bazotte R. Ketogenesis evaluation in perfused liver of diabetic rats submitted to short-term insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009;27:383-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Gasior M, Yankura J, Hartman A, French A, Rogawski M. Anticonvulsant and proconvulsant actions of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..For comparison, we studied 3-methyl-glucose (3-MG), which like 2-DG accumulates in cells and reduces glucose uptake, but does not inhibit glycolysis...
  26. Biswas A, Patra A, Paul A. Production of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids by a moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas marina HMA 103 isolated from solar saltern of Orissa, India. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2009;56:125-43 pubmed
    ..1%, w/v) as co-substrate and the polymer contained 88.1 and 12.8 mol% 3HB and 3HV monomers, respectively...
  27. Monti L, Setola E, Fragasso G, Camisasca R, Lucotti P, Galluccio E, et al. Metabolic and endothelial effects of trimetazidine on forearm skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E54-E59 pubmed
    ..Muscle's metabolic and vascular effects of trimetazidine add new interest in the use of trimetazidine in type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease...
  28. Velazquez M, Newman M, Christie M, Cripps P, Crowe M, Smith R, et al. The usefulness of a single measurement of insulin-like growth factor-1 as a predictor of embryo yield and pregnancy rates in a bovine MOET program. Theriogenology. 2005;64:1977-94 pubmed
    ..Several factors affect MOET programs and under the circumstances of the present study the usefulness of hormonal and metabolic profiles as predictors of the outcome of this biotechnology was limited...
  29. Johnston C, Tjonn S, Swan P, White A, Hutchins H, Sears B. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:1055-61 pubmed
    ..Low-carbohydrate diets may promote greater weight loss than does the conventional low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet...
  30. Vinaud M, Lino R, Bezerra J. Taenia crassiceps organic acids detected in cysticerci. Exp Parasitol. 2007;116:335-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the aerobic metabolism in vivo in spite of the low oxygen concentration of its habitat, and also indicate the presence of fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energetic source...
  31. Hamano Y. Continuous infusion of lipoic acid rapidly reduces plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate with elevation of non-esterified fatty acids in broiler chickens. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:495-501 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the present study found a lowering effect of ALA on plasma hydroxybutyrate level and suggests that the ALA-induced plasma NEFA increment was attributable to decreased hepatic fatty acid oxidation in chickens...
  32. Yu F, Zhu B, Dong T, Inoue Y. Effect of comonomer-unit compositional distribution on thermal and crystallization behavior of bacterial poly[(3-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(3-mercaptopropionate)]. Macromol Biosci. 2009;9:702-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The thermal and crystallization behavior were found to be greatly affected by the comonomer-unit composition and its distribution. Furthermore, the 3MP comonomer unit was found to be included in the crystalline phase in some fractions...
  33. Naunheim R, Jang T, Banet G, Richmond A, McGill J. Point-of-care test identifies diabetic ketoacidosis at triage. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:683-5 pubmed
  34. Orsini Federici M, Akwi J, Canonico V, Celleno R, Ferolla P, Pippi R, et al. Early detection of insulin deprivation in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion-treated patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006;8:67-75 pubmed
  35. Qu X, Wu Q, Liang J, Zou B, Chen G. Effect of 3-hydroxyhexanoate content in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) on in vitro growth and differentiation of smooth muscle cells. Biomaterials. 2006;27:2944-50 pubmed
    ..This study extends the potential applications of PHBHHx in SMCs-related graft scaffold fabrication for tissue engineering...
  36. Yuen K, Cook D, Rumbaugh E, Cook M, Dunger D. Individual igf-I responsiveness to a fixed regimen of low-dose growth hormone replacement is increased with less variability in obese compared to non-obese adults with severe growth hormone deficiency. Horm Res. 2006;65:6-13 pubmed
    ..To address this question, we challenged a cohort of severely GH-deficient non-obese and obese adults with a fixed low GH dose (0.2 mg/day), and examined the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with IGF-I response...
  37. Nakamura M, Chen H, Momoi Y, Iwasaki T. Clinical application of computed tomography for the diagnosis of feline hepatic lipidosis. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:1163-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that measurement of CT number of the liver is an effective procedure for the diagnosis of FHL...
  38. Kitaoka R, Fujikawa T, Miyaki T, Matsumura S, Fushiki T, Inoue K. Increased noradrenergic activity in the ventromedial hypothalamus during treadmill running in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2010;56:185-90 pubmed
    ..Given the known effects of NA in the VMH on energy metabolism, our results suggest that the increase in noradrenergic activity in the VMH is related to the enhancement of fat oxidation during exercise...
  39. Stasiak P, Ehrhardt C, Juzwa M, Sznitowska M. Characterisation of a novel conjugate of ibuprofen with 3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61:1119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A conjugate of ibuprofen with 3-hydroxybutyric acid oligomers has been evaluated as a novel drug delivery model system...
  40. Knapp A, Todesco L, Torok M, Beier K, Krahenbuhl S. Effect of carnitine deprivation on carnitine homeostasis and energy metabolism in mice with systemic carnitine deficiency. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of carnitine deprivation on carnitine homeostasis and energy metabolism are not known in jvs-/- mice...
  41. Corbel H, Morlon F, Groscolas R. Is fledging in king penguin chicks related to changes in metabolic or endocrinal status?. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:804-13 pubmed
  42. Patton J, Kenny D, McNamara S, Mee J, O Mara F, Diskin M, et al. Relationships among milk production, energy balance, plasma analytes, and reproduction in Holstein-Friesian cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:649-58 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, results indicate that milk protein content and plasma IGF-I concentration in early lactation may be useful indicators of reproductive efficiency...
  43. Nikel P, Pettinari M, Méndez B, Galvagno M. Statistical optimization of a culture medium for biomass and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by a recombinant Escherichia coli strain using agroindustrial byproducts. Int Microbiol. 2005;8:243-50 pubmed
    ..Similar amounts of PHB were obtained following batch fermentations in a bioreactor. These results show that PHB can be produced efficiently by culturing the recombinant strain in medium containing cheap carbon and nitrogen sources...
  44. Harmeyer J, Schlumbohm C. Pregnancy impairs ketone body disposal in late gestating ewes: implications for onset of pregnancy toxaemia. Res Vet Sci. 2006;81:254-64 pubmed
    ..g. on energy balance and glucose metabolism it appears that the impairment of ketone bodies disposal in late pregnancy facilitates development of pregnancy toxaemia, especially in ewes carrying twins...
  45. Nylen K, Likhodii S, Abdelmalik P, Clarke J, Burnham W. A comparison of the ability of a 4:1 ketogenic diet and a 6.3:1 ketogenic diet to elevate seizure thresholds in adult and young rats. Epilepsia. 2005;46:1198-204 pubmed
    ..3:1 KD. We hypothesized that both KDs would significantly elevate seizure thresholds and that the 4:1 KD would serve as a better model of the KD used clinically...
  46. Weiss W, Wyatt D, McKelvey T. Effect of feeding propionibacteria on milk production by early lactation dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:646-52 pubmed publisher
    ..5 vs. 23.5 kg/d), which resulted in a 4.4% increase in energetic efficiency...
  47. Gorke J, Okrasa K, Louwagie A, Kazlauskas R, Srienc F. Enzymatic synthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) in ionic liquids. J Biotechnol. 2007;132:306-13 pubmed
    ..Water-immiscible ionic liquids were superior to water-miscible ionic liquids. Reducing the water content of the enzyme improved the degree of polymerization by as much as 50% for beta-propiolactone and epsilon-caprolactone...
  48. Tamaki T, Node Y, Teramoto A. Changes of the plasma ketone body level and arterial ketone body ratio at the onset of mild aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Res. 2008;30:898-902 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that the plasma ketone bodies are associated with the vasoconstrictor and lipolysis effect of circulating catecholamine...
  49. Larsen M, Kristensen N. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:1071-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Infused cows produced less milk and had a lower feed intake, indicating that an improved glucogenic status in very early lactation impaired metabolic adaptations to lactation...
  50. Fabietti P, Canonico V, Orsini Federici M, Sarti E, Massi Benedetti M. Model based study on monitoring ketone bodies to improve safety in intensive insulin therapy. Int J Artif Organs. 2006;29:596-601 pubmed
    ..The present study explores new signals (capillary 3betahydroxybutyrate - 3betaOHB) for improving the safety of a closed loop insulin infusion system (external wearable artificial pancreas)...
  51. Service F, O Brien P. Increasing serum betahydroxybutyrate concentrations during the 72-hour fast: evidence against hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4555-8 pubmed
    ..We have determined whether the behavior of betahydroxybutyrate (BOHB) during the 72-h fast of persons without evidence of hyperinsulinemic or any form of organic hypoglycemia might provide indicators of a negative fast...
  52. Xu X, Sun R, Jin R. The effect of the ketogenic diet on hippocampal GluR5 and Glu(6 mRNA expression and Q/R site editing in the kainate-induced epilepsy model. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;13:445-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither the GluR(5) nor the GluR(6) RNA editing rate at the Q/R site was significantly changed by dietary treatment. These data indicate that GluR(6) may be involved in the anticonvulsant mechanism of ketogenic diet treatment...
  53. Reyes Toso C, Rebagliati I, Ricci C, Linares L, Albornoz L, Cardinali D, et al. Effect of melatonin treatment on oxygen consumption by rat liver mitochondria. Amino Acids. 2006;31:299-302 pubmed
    ..Basal state 4 respiration was not modified by melatonin. Melatonin, by curtailing overstimulation of cellular respiration caused by excess Krebs' cycle substrates, can protect the mitochondria from oxidative damage...